« FöregåendeFortsätt »
the sebe state. This sent could mint a po
the only privilegeanted by the pro from among the
of other person force that was shorts, of which of
probable that Jehoiachin, and afterwards Shealtiel and over the taxes: those sent to command in the imperial Zerubbabel held the first rank among them, or, in other provinces were called legali Cæsaris pro consule, foc., words, were their princes. After their return to their | and had much greater. powers. In each of these pronative country, the Hebrews obeyed their no pacha, | vinces, of both kinds, there was, besides the president, or president. Such were Zerubbabel, Ezra, and Nehe- an officer called procurator Cæsaris, who had the charge miah, who were invested with ample powers for the of the revenue, and who sometimes discharged the purposes of government. (Ezra 7. 25.) When, from office of a governor or president, especially in a small any cause, there was no person authorized by the civil province, or in a portion of a large one, where the presigovernment to act as president, the high-priest com dent could not reside; as did Pilate, who was procumonly undertook the government of the state. This rator of Judea, which was annexed to the provincia state of things continued while the Jews were under imperatoria of Syria; hence he had the power of punishthe Persians and Greeks, until the time of Antiochus ing capitally, which the procurators did not usually posEpiphanes, in whose reign they appealed to arms, shook sess; so also Felix, Festus, and the other procurators off the yoke of foreign subjugation, and having obtained of Judæa. Some of the procurators were dependant on their freedom, made their high-priests princes, and at the nearest proconsul or president; for instance, those length kings. The Jews, likewise, who were scattered of Judæa were dependant on the proconsul, governor, or abroad, and had taken up their residence in countries at president, of Syria. They enjoyed, however, great a distance from Palestine, had rulers of their own. The authority, and possessed the power of life and death. person who sustained the highest office among those The only privilege, in respect to the officers of governwho dwelt in Egypt, was denominated Alabarchus; the ment, that was granted by the procurators of Judæa to magistrate at the head of the Syrian Jews was deno- | that nation, was the appointment from among them of minated Archon.
persons to manage and collect the taxes. In all other While the Jews were under the Roman government, things they administered the government themselves, they enjoyed the privilege of referring litigated ques- | except that they frequently had recourse to the counsel tions to referees, whose decisions in reference to them of other persons. (Acts 23. 24-35; 25. 23.) the Roman prætor was bound to see put in exécution. The military force that was granted to the procurators
After the subjugation of the Jews by the Romans, cer- of Judæa, consisted of six cohorts, of which five were tain provinces of Judæa were governed by that class of stationed at Cæsarea, where the procurator usually magistrates denominated tetrarchs. The office of tetrarch resided, and one at Jerusalem, in the tower of Antonia, is said to have had its origin from the Gauls. Having which was so situated as to command the Temple. (Acts at a certain time made an incursion into Asia Minor, | 10. 1; 21. 32.) It was the duty of the military cohorts they succeeded in taking from the king of Bithynia that to execute the procurator's commands and to repress part of it, which is denominated, from their own name, seditions. (Matt. 8. 5; 27. 27; Mark 15. 16; John Galatia. The Gauls who made this invasion consisted 19.23.) On the return of the great festivals, when there of three tribes, and each tribe was divided into four were vast crowds of people at Jerusalem, the procurators parts or tetrarchates, each of which obeyed its own themselves went from Cæsarea to that city in order to tetrarch. The tetrarch was of course subordinate to the be at hand to suppress any commotions which might king. The appellation of tetrarch, which was thus ori | arise. (Matt. 27. 2-65; John 18. 29; 19. 38.) ginally applied to the chief magistrate of the fourth part The apxwv mentioned in Luke 12. 58, rendered of a tribe, subject to the authority of the king, was after- “magistrate” in our version, is a term applied to magiwards extended in its application, and applied to any strates of any kind; for example, to the high-priest, governors, subject to some king or emperor, without (Acts 23. 5,) civil judges, (16. 19,) rendered “rulers," a reference to the fact, whether they ruled or not pre- ruler of a synagogue. (Luke 8. 41.) It was also applied cisely the fourth part of a tribe or people. Herod Anti- to persons of influence among the Pharisees and other pas, accordingly, and Philip, although they did not rule sects at Jerusalem, who were also members of the so much as a fourth part of Judæa, were denomi- | Sanhedrin. (Luke 14. 1.) nated tetrarchs. (Matt. 14. 1; Luke 9. 7; Acts 13. 1.) Although this class of rulers were dependant upon Cæsar, that is, the Roman emperor, they, nevertheless, MAGOG. See Gog and Magog. governed the people who were committed to their imme
MAHALATH, mboo This word occurs in the diate jurisdiction, as much according to their own choice and discretion, as if they had not been thus dependant.
