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where art supplied the deficiencies of nature, and where ! The first time that this Evangelist is mentioned in the immense cisterns were cut out of the rock; and which | New Testament is in his own history of the Acts of the exhibit in their ruins many monuments of ancient pro- | Apostles. We there find him (Acts 16. 10,11,) with sperity, and many remains easily convertible into present | St. Paul at Troas; thence he attended him to Jerusalem; utility, should have all fled away, all met the same indis- continued with him in his troubles in Judæa; and sailed criminate fate, and be all desolate without any to dwell in the same ship with him, when he was sent a prisoner therein, notwithstanding all these ancient assurances of from Cesarea to Rome, where he stayed with him their permanent durability, and their existing facilities during his two years' confinement. As none of the and inducements for being the habitations of men, is a ancient Fathers have mentioned his suffering martyrdom, matter of just wonder in the present day, and had any it is conjectured that he died a natural death, but other people been the possessors of Moab, the fact would nothing certain is known as to either its time or place. either have been totally impossible or unaccountable.”

LUKE, GOSPEL OF ST. The title of this Gospel LUKE, dovkas, contracted from the Latin Luca- | in manuscripts and early editions is nearly the same as nus, was the writer of the Gospel which bears his name, that of the Gospel by St. Mark. In the Syriac version it and also of the Acts of the Apostles. According to is called “The Holy Gospel, the preaching of Luke the Eusebius, St. Luke was a native of Antioch, by profes- | Evangelist, which he spoke and published (or announced) sion a physician, and, for the most part, a companion of in Greek, in Great Alexandria;" in the Arabic version the Apostle Paul: the report that he was a painter was it is, “The Gospel of St. Luke, the physician, one of first spread by Nicephorus Callisti, a writer of the four the seventy, which he wrote in Greek, the Holy Spirit teenth century; it is now justly exploded, as being des- | inspiring (him);" and in the Persian version, “ The titute of foundation, and countenanced by no ancient Gospel of Luke, which he wrote in the Egyptian-Greek writers. From his attending St. Paul in his travels, tongue, at Alexandria.” Lardner thinks that there are a and also from the testimony of some of the early Fathers, few allusions to St. Luke's Gospel in some of the apoBasnage, Fabricius, Dr. Lardner, and Bishop Gleig, have stolical Fathers, especially in Hermes and Polycarp, and been led to conclude that St. Luke was a Jew, and in Justin Martyr there are passages evidently taken Origen, Epiphanius, and others, have supposed that he from it; but the earliest author who actually mentions was one of the seventy disciples; but this appears to be St. Luke's Gospel is Irenæus; and he cites so many contradicted by his own declaration, that he was not an peculiarities in it, all agreeing with the Gospel which eye-witness of Our Saviour's actions. Michaëlis is of we now have, that he alone is sufficient to prove its opinion that he was a Gentile, on the authority of St. genuineness. We may, however, observe, that his testiPaul's expressions in Colossians 4. 10,11,14. The most mony is supported by Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, probable conjecture seems to be that of Bolten, adopted Origen, Eusebius, Jerome, Chrysostom, and many others. by Kuinöel, that St. Luke was descended from Gentile | Dr. Owen and Dr. Townson have compared many paralparents, and that, in his youth, he had embraced Juda- | lel passages of St. Mark's and St. Luke's Gospels; and ism, from which he was converted to Christianity. The Dr. Townson has concluded that St. Luke had seen Hebraic-Greek style of writing observable in his pro- St. Mark's Gospel, and Dr. Owen, that St. Mark had seen ductions, and especially the accurate knowledge of the St. Luke's; but there does not appear to be a sufficient Jewish religion, rites, ceremonies, and usages, every similarity of expression to justify either of these concluwhere discernible both in his Gospel and in the Acts of sions. There was among the ancients a difference of the Apostles, sufficiently evince that their author was a opinion concerning the priority of these two Gospels; Jew; while his intimate knowledge of the Greek lan- | and it must be acknowledged to be a very doubtful guage displayed in the preface to his Gospel, which is point. composed in elegant Greek, and his Greek name There is also some doubt about the place where this Loukas, evidently show that he was descended from Gospel was published; but it seems most probable that Gentile parents. This conjecture is further supported by it was published in Greece, and for the use of Gentile a passage in the Acts, and by another in the Epistle to converts. Dr. Townson observes that the Evangelist the Colossians. In the former, (Acts 21. 27,) it is has inserted many explanations, particularly concerning related that the Asiatic Jews stirred up the people the Scribes and Pharisees, which he most probably would because St. Paul had introduced Gentiles into the not have done if he had been writing for those who were Temple; and in the following verse it is added that they acquainted with the customs and sects of the Jews. had before seen with him, in the city, Trophimus an The accounts to which he refers in his preface are now Ephesian, whom they supposed that St. Paul had entirely lost, and the names of their authors are not brought into the Temple; no mention is here made of known; for when the four authentic Gospels were pubSt. Luke, though he was with the Apostle. Compare lished, and came into general use, all others were quickly Acts 21. 15,17, where St. Luke speaks of himself among disregarded and forgotten. St. Luke's Gospel is addressed the companions of St. Paul. Hence we infer that he to Theophilus; but there was a doubt, even in the time was reckoned among the Jews, one of whom he might of Epiphanius, whether a particular person, or any good be accounted, if he had become a proselyte from Gen- | Christian in general, be intended by that name. Theotilism to the Jewish religion. In the Epistle to the | philus was probably a real person, that opinion being Colossians (4. 11,14,) after St. Paul had written the more agreeable to the simplicity of the Sacred Writings. salutations of Aristarchus, Marcus, and of Jesus, sur- | We have seen that St. Luke was for several years the named Justus, he adds, “ who are of the circumcision. companion of St. Paul; and many ancient writers conThese only,” he continues, "are my fellow-workers, sider this Gospel as having the sanction of St. Paul, in (meaning those of the circumcision,) unto the kingdom the same manner as St. Mark's had that of St. Peter; of God.” Then in the fourteenth verse he adds, “ Luke, and certainly, upon an examination of the Evangelist's the beloved physician, and Demas, greet you.” As the and the Apostle's account of the eucharist in their Apostle, in this passage, opposes them to the Christians respective original works, there will be observed a great who had been converted from Judaism, it is evident that coincidence of expression. (Luke ch. 22; 1Cor. ch. 11.) St. Luke was descended from Gentile parents.

