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MANDRAKES. Certain plants called D'87:19 | accompanied me presented me with a fruit which grows dudaim, are spoken of in Genesis 30. 14-16, and in wild in these parts, but which is unknown in the norCanticles 7. 13, as being gathered at the time of the thern parts of Syria, and even at Damascus. It is of wheat harvest, and as yielding a pleasant smell. The the size of a small egg, of the colour of the tomato or ancient translators, like our own, have generally con- | love-apple, of a sweet agreeable taste, and full of juice. sidered mandrakes to be intended, and this seems by far It grows upon a shrub about six inches high, which I the most likely; but some modern commentators render did not see, but was told that its roots were three or the word “flowers,” or “fine flowers," while others four feet in length, and presented the figure of a man in endeavour to fix what flowers, but differ among them- | all its parts. The Arabs call the fruit jerabouh." selves, some naming lilies, violets, or jessamines; Calmet From the supposed resemblance of the root of the rejects flowers, and understands the citron to be spoken mandrake to the human figure, many superstitions were of because it has a pleasant smell, (Cantic. 7. 13;) while formerly connected with it: it was looked upon with others of this class name figs, mushrooms, the fruit of dread, and the pulling of it up was said to be attended the plantain or banana, or melons.

with great danger; the person who gathered it was to Hasselquist, the pupil and intimate friend of Linnæus, stand to the windward, and after drawing three circles supports the view of mandrakes being here intended : round it with a naked sword, was to dig it up with his speaking of Nazareth in Galilee, he says, “What I face looking to the west. It was also popularly believed found most remarkable at this village was the great that when plucked up by the roots, violent shrieks were number of mandrakes which grew in a vale below it. | heard ; and it was then looked on as a kind of talisman, I had not the pleasure to see this plant in blossom, the securing luck to the owner. The victories of Joan of fruit now (May 5th, old style,) hanging ripe on the stem, Arc, the maid of Orleans, over the English, were by which lay withered on the ground. From the season in them attributed to the possession of a mandrake root. which this mandrake blossoms and ripens fruit, one Many tricks were resorted to to render it something like might form a conjecture that it was Rachel's dudaim. the figure of a man. Mountebank doctors used to carry

These were brought her in the wheat harvest, which in about fictitious images, shaped from the roots of briony Galilee is in the month of May, about this time, and the and other plants cut into form, or forced to grow through mandrake was now in fruit."

moulds of earthenware, and offered them to notice as mandrake roots. They were fabled to grow under the gallows, and it was seriously inculcated that he who would take up a mandrake plant ought, in common prudence, to tie a dog to it for that purpose, to avoid the fearful doom which would assuredly befal him if the deed were done by his own hand. In such a case the dog dies on the spot; when its struggles have drawn out the root then the owner may take it with impunity. These strange ideas are not European, nor of modern date, as similar notions are entertained by the Orientals of the mandrake, and it is probable that this plant is intended by Josephus in describing the root baaras, of which he relates many wonderful things; among others, the mode of taking it by the help of a dog. Its use, he says, was for the expulsion of evil spirits, who could not endure its smell. To this baaras he also ascribes a luminous property, the colour of flame, and flashes like lightning at night, and this statement has received con

firmation from a modern traveller. Eugene Roger has The Mandrake.

a chapter, “ De la prodigieuse plante de Baras," in which The mandrake (Alropa Mandragora of Linnæus,) | he speaks of a plant noticed by him about a league from is a plant with a long taper root in the form of a the Cedars of Lebanon, on the road to Damascus. He parsnep; this root extends three or four feet in the

| says they began to be noticed in the month of May, ground, and is sometimes single, but often divided into when the snows have disappeared. Himself travelling two or three branches, probably according to its age. with three Maronites saw five or six of these plants, Immediately above the crown of the root rises a circle which at night shone with a light like that of a candle; of leaves, as in the lettuce, which they much resemble, but had no luminous appearance by day. Determined except in the colour being of a darker green. This tuft to make an experiment, he and his friends took three of leaves is at first erect, but when they attain their full leaves from three different plants, and wrapped them up growth, they spread open, and lie upon the ground. | in their pocket handkerchiefs; but from the time they Í'hey are more than a foot in length, and in the middle were separated from the parent plant they lost the are four inches broad, growing narrow towards both luminous properties. His three friends then encios ends. Among these come out the blossoms, which are three of the plants with the fillets of their turbans, of a purple colour in Palestine; the fruit attains the intending to root them up with proper care in the morna size, and is of the shape of a small apple, and, Mariti ing; but to their great astonishment, the plants ander says, of a most agreeable odour. “Our guide thought the leaves in the handkerchiefs had, by that tinie, disap us fools for suspecting it to be unwholesome. He ate of peared. The Maronites referred the whole affair to it freely himself, and it is generally valued by the natives demons and magic, but Roger inclines to the opinion, as exhilarating their spirits." Notwithstanding some

that the plant, in a certain stage of its growth, becomes variation from the preceding statements, it would appear

It would appear | replete with a bituminous humour. Calmet thinks that to be the fruit of this mandrake, or of some very similar the luminous appearance of the plant may be account plant, which Burckhardt describes as a strange thing. | for by supposing that glow-worms find something and Travelling during the month of May in the neighbour- | tive in the plant. The Arabs call it Serag-al- ASI hood of Jebel Heish, he observes, “The Arab who | or the devil's candle. How far these particulars

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MANDRAKES-MANICHÆANS.