title of Psalms 53 and 88. It is most probably the They were inferior, however, in point of rank to the
name of a musical instrument, but of what particular ethnarchs, who, although they did not publicly assume
kind cannot now be determined. The Septuagint and
Vulgate, like our version, have not attempted to explain the name of king, were addressed with that title by their subjects; as was the case with respect to Archelaus.
the word. Gesenius says it was probably the Ethiopian (Matt. 2. 22.)
mahhlet, or cithara; others think it the flute. A less A class of magistrates well known among the Romans,
probable opinion, that it means a kind of dance, or a
chorus, has been advocated by some writers. Calmet termed procurators, are denominated in the New Testa
concludes that the word means a dance, referring to ment nyepoves, but it appears that they are called by
such dances as were used at particular festivals, (Exod. Josephus ETT LT POTOl. Judæa, after the termination of
15. 20; Judges 21. 21; 1Sam. 18. 6,) and understands the ethnarchate of Archelaus, was governed by rulers of
that the psalm is addressed to the chief musician who this description, and likewise during the period which
had the superintendence and direction of such dances. immediately succeeded the reign of Herod Agrippa.
Jerome, Houbigant, and others render it “ chorus," in Augustus made a new partition of the provinces of the
which Rosenmüller concurs, and from the term nigys Roman empire into provinciæ senatoriæ, which were left
Leannoth, in Psalm 88, the latter thinks it refers to under the nominal care of the senate, and provinciæ
singing in alternate choruses, accompanied by musical imperatoriæ vel Cæsarum, which were under the direct
instruments similar to pipes or flutes, deriving the word control of the emperor. To their provinces the senate
from 5577 hhalel, to perforate. sent officers for one year, called proconsuls, with only a civil power, and neither military command nor authority
MAHANAIM, D'an (Gen. 32. 2,) a city on the preparing for the battle: he takes the robe from his east of Jordan, between the tribes of Gad and Manasseh, right arm, that being thus uncovered, 'made bare,' it to the first of which it once belonged, but was afterwards may the more easily perform its office. "Tell your transferred to the Levites. (Josh. 13. 26,30; 21. 38.) | boasting master to get ready his army, for our king has It appears to have been a place of great strength, and shown his shoulder,' that is, uncovered it. 'Alas! I have was therefore selected by Abner as the residence of heard that the mighty sovereign of the neighbouring Ishbosheth, the son of Saul, during the war between him kingdom has pointed to his shoulder,' that is, he is ready and David, (2Sam. 2. 8;) and it was probably for the to come against us. See two men disputing; should same reason that David withdrew to this place during one of them point to his right arm and shoulder, the the rebellion of his son Absalom. (2Sam. 17. 24-27.) other will immediately fall into a rage, as he knows it Near it the troops of David defeated those of his rebel amounts to a challenge, and says in effect, 'I am thy lious son. (ch. 18. 6-8.) The precise situation of this superior.' Thus may be seen men at a distance, when town cannot now be ascertained: the patriarch Jacob defying each other, slapping each his right hand or gave it its name, which signifies two camps, or two hosts shoulder. Jehovah, in reference to the nations of the of angels, because in this place he had a vision of angels earth, ‘hath made bare his holy arm. ... And all the coming to meet him.
ends of the earth shall see the salvation of our God.'”