With regard to the time when this Gospel was written,

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it to the Wical critico be the top time

there is some difference of opinion; Dr. Owen and others tionate reception. Our Saviour's visit to Zaccheus the referring it to the year 53, while Jones, Michaëlis, Lard- publican, (ch. 19. 5,) and the pardon of the penitent ner, and other Biblical critics, assign it to the year 63 thief upon the cross, (ch. 23. 40-43,) are also lively or 64, which date appears to be the true one, and corre- | illustrations of the mercy and goodness of God to penisponds with the internal characters of time exhibited in tent sinners. Lest, however, doubts should arise whethe Gospel itself; but it is not so easy to ascertain the | ther any but the lost sheep of the house of Israel were place where it was written. Jerome says that Luke, the interested in these good tidings, other parables and facts third Evangelist, published his Gospel in the countries are introduced, which cannot be taken in this limited of Achaia and Bæotia; Gregory Nazianzen also says that sense. Thus St. Luke relates a parable in praise of a Luke wrote for the Greeks, or in Achaia. Grotius states merciful Samaritan, (ch. 10. 33;) he relates that anothat about the time when St. Paul left Rome, Luke ther Samaritan was healed and commended for his faith departed to Achaia, where he wrote the books we now and gratitude, (ch. 17. 19;) and when a village of this have. Dr. Cave was of opinion that they were written people proved rude and inhospitable, that the zeal of the at Rome before the termination of St. Paul's captivity; two Apostles who wished to consume them by fire from but Mill, and Grabe, and Wetstein, affirm that this | heaven was reproved, (ch. 9. 52-56,) and they were told Gospel was published at Alexandria, in Egypt, in oppo- that “the Son of man came, not to destroy men's lives, sition to the pseudo-Gospel circulated among the Egyp- but to save them.” This Evangelist likewise inserts tians. Dr. Lardner has examined these various opinions examples of kindness and mercy shown to the Gentiles. at considerable length, and concludes that, upon the whole, Thus Our Saviour, in the very first public discourse there is no good reason for supposing that Luke wrote recorded in St. Luke's Gospel, takes notice that such his Gospel at Alexandria, or that he preached at all in favours were vouchsafed to the widow of Sarepta and Egypt; on the contrary, it is more probable that when | Naaman the Syrian, both Gentiles, as were not conferred he left St. Paul he went into Greece, and there composed in like circumstances on any of the Israelites. (ch. 4. or finished and published his Gospel, and the Acts of 25-27.) And the prayer upon the cross, (ch. 23. 34,) the Apostles.

“Father, forgive them, for they know not what they That St. Luke wrote his Gospel for the benefit of do,” is placed between the act of crucifying Our Lord Gentile converts, is affirmed by the unanimous voice of and that of parting his raiment, both of which were perChristian antiquity, and it may be also inferred from his formed by the Roman soldiers, to whom, therefore, this dedicating it to one of his Gentile converts. This prayer must have respect, as much as to any of his appears, indeed, to have been its peculiar design; for, persecutors. writing to those who were far remote from the scene of This Gospel contains many things which are not action, and ignorant of Jewish affairs, it was requisite found in the writings of the other Evangelists; among that he should descend to many particulars, and touch them are the following: the birth of John the Baptist; on various points which would have been unnecessary, the Roman census in Judæa; the circumstances attendhad he written exclusively for Jews. On this account ing Christ's birth at Bethlehem; the vision granted he begins his history with the birth of John the Bap- to the shepherds; the early testimony of Simeon and tist, as introductory to that of Our Saviour; and in Anna; Christ's conversation with the doctors in the the course of it he notices several particulars men- | Temple when he was twelve years old; the parables of tioned by St. Matthew. (2. 