817

specting the baaras may have reference to the mandrake caravanserais on each side of the hall for persons of the we do not undertake to determine; but it seems probable best quality there are lodgings for every man by himself. that the baaras of Josephus is the plant mentioned by These lodgings are raised all along the court, two or Roger under the same name, and that it is a species of three steps high, just behind which are the stables, where the mandrake.

many times it is as good lying as in the chambers.

Right against the head of every horse there is a niche MANEH, JO was a weight, which, according to with a window into the lodging chamber, out of 1Kings 10. 16, compared with 2Chronicles 9. 16, which every man may see that his horse is looked after. amounted to a hundred shekels. Another account is | These niches are usually so large that three men may given in Ezekiel 45, 12: “Twenty shekels, five-and lie in them, and here the servants dress their victuals.” twenty shekels, fifteen shekels shall be your maneh.” | If we understand the word to signify “a manger," According as the words “and” or “or” may be conjec with Campbell and others, then we are to cousider that tured between the single propositions, a maneh would the Orientals have no mangers but feed their cattle from consist either of sixty, or of three different weights of hair bags; a fact which led Bishop Pearce to entertain twenty, twenty-five, and fifteen shekels.

the notion that the infant Jesus was cradled in such a The Chaldee paraphrase thus explains the matter : bag. Though the Greeks and Romans fed their horses “The third part of a maneh contained twenty shekels, differently from the Orientals, it cannot be shown that the silver maneh twenty-five shekels, the fourth part of even they had any such mangers as ours; they employed a maneh contained fifteen shekels, and the whole maneh either nose-bags or vessels of stone or metal. The word sixty shekels.” Professor Jahn says, “During the cap- “manger” may therefore more properly be considered tivity of the Jews, and after their return, they made use as-signifying an eating place, the thing to eat from, that of the weights and measures of other nations. Ezekiel is, the place to which the horses' heads were turned when accordingly mentions foreign manehs of fifteen, of twenty, they ate, or on which the thing from which they ate and of five-and-twenty shekels." Cocceius and Michaëlis rested while they did eat. See BETHLEHEM, think that a triple maneh is referred to; a great maneh of twenty-five shekels, a middle maneh of twenty, and a MANICHÆANS or MANICHEES, the name of small one of fifteen. There are other explanations a sect of heretics founded in the latter part of the third offered, but it is difficult to determine which is least century by Mani, Manes, or Manichæus. Being a Peropen to objection.

sian or Chaldæan by birth and educated among the Magi,

he attempted to combine their doctrine with the Christian MANGER, Patvn. (Luke 2. 7,12,16.) This word, system, or rather, attempted the explication of the one by rendered “manger” in our version, has given rise to the other. Dr. Lardner, so far from considering Mani and considerable discussion. It is generally stated that his followers as enthusiasts, as some have done, thinks the Orientals do not feed their cattle in mangers, and they erred on the other side, and were rather a sect of the word is therefore supposed rather to refer to a stall reasoners and philosophers than visionaries and enthu, for cattle than a feeding-place; and it seems from the siasts. St. Augustine was for some time among this accounts of travellers that the stables in Eastern coun sect; but it was not pretensions to inspiration, but spetries form the customary lodging of men as well as cious and alluring promises of rational discoveries, by animals.

which Augustine was deluded, as he particularly states In the article CARAVANSERAI we have given some in his letter to his friend Honoratus. So Beausobre particulars of what St. Luke refers to by the term kata remarks, “ These heretics were philosophers, who having luua, or “inn.” A modern writer observes, “Many formed certain systems, accommodated revelation to caravanserais are without stables; the cattle being them, which was the servant of their reason, not the accommodated in the open area. But the most com- | mistress.” plete establishments have very excellent stables, in Mani, according to Dr. Lardner, believed in an eternal covered avenues, which extend behind the ranges of the self-existent Being, completely happy and perfect in apartments, that is, between the back walls of these goodness, whom alone he called God, in a strict and ranges of building, and the external wall of the khan; proper sense; but he believed also in an evil principle, and the entrance to it is by a covered passage at one of or being, which he called Hyle, or the devil, whom he the corners of the quadrangle. The stable is on a level considered as the god of this world, blinding the eyes of with the court, and consequently below the level of the them that believe not. (2Cor. 4. 4.) God, the supreme buildings, by the height of the platform on which they good, they considered as the author of the Universe; stand. Nevertheless this