was a place near מחנה דן ,MI AIIANEII DAN
Kirjath-jearim in the tribe of Judah, where six hundred
MAKKEDAH, J7po (Josh. 10. 10,) a city in Danites encamped in their way to Laish. (Judges 18. 12.) Its name signifies the camp of Dan.”
the plain of the tribe of Judah, was formerly a royal
city of the Canaanites. Here Joshua secured and put MAHER-SHALAL-HASH-BAZ, 12 VD 55w no to death the five confederated kings. He then destroyed (He hasteneth to the prey,) (Isai. 8. 1-3,) a name given the place itself and marched to Libnah. (Josh. 10. by the Lord to one of the sons of the prophet Isaiah. ||
16-29.) The prophet says, (v. 18,)“ Behold, I, and the children whom the Lord hath given me, are for signs and for MALACHI, x59 Sept. Maluzias, was the wonders in Israel from the Lord of hosts, which dwelleth last of the minor prophets, of whom so little is known in Mount Zion."
that it has been doubted whether his name be a proper MAID-SERVANT. See HAND-MAID.
name, or only a generic term, signifying the angel of
the Lord, a messenger, a prophet. It appears from MAIL, COAT OF. See Arms, Armour, Army.
Haggai 1. 13, compared with Malachi 3. 1, that in those MAIN-SAIL. The word apteuwv, (Acts 27.40,) times the appellation of Malachi-Jehovah, or the mesrendered in our version “main-sail,” is considered by senger of the Lord, was given to the prophets. The some authorities to refer to a top-sail; while others Septuagint translators have rendered Malachi, “his think it was the jib. See Shir.
angel," instead of “my angel,” as the Hebrew word
implies; and several of the Fathers have quoted Malachi MAJESTY, 77.7 hadar, (Psalm 104. 1,) signifies
under the name of “the angel of the Lord." The author generally pomp, glory; it is here used of the infinite
of the Lives of the Prophets, under the name of Epidignity and glory of God. The chief distinctions of
phanius Dorotheus, and the Chronicon Alexandrinum, majesty mentioned in the Scriptures were the royal
profess to be better informed: they say that Malachi was apparel, the crown, the throne, and the sceptre. See
of the tribe of Zebulun, and a native of Saapha; that King.
he died very young, and that the name Malachi was MAKHELOTH, nisopa (Numb.33.25,) (Places given to him because of his angelical mildness. Origen of convocation,) one of the encamping places of the | and some others entertained the extravagant notion that Israelites in the desert. Its locality is unknown, but he was an incarnate angel; another writer identifies him Calmet says it is thought by some writers to be Mala with Mordecai. Calmet, after Jerome and some other this, which Eusebius and Jerome place twenty miles ancient writers, thinks that Malachi was the same person from Hebron, in the south of Judah.
as Ezra, who wrote the canonical book that passes under his name, and was governor of the Jews after their
return from the Captivity. As he revised the Holy MAKING BARE THE ARM. In Isaiah 52. 10 Scriptures, and collected the Canon of the Old Testawe read, “The Lord hath made bare his holy arm in the ment, and performed various other important services to eyes of all the nations; and all the ends of the earth | the Jewish church, Ezra has been considered both by shall see the salvation of our God."
ancient Jewish, and also by the early Christian writers, Mr. Jowett observes, “ The use of the Oriental dress
as a very extraordinary person sent from God, and which I now wear brings to mind various Scriptural | therefore they thought him very appropriately denoillustrations. The figure in Isaiah, “The Lord hath minated Malachi: but the arguments adduced in supmade bare bis holy arm,' is most lively; for the loose port of this opinion rest on no solid foundation; and it sleeve of the Arab shirt, as well as that of the outer / seems clear that Malachi was a distinct person from garment, leaves the arm so completely free, that, in an Ezra, and (as Rosenmüller observes,) the whole arguinstant, the left hand passing up the right arm makes it ment of his book proves that he flourished after the bare; and this is done when a person, a soldier, for return from the Captivity. That he was contemporary example, about to strike with the sword, intends to give with Nehemiah was the unvarying opinion of the his right arm full play. The image represents Jehovah ancient writers, and is placed beyond a doubt by the as suddenly prepared to inflict some tremendous, yet subjects contained in his book, which present the same righteous judgment, so effectual 'that all the ends of the aspect of things as in Nehemiah's time: thus, the earth shall see the salvation of God.'”