1-9.) Hence, also, he is the good Samaritan, of the prodigal son, of Dives and particularly careful in specifying various circumstances Lazarus, of the wicked judge, and of the publican and of facts that were highly conducive to the information of Pharisee; the miraculous cure of the woman who had strangers; but which it could not have been necessary been bowed down by illness eighteen years; the cleansto recite to the Jews, who could easily supply them from ing of the ten lepers; and the restoring to life the son of their own knowledge. On this account, likewise, he a widow at Nain; the account of Zaccheus, and of the gives the genealogy of Christ, not as St. Matthew had penitent thief; and the particulars of the journey to done, by showing that Jesus was the son of David, Emmaus. It is worthy of remark, that most of these from whom the Scriptures taught the Jews that the Mes- particulars were specified by Irenæus, in the second censiah was to spring; but he traces Christ's lineage up to tury, as peculiarly belonging to the Gospel of St. Luke; Adam, agreeably to the mode of tracing genealogies in who has thus undesignedly shown to all succeeding ages, use among the Gentiles, by ascending from the person that it is, in everything material, the very same book whose lineage was given to the founder of his race; and which had ever been distinguished by the name of this thus shows that Jesus is the seed of the woman, who | Evangelist till his day, and remains so distinguished to was promised for the redemption of the whole world. | our times. Further, as the Gentiles had but little knowledge of If the Apostle Paul had not informed us, (Col. 4. 14) Jewish transactions, Luke has marked the æras when that St. Luke was by profession a physician, and conseChrist was born, and when John began to announce the quently a man of letters, his writings would have suffiGospel, by the reigns of the Roman emperors,—to which ciently evinced that he had received a liberal education; point St. Matthew and the other Evangelists have not for although his Gospel presents as many Hebraisms, attended. St. Luke has likewise introduced many things | perhaps, as any of the sacred writings, yet his language not noticed by the other Evangelists, which encouraged contains many more Grecisms than that of any other the Gentiles to hearken to the Gospel, and when their writer of the New Testament. The style of this Evanconsciences were awakened by it, to turn to God in gelist is pure, copious, and flowing, and bears a consinewness of life, with a pleasing prospect of pardon and derable resemblance to that of his great master, St. Paul. acceptance. Of this description are the parables of the Many of his words and expressions are exactly parallel publican praying in the Temple, (ch. 18. 10,) and of the to those which are to be found in the best classio authors; lost piece of silver, (ch. 15. 8-10,) and particularly the and several eminent critics have long since pointed out prophetic parable of the prodigal son, which, besides its the singular skill and propriety with which St. Luke has spiritual and universal application, beautifully intimates named and described the various diseases which he had that the Gentile, represented by the younger or the pro occasion to notice. As an instance of his copiousness, digal son, returning at length to his heavenly Father, | Dr. Campbell has remarked, that each of the Evangelists would meet with the most merciful, gracious, and affec- has a number of words which are used by none of the