prophet speaks of the Temple, as having been built a Roberts likewise informs us, “The right arm or considerable time; he introduces the Jews as complama shoulder is always alluded to as the place of strength: ing of the unfavourable state of their affairs; and finds with that the warrior wields his sword, and slays his occasion of censure with respect to the heathen wives, foes. The metaphor appears to allude to a man who is whom Nehemiah after some time separated from the
made bare bien Arab sh
813 people, (Nehem. 13. 23-30;) the withholding of tithes is, and the night in which it was said, There is a man child censured, which was also noticed by Nehemiah. (13. 5.) conceived." (ch. 3. 3.) Dr. Boothroyd prefers to read, From all these circumstances, it appears that Malachi “ Perish the day wherein I was born; the night it was prophesied while Nehemiah was governor of Judæa, said, Lo! a man child;" but Dr. Adam Clarke considers more particularly after his second coming from the Per- the last word of the verse should be taken in the sense sian court; and he appears to have contributed the of being born; and the Tamul translation takes the same weight of his exhortations to the restoration of the view. The prophet Jeremiah also says, “Cursed be the Jewish polity, and the final reform established by that man who brought tidings to my father, saying, A man pious and excellent governor. Dr. Kennicott places him child is born unto thee; making him very glad." (ch. about the year 420 before Christ, which date is adopted | 20. 15.) by Dr. Hales as sufficiently agreeing with the descrip-! “People in the East,” Roberts informs us, “evince tion of Josephus and the varying dates of chronologers. great anxiety to have male children. At the period of
The occasion and the scope of the writings of Malachi accouchement the husband awaits the result in an may be briefly stated. The Jews having rebuilt the adjoining room, or the garden, and so soon as the affair Temple and re-established the worship of Jehovah, after shall be over, should the little stranger be a son, the nurse the death of Zerubbabel and Joshua, relapsed into their rushes outside, and beats the thatch on the roof three former irreligion in consequence of the negligence of the times, and exclaims aloud, 'A male child! a male child! priests. Although they were subsequently reformed a male child is born!' Should the infant be a female, not during the governments of Ezra and Nehemiah, yet they | a word is said, and the father knows what is the state fell into gross abuses after the death of Ezra, and during of the case. When a person conducts himself in an Nehemiah's absence at the court of Persia. The prophet unmanly way, the people ask, “Did they not beat the Malachi was therefore commissioned to reprove the roof for you? Was it not said to your father, A male priests and people, more particularly after Nehemiah's child is born?” second return, for their irreligious practices, and to invite them to reformation and repentance by promises MALLOWS, 0:59 malluach, (Job 30. 4;) Sept. of the great blessings that should be bestowed at the állua; Vulg. arborum cortices. Job, in lamenting his advent of the Messiah. Malachi prophesied of the calamities, complains that he has become contemptible coming of John the Baptist, and of the coming of Our to persons so miserably poor that “they cut up malluach Saviour. (ch. 3.) He speaks of the abolition of sacri by the bushes, and juniper roots for their meat.” What fices under the old law, and of the sacrifice of the New malluach was, has been much disputed. Gesenius says it Covenant. (1. 10,13; 4. 5,6.) With him the Old was the Atripex halimus of Linnæus, a plant growing Testament prophecies conclude.
in Palestine, and resembling a salad, the fresh leaves “ The last of the prophetical books,” says Bishop of which serve as food for the poor, either raw or boiled; Lowth, “that of Malachi, is written in a kind of middle others suppose that it was a species of marsh samphire, style, which seems to indicate that the Hebrew poetry, the Salicornia fruticosa, mentioned by Theophrastus, from the time of the Babylonish captivity, was in a under the name of adipos, or álipov, saltwort, of declining state, and being past its prime and vigour, was which word the aripa of the Septuagint is the plural then fast verging towards the debility of age.”
form. Dr. Mason Good thinks that “the real plant is a species of salsola, or saltwort. The salsola, salt wort, or
kali, is, in modern botany, an extensive genus of plants, MALCHUS, Marxos, (John 18. 10,) was a ser
comprising not less than two or three and twenty difvant of Caiaphas, the high-priest, whose name St. John
ferent species, of which some are herbaceous, and others has preserved. Malchus being one of the company that
shrubby, several of them common to Asia, and not a few was commanded to seize Our Lord in the garden of
indigenous to a dry sandy soil. They have all a saline Gethsemane, Peter cut off his right ear, which, however,
and bitter taste." was instantly restored and the wound healed by the
The term malluach, or saltwort, however, might have omnipotent touch of Jesus, who thus conferred upon
been applied to a plant not for its taste, but for its appear
hea him a signal act of mercy at a most critical time. The
ance, and then it might suggest a species of mesembryanmiraculous healing of Malchus presents an admirable
themum, or ice plant, which in the driest soils is covered union of justice, power, and goodness; and could not
with crystals that may sometimes be compared to grains fail to convince the Apostles of the truth of Our Lord's
of salt. The species of mesembryanthemum are exceeddeclaration, that no man could take his life from Him,
ingly numerous, and abound in the sandy tracts of Palesand that He only had power to lay it down and resume it again. It has indeed been asked, how such a miracle
tine and Edom, in all instances of a succulent and fleshy
nature, exhibiting great variety in the form and appearmade so little impression upon the company which
ance of the leaves. The flowers are in general large, Judas conducted. The reply is easy: the whole trans
with numerous stamens, and they present a pleasing action took place in an instant: Peter struck Malchus
contrast to the cheerless waste around, and the arid soil with a sword; Jesus stood still, with one hand stopped
| beneath. the apostle, and with the other healed the servant; while those who were present, in the middle of the night
In this, as in so many other instances, it may be imand by the flickering light of torches, had scarcely time
possible to state positively what plant is meant, but the to perceive what was passing.
rendering of our version seems preferable to that of the various commentators from whom we have quoted, as
we have good evidence of mallows being used for food MALE. The word 71 zakar, (Gen. 1.27; 6. 19; by the poor in Syria. “Master Biddulph," as given in 34. 25,) signifies the male of either man or beasts. Purchas his Pilgrimes, travelling from Aleppo to Jeru
The superior estimation in which male children were salem, (in March, 1600,) halted at a village called held among the Hebrews, is testified by numerous pas Laemine, and “after the showre, while our horses were sages of Scripture, and we find the same feeling, expressed preparing, we walked into the fields neere unto the almost in the same words, still existing in Eastern church, and saw many poore people gathering mallows countries.
and three-leafed grasse, and asked them what they did Job says, “Let the day perish wherein I was born, with it; and they answered that it was all their food,
and that they boyled it, and did eate it. Then we dwelt near them in “the plain of Mamre," and they took pitie on them, and gave them bread, which they assisted him in his expedition against the four kings. received very joyfully, and blessed God that there was | In the first quoted passage, Gesenius, for “plain of bread in the world, and said they had not seen bread | Mamre," reads “the terebinth tree of Mamre;" and Dr. the space of many moneths.” Harmer here observes, Boothroyd translates it, “dwelt at the turpentine tree of “ This was in Syria, not far from Aleppo. Whether Mamre, an Amorite, which was by Hebron.” Sozomen, mallows was one of the herbs Job precisely meant, may the ecclesiastical historian, says this tree still existed in be doubted; it appears, however, to be a species of herb the time of Constantine the Great, at the distance of actually used for food by the very poor people of the six miles from Hebron, and was greatly honoured by the East; and at the same time, the joy they expressed at many pilgrimages that were made to it, and that the having a little bread given, shows that it was not any great concourse of persons gave rise to a kind of fair. gustfulness in these herbs which they eat, which caused Opinions were at that time divided as to the antiquity of them to gather them, or the force of long-established the tree; some considered it as old as the creation, and habit, but the extremity of want. As Biddulph went that it was the same under which Abram entertained the to Jerusalem some time before the translation of the angels; while others supposed that it grew from a staff Bible was undertaken by command of King James I., which one of the angels left in the ground. Both Jews the observation he made of the people eating mallows in and Christians, however, concurred in regarding it with Syria, might engage those learned men so to render the such extraordinary veneration, that Constantine wrote word used in that passage of the Book of Job.”