rest; but in St. Luke's Gospel, the number of such words most useful and impressive caution. Infidelity in our as are used in none of the other Gospels, is greater than own country is preached from what are called Christian that of the peculiar words found in all the other three pulpits, and those who occupy them have the hardihood Gospels put together; and that the terms peculiar to to assert that one half of the Inspired Volume is interSt. Luke are for the most part long and compound polation and forgery. words. There is also more of composition in his sentences than is found in the other three Gospels, and con LUMP, 07527 dibilah, (2Kings 20.7; Isai. 38. 21;) sequently less simplicity. Of this we have an example D521 pl. dibilim, (2Sam. 25. 18;) Sept. naraon. in the first sentence, which occupies not less than four | The word here employed, has reference to figs, which verses. Further, St. Luke seems to approach nearer to were dried and pressed into round lumps: Maimonides the manner of other historians, in giving what may be says, they were prepared in the form of round cakes. called his own verdict in the narrative part of his work. The Romans, as we learn from Pliny, received figs from Thus he calls the Pharisees Oilapyupoi, lovers of Caria, in Asia Minor, pressed into round masses, which money, (ch, 16. 14;) and in distinguishing Judas Isca were called ischades Caricæ, or dried Carian figs. See riot from the other Judas, he uses the phrase ós kal FIG-TREE. EYEVETO TI podorns, “which also was the traitor.” (ch. 6. 16.) Matthew (10. 4,) and Mark (3. 19,) express the LUNATIC, gennviacouat, to be moon-struck, same sentiment in milder language. Again, the attempt | lunatic. (Matt. 4. 24; 17. 15.) In Greek usage, this made by the Pharisees to extort from Our Lord what word signifies to be afflicted with epilepsy, the symptoms might prove matter of accusation against Him, is ex of which were supposed to become more aggravated pressed by St. Luke in more animated language than is with the increasing moon. In the New Testament this used by either of the rest. (ch. 11. 53.) “They began disease is ascribed to the influence of unclean spirits, to urge him vehemently, and to provoke him to speak demons, (Mark 9. 17;) and St. Jerome, in his commenof many things." And on another occasion, speaking of tary on Matthew 4. 24, is of opinion, that the lunatics the same people, he says that “they were filled with in the Gospel were possessed persons, whom the people madness." (ch. 6. 11.) Lastly, in the moral instructions through mistake called lunatics, because they saw them given by Our Lord, and recorded by this Evangelist, most tormented during the change of the moon; the especially in the parables, no one has surpassed him in devil making them suffer most in these circumstances, uniting affecting sweetness of manner with genuine sim in order that simple people might impute the cause of it plicity, particularly in the parables of the benevolent to the moon, and from thence take occasion to blasSamaritan and the penitent prodigal.