to direct Eusebius, bishop of Cesarea, in Palestine, to
put a stop to the grosser forms of the idolatrous worship MALTA. See Melita.
it received, and to throw down the altar that had been erected before it. Sanutus states that the trunk of the
terebinth tree was still in being in his time, (about A.D. MAMMON. The word uauuwva, which occurs 1300,) and that the pilgrims carried it away in pieces, in the original of Matthew 6. 24, and wauwva, in Luke
to which great virtues were ascribed. Sozomen likewise 16. 9, is derived from an old Chaldaic term XJ103
mentions a well dug by Abraham, much visited both by mamoona, signifying riches, or wealth, its root being 733 heathens and Christians, for the sake of trade or devomanan, or 1732 manah, to number. It is only met with
tion. Benjamin of Tudela, the Spanish Jew who was in Our Lord's sermon on the Mount, and in the parable
at Hebron about the middle of the twelfth century, says, of the unjust steward.
“In the very field of Duplicitie, (Machpelah,) the In the first place, the meaning is sufficiently obvious,
monuments of the ancient houses of our father Abraham but much difficulty has been felt in correctly rendering
are yet extant and to be seene, and a fountayne springeth the second passage.
out before it, and no man may build an house there, for Our Lord says, in our version, “ Make to yourselves
the reverence of Abraham." friends of the mammon of unrighteousness; that when
The valley of Mamre is celebrated in the history of the ye fail, they may receive you into everlasting habita
patriarchs as the place of their encampments and of their tions.” Dr. Boothroyd renders it, “Make to yourselves
family sepulchre. It is broad and winding, extends for friends by deceitful wealth, that, when ye fail, ye may
several miles, and is bounded on all sides, and appabe received into everlasting habitations;” and he observes,
rently shut in, by barren mountains. The soil is good; “I have adopted what is now admitted to be the sense
much of it is cultivated with the olive and vine, while of the text. Wealth may be called deceitful, both be
the uncultivated part furnishes rich pasture. A large cause it is often acquired by deceit, and because it
terebinth tree in the midst has succeeded to a portion deceives those who possess it; as they are led to trust in of the honours paid to the former one; it is still held in it for what it cannot do. To make friends by a chari
high honour by all the inhabitants of Hebron, especially table use of it, is alike our duty and interest, and by
by the Jews, from a belief that the tent of Abraham was such a use of it we shall have both God and Jesus our | shaded by its boughs. friends. Dr. Adam Clarke says, the expression, they may receive you,' seems to be a mere Hebraism for ye
MAN, TX Adam, (Gen. 1. 26,) WnX esh, (Exod. shall be received.'”.
| 11. 3; Psalm 141. 4) 723 geber, (Deut. 22. 5; Job A modern writer thinks the exhortation of Our Lord 3. 3,) WIJN Enosh. (2Chron. 14. 11; Psalm 56. 1.) may be thus understood:"So distribute the riches These various words, all somewhat significant, are with which God has entrusted you—and which are to applied in the Scriptures to denote man, the head and most persons the occasions of so much sin-by reliev- | lord of the animal creation. Adam, as has been stated ing the necessitous and comforting the afflicted, that under that head, signifies red earth, or clay, from the these, which are snares to many, may befriend you,
belief that man was originally formed of that substance. may minister to your comfort, usefulness, and piety;
Esh is derived from the obsolete WIX anash, which sigthat when you die, when your heart and flesh fail, they nifies to be malignant, ill, incurable, whence the Chaldee whom you have consoled and sustained, and whose form, Enosh. Geber is derived from 7a gabar, to be happy spirits have gone before you, -and holy angels,
strong, mighty, to conquer, prevail. who are themselves appointed to 'minister to the heirs To write a history of our species would demand a of salvation, and who delight in deeds of mercy and
familiar acquaintance with nearly the whole circle of charity,--and above all, God your master, to whom you
human knowledge, and a combination of the most oppoare accountable as stewards of his property, may con site talents and pursuits. The anatomist and physiologratulate your arrival into everlasting habitations, and I gist would be required to unfold the construction and welcome you home to your perfect and eternal rest."
uses of the corporeal mechanism; the surgeon and physician to describe its diseases; while the metaphysician
and moralist would employ themselves with the funcMAMRE, 873 Sept. Maußpn, (Gen. 13. 18; / tions of the mind and moral sentiments. Man in 14.13,) was a place near Hebron, which was named after society, his progress in the various countries and ages of Mamre, an Amorite, the brother of Aner and Eshcol, the world, his multiplication and extension, are the prowho lived there; they were friends of Abraham, who vince of the historian and the political economist; while
Christo Psalmist sa like a broken it is sometin
the divine traces the higher relations that connect man made me forget all my toil, and all my father's house." with his Creator, with superior beings and a future When Jacob was on his death-bed, Joseph brought his world. All these topics, except the last, however, are two sons to him, that his father might give them his last foreign to the nature of this work, and this article will, blessing. (Gen. ch. 48.) Jacob preferred Ephraim to therefore, consist only of notices of a few Scriptural allu- Manasseh, though the younger, saying, “ His younger sions. See Adam.
brother shall be greater than he," a prophecy which we Man, in Scripture, is sometimes put for the body, see was fulfilled, as Moses, in his last blessing of the (2Cor. 4. 16;) or for the sins and corruptions of human tribes, speaks of “the ten thousands of Ephraim, and the nature. (Ephes. 4. 22.) It is employed in reference to thousands of Manasseh.” (Deut. 33. 17.) the Church. (Eph. 2. 15.) “A perfect man," (Ephes. The province of the tribe was situated half on the other 4. 13,) refers to a strong and firm believer. Angels are side, and half on this side of the Jordan. (Josh. 17. 18.) styled men, (Acts 1. 10;) the term was also applied by The region allotted to the half-tribe of Manasseh on the the centurion at the crucifixion to Our Lord Jesus eastern side of the Jordan was bounded on the south by Christ. (Mark 15. 39.)
the territory of the tribe of Gad; by the Sea of CinneThe Psalmist says, “I am forgotten as a dead man reth, (afterwards called the Lake of Gennesareth and the out of mind; I am like a broken vessel.” (Psalm 31. 12.) Sea of Galilee,) and the course of the river Jordan from Roberts remarks that, in India, it is sometimes said of its source towards that sea, on the west; by Mount the man who is reduced to poverty, “Yes, I am now a Lebanon, or more properly Mount Hermon, on the corpse to all my former friends.” “What is a man north and north-east; and by Mount Gilead on the east. without money? a walking corpse!” “I am now a broken Its principal cities were Ashtaroth-Carnaim, Beeshterah, chatte, a potsherd." "Truly I am like the tam-bat-tam, Bethsaida, Gadara, Gerasa, Geshur, Jabesh-Gilead, the drum with its head broken.” “I am of no use; no and Lodebar. This tribe was greatly indebted to the one enjoys me.” In Judges 4. 