pheme the Creator. Others maintain that all the differProfessor Alexander, in his work on The Canon of ence between an epileptic and a lunatic was, that one Scripture, in noticing the objections of Michaëlis and was more disordered than the other. other German critics to the canonical authority of The Orientals pay particular respect to lunatics. “The the Gospels of St. Mark and St. Luke, remarks, Arabs,” says Poiret, “ show a kind of reverence to luna“There is, indeed, something reprehensible, not to tics, according to the principles of their religion. They say impious, in that bold spirit of modern criticism, look upon them as saints, as being endowed with peculiar which has led many eminent Biblical scholars, espe- | privileges and favoured by Heaven. I met such a man cially in Germany, first to attack the authority of in the duar (villages of the Bedouin Arabs] of Ali Bey. particular books of Scripture, and next to call in ques- | He was quite naked, and went into all the tents. It tion the inspiration of the whole volume. To what would be considered as a criminal action to send away extent this licentiousness of criticism has been carried, such a man or to treat him ill. He could eat where he we need not say; for it is a matter of notoriety, that of pleased, nothing was denied him. Ali Bey himself bore late the most dangerous enemies of the Bible have been his freedoms and importunities with a degree of indulfound occupying the places of its advocates; and the gence that astonished me." Lempriere says, that in critical art, which was intended for the correction of the Morocco insane persons form a peculiar class of saints. text, and the interpretation of the sacred books, has, in a The Moors believe that such men are under the especial most unnatural way, been turned against the Bible; and protection of God; they consequently find everywhere finally, the inspiration of all the sacred books has not only compassion and support, and to treat their excesses with been questioned, but scornfully rejected, by professors of rigour is thought to be as criminal as to lay hands on theology. And these men, while living on endowments the person of the emperor. The consequence of this illwhich pious benevolence had consecrated for the support judged humanity is, that worthless vagabonds feign of religion, and openly connected with churches whose lunacy and commit the greatest crimes, no one vencreeds contain orthodox opinions, have so far forgotten turing to hinder them. A lunatic of this description is their high responsibilities, and neglected the claims mentioned by him who, under the appearance of being which the Church had on them, as to exert all their immersed in his devotions, strangled with his rosary ingenuity and learning to sap the foundation of that several persons who came too near him. Stephen system which they were sworn to defend. They have had Schultz relates a story of a Franciscan monk, who, the shameless hardihood to send forth into the world being pursued by the populace in the streets of Alexbooks under their own names, which contain fully as andria, saved himself by feigning madness, dancing and much of the poison of infidelity, as was ever distilled playing strange antics, so that he not only escaped the from the pens of the most malignant Deists, whose shower of stones that threatened his life, but was treated writings have fallen as a curse upon the world. The with the greatest respect. only effectual security which we have against this new Edmann applies these observations to illustrate the and most dangerous form of infidelity is found in the words of the Apostle, (2Cor. 11. 19,) “For ye suffer fools spirit of the age, which is so superficial and cursory in gladly, seeing ye yourselves are wise.” St. Paul's adverits reading, that however many elaborate critical works saries in Corinth endeavoured to lessen the reputation may be published in foreign languages, very few of them he enjoyed, by extolling their own merits. He therewill be read even by theological students in this fore found it necessary to compare his merits with those country.”

which these people assumed. Such self-praise he The animadversions of Professor Alexander convey a declares to be folly; but as it was extorted from him, he