10 we read, “And Barak bravery of Jair, who took three-score cities, besides called Zebulun and Naphtali to Kedesh; and he went several small towns and villages, which he called Havothup with ten thousand men at his feet: and Deborah Jair, or the dwellings of Jair. (Numb. 32. 41; IChron. went up with him.” The same writer observes, “The 2. 23.) The boundaries of the district of the other phrase "men at his feet,' did not, I believe, refer to any half-tribe on the western side of the Jordan cannot be particular class of soldiers, but applied to all, whether ascertained with precision. Its chief places were Abelthey fought in chariots, on horses, or on foot. This meholath, Bethabara, Bethshan, afterwards called Scyform of speech is used in Eastern books, to show how thopolis, Bezek, Endor, Enon, Gath-rimmon, Megiddo, many obey or serve under the general. It may be taken | Ophrah, Salim, and Tirzah. from the action of a slave, being prostrate at the feet of II. MANASSEH, the fourteenth king of Judah, his master, denoting submission or obedience. In this succeeded his father Hezekiah at the age of twelve years. way devotees, when addressing the gods, always speak of In the early part of his reign, probably led aside by the themselves as being at their feet. When the Orientals profligate counsels of those who hated the reformation speak of the king of England, they often allude to the introduced by the pious Hezekiah, he proved a most millions who are at his feet. The governors, generals, wicked and idolatrous prince; and for his various crimes or judges in the East, are said to have the people of such was carried captive into Babylon, about the twentycountries, or armies, or districts, at their feet. Nay, it second year of his reign. But upon his penitence and is common for masters, and people of small possessions, confession of his sins, he was delivered out of captivity to speak of their domestics as being at their feet. It is and restored to his country, after, it is supposed, about therefore heard every day, for I will send my servants, a year's absence, perhaps through the medium of some “those at my feet.””
revolution in the Assyrian empire. The remainder of his life and reign was as exemplary as its commence.
ment had been profligate and wicked. The worship of MAN OF GOD, 0973807 U'
Xesh ha-Elohim. God was restored, the fortifications of Jerusalem were This term usually signifies a prophet; a man devoted repaired and strengthened, and military officers were to God and to his service. Moses is called in a peculiar placed in all the fenced cities of Judah. (2Chron. ch.33.) manner, “the man of God.” (Deut. 33. 1; Josh. 14. 6.) Manasseh died at Jerusalem, and was buried “in the MAN OF SIN. See ANTICHRIST.
garden of his own house, in the garden of Uzza.” (2Kings
21. 18.) He was succeeded by his son Amon. MAN, SON OF. Our Saviour frequently calls “THE PRAYER OF MANASSES, king of Judah, when he himself “the Son of man," in allusion, probably, to the was holden captive in Babylon,” forms a portion of the prophecy of Daniel, in which the Messiah is spoken of Apocrypha, and, though not unworthy of the occasion under that title. (Dan. 7. 13.) See Messian.
on which it is pretended to have been composed, was
never recognised as canonical. It is rejected as spurious MANAEN, Mavanv, was a Christian prophet and even by the Church of Rome. In 2Chronicles 33. 18,19. teacher, who had been educated with Herod Agrippa I. there is mention of a prayer by the king, which is said (Acts 13. 1.) It has been conjectured he was the son to be written in the Book of the Kings of Israel." and of that Manaem (Mavanjos), mentioned by Josephus, also “among the sayings of the seers;” but it is evident who predicted the future greatness of Herod.
that this composition, which abounds with deeply pious and penitent expressions, cannot be the prayer there
alluded to; for it never was extant in Hebrew, nor can I. MANASSEH, TRIO Sept. Mavàoons, the it be traced to a higher source than the Vulgate Latin eldest son of Joseph, was born in Egypt, but being version. As it is mentioned by no writer more ancient adopted by his grandfather, inherited equally with the than the pseudo-Clement, in the pretended Apostolical sons of Jacob. (Gen. ch. 48.) Little is known of his Constitutions, which were compiled in the fourth century, personal history; of his descendants, at the time of the it is probable that this prayer was composed by some first numbering of the Israelites, (Numb. 1. 35,) there unknown person, who thought he could supply the loss were 32,200 fighting men. The name Manasseh signi- of the original. fies " forgetfulness, because Joseph said, “God hath