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requests them to judge favourably, or at least to grant be of higher antiquity than the Crusades, concludes that him the indulgence which they afford to a man whose it is the church which Justinian built, and dedicated to mental faculties were deranged. “You are accustomed,” | St. Peter, when he erected Lydda into a bishopric; and says he, “ to treat mental weakness with indulgence, to that it was repaired by Richard Cæur de Lion, and by give proof of your own understanding. You disregard him dedicated to St. George. it, when such an idiot in his madness treats you as Mr. Robinson says, “ Lydda is now a heap of ruins; the slaves, consumes what is yours, or appropriates to him- most remarkable of which are the remains of a very handself what belongs to you; or is proud and fancies him some church, said to have been built, but more properly self above you; nay, even if he strikes you in the face. repaired, by Richard, surnamed Cour de Lion, in honour This indulgence you will not refuse me, now that I have of St. George, whose birth-place it was, and who is been compelled to be guilty of the weakness of speaking reported to have suffered martyrdom here. The latter in my own praise.”

legend is not quite so satisfactory as the former; neverRosenmüller thinks the opinion entertained of luna- theless, a place has been fixed upon to commemorate the tics by the Orientals, serves to illustrate what is said of event. Here I was desired to kneel down, whilst a Greek David, (1 Sam. 21. 10-15,) when to escape the pursuit papas, reciting a prayer, invoked the intercession on my of Saul he fled to Achish, king of the Philistines, but head of the saint, whose name I bear. He is held in great was discovered; then he feigned himself mad, and thus veneration throughout the East. I hardly ever entered saved his life. See POSSESSION.

a Greek church without noticing a picture representing

his achievement with the dragon; and that no mistake LUZ, 755 (Gen. 28. 19,) was the original name

might be made, the inscription 'Aylos Tewpycos, is of the town afterwards called Bethel, situated between

written in the corner. He is likewise held in great Sichem and Jerusalem. See BETHEL.

respect by the Turks. The latter have an oratory at the

western end of the church, the roof of which has fallen LYBIA. See Libya.

in, but the arch of the altar at the eastern extremity LYCAONIA. was a small province of Asia Minor, remains. It is a curious fact, and noticed by many trahaving Galatia on the north, Cappadocia on the east, vellers, that in all the ruined churches, and they are to Isauria on the west, and Cilicia on the south. Its chief be met with at every step, the altar is generally found cities were. Iconium. Lystra, and Derbe, which are men- | to be more or less preserved. The pious Christians of tioned in Acts ch. 14. The “speech of Lycaonia,” is the East infer from this (and find consolation in the generally believed to have been a corrupt Greek inter

reflection) that some day or other they are to throw off mixed with Syriac words; but Jablonski supposes it to the yoke of Islamism, and that their temples are to be have been derived from the Assyrian tongue.

restored to the unshackled worship of God. Even the

persecuted Jew looks forward to his promised deliverLYCIA, was a province in the south-western part

ance; and the Turk also thinks that Islamism has seen of Asia Minor. It had the whole of its southern, and

its halcyon days, and finds few to differ with him in his about one half of its eastern and western shores washed

| anticipation of a change of fortune." by the sea, was partly bounded on the east by Pamphylia, and on the west by Caria, while on the north it had the small country of Milyas, (a part of Phrygia.) I I. LYDIA, Audra, once a celebrated kingdom of It was a very fertile province, and in its prosperous Asia Minor, peopled by the descendants of Lud, the son times contained twenty-three cities and several other of Shem, (Gen. 10. 22,) (see LUD,) was a Roman protowns, the chief of which were, Myra, Patara, (these vince in the days of the Apostles. It was then limited only mentioned in Scripture,) Olympus, Telmissus, and on the north by Mysia, on the west by the Ægean Sea, Phaselis. Its metropolis was Myra, which was visited on the east by Phrygia, and on the south by Caria; but by St. Paul when going as a prisoner to Rome. (Acts in the more flourishing times of their last kings, Alyattes 27. 5.) See MYRA.

and Cræsus, the Lydian territories were far more extenThe Lycians were a colony from the island of Crete, sive. The principal cities of Lydia were Sardis, Philaand were famed for equity in more ancient times; but delphia, Thyatira, and Ephesus. The Lydians had about B.C. 60, many of them who lived on the sea coast kings of three different races, who are supposed to have were pirates. (1 Macc. 15. 23.)

governed them for about six or seven hundred years;

but after the country had been overrun by the GomeLYDDA. The ancient 75 Lod, mentioned in

rians or Cimmerians, about A.M. 3368, it was conNehemiah 7. 37, was called by the Greeks Lydda,

quered by Cyrus: since which time it has been in sucLudda, (Acts 9. 32,) and in later times Diospolis. It

cession subject to the Persians, Greeks, Romans, and was situated about fifteen miles to the south-east of

Saracens, and is now held by the Turks. After the Joppa, and is celebrated in the Acts of the Apostles for

overthrow of their monarchy, the Lydians became genethe miraculous cure of Eneas by the Apostle Peter.

rally very idle and profligate; the Gospel, however, Josephus describes it as being in his time a town

was very early planted, and a Christian church has ever

since existed. scarcely inferior to a city in its extent. It is noticed among the Talmudical writers as having been the birth-1 II. LYDIA, a woman of Thyatira, who traded in place or residence of some of their famous Rabbins; for purple cloths, for which that place was celebrated. She after the destruction of Jerusalem, it became a noted seat was a Jewish proselyte, of a sincere and pious character, of Jewish learning, being one of the places in which the and prompt in acknowledging and professing the truth. Jews set up a school. “In the time of the Christians," She was converted to the Christian faith in consequence says Sandys, “it was the seat of a suffragan; now hardly of the preaching of St. Paul. (Acts 16. 14,40.) Coa village. There was, however, still standing a Christian querel and others suppose that Lydia, in this place, is church, which was said to have been built during the merely a patronymic appellation, that is, that it merely Crusades by a king of England, in honour of St. George signifies a Lydian woman; most probably from the cirof Cappadocia, who was supposed to have been martyred cumstance of Thyatira being situated on the confines of and buried at Lydda.” This fine church is now in Lydia. ruins; and Pococke, deeming its original architecture to

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NS, 51777.cage the wofis Ludin shem, the

LYDIANS, D'793 Ludim. (Gen. 10. 13; Jerem. | 18. 20, in reference to the lying spirit, gives the fol46. 9.) In the latter passage the word rendered in our lowing strange gloss: “Then the spirit of Naboth of version “Lydians," in the original is Ludim. There Jezreel came out from the abode of the righteous, and were, it appears, two Luds, one the son of Shem, the stood before the Lord, and said, I will deceive him. other the son of Mizraim; and these Lydians (who must And the Lord said, By what means? To which he not be confounded with the Lydians of Asia Minor,) answered, I will be a spirit of false prophecy in the were probably the descendants of the latter. From their mouth of his prophets. And the Lord said, Thou being included among the African allies of the Egyp mayest then. But although the power of deceiving tians, they were probably settled in Africa, near to them is given unto thee, nevertheless it will not be lawEgypt; but it is not possible to point out the particular ful for thee to sit among the righteous; for whosoever part of that continent which they occupied, although shall speak falsely cannot have a mansion among the from their being uniformly mentioned with the Libyans righteous. Therefore, go forth from me, and do as thou (Phut), and from the fact that they served with them as hast said.” hired soldiers of Tyre, (Ezek. 30. 5,) which may be Dr. Boothroyd remarks on 1 Kings 22. 19-23, “This is conjectured, implies that there was a maritime communi- not a real representation of anything done in the cation between them and the Tyrians, we may conclude heavenly world, as if God was at a loss for expedients, that they were settled somewhere in the neighbourhood or had any hand in the sins of his creatures; but it is a of the African coast, near or among the Libyans. They parabolical or visionary representation, to let them know were celebrated archers, and assisted Pharaoh Necho there was a higher King, that his providence was conagainst the Chaldæans.

cerned about the affairs of this world, and that He has

various ways of bringing about his purposes. The LYING, may be considered as speaking falsehoods

expression 'Jehovah hath put a lying spirit,' only means wilfully, with an intent to deceive. A lie is an affirma- |

He hath suffered Ahab's prophets to be guilty of tion or denial by words, or any other signs to which a

prophesying lies in his name."" certain determinate meaning is affixed, of something contrary to our real thoughts and intentions. Paley says, "A lie is a breach of promise; for whoever seriously

LYRE. Though this word does not occur in our addresses his discourse to another tacitly promises to

version, there can be little doubt that the lyre was well speak the truth, because he knows that the truth is

known amongst the Hebrews from the earliest times. expected."

There are two kinds of stringed instruments mentioned The evil and injustice of lying appear: (1.) From its

in the Scriptures; the first is the hidd kinnoor, Greek being a violation of God's sacred law. (Levit. 19. 11;

kivupa, rendered in our version “barp," (more properly Phil. 4. 8; Coloss. 3. 9.) (2.) The faculty of speech

“ lyre,”) which Josephus describes as an instrument of was bestowed as an instrument of knowledge, not of

ten strings, sometimes played with a plectrum, at others deceit; to communicate our thoughts, not to hide them;

with the hand. The name of the other stringed instruit is therefore a breach of the natural and universal right

ment is a) nebel, which Josephus says was a twelveof mankind. (3.) It has a tendency to dissolve all

stringed instrument, played with the hands; and Jerome society, and to indispose the mind to religious impres

observes that it had the form of an inverted delta, v. sions. (4.) The punishment with which it has been

Of these and other instruments which are mentioned sometimes visited is tremendous, as in the case of Ana

in the Scriptures, we know but little that is certain, and nias and Sapphira. (Acts 5. 1-11.) (5.) It involves

they are often confounded with each other by different the loss of credit, the hatred of those whom we have

Rabbinical commentators. Some of them imagine that deceived, and an eternal separation from God in the

the kinnoor had twenty-four strings, while others assign world to come. (Rev. 21. 8; 22. 15.)

it thirty-two; others identify it with the Æolian harp; by some it is mistaken for the psaltery, by others for the

Greek chelys. Suidas, however, and those who consider LYING SPIRIT, PU 1.7 ruach shakar. (1 Kings it to have been the same as the Greek kinura, are pro22. 22; 2Chron. 18. 21.) Ahab, when preparing for bably the most correct. the expedition to Ramoth Gilead in which he perished, was promised success by his false prophets, who were denounced by Micaiah, the son of Imlah, as prompted by a "lying spirit.” The term is also applied in a similar sense in Jeremiah 5. 31: “The prophets prophesy falsely." Dr. Adam Clarke remarks on the speech of Imlah, in the first passage: “This is no more than that God has permitted the spirit of lying to influence the whole of thy prophets; and He now by my mouth apprises thee of this, that thou mayest not go and fall at Ramoth Gilead. Never was a man more circumstantially and fairly warned; he had counsels from the God of truth, and counsels from the spirit of falsity; he obstinately forsook the former and followed the latter. He was shown by the parable how everything was going on; and that all was under the control and direction of God; and that still it was possible for him to make that God his friend whom, by his continual transgressions, he had made his enemy; but he would not: his blood

Toe Greek Chelys. was, therefore, upon his own head.” Josephus relates an idle Rabbinical tale in reference to this matter, which The kinnoor was known before the Flood, being one is as unworthy of repetition as it is of credit.

of the two instruments invented by Jubal, (Gen. 4. 21,) The Jerusalem Targum, on the passage in 2Chronicles and there is every reason to suppose that it was an

was punced by utic. The 131: "These on the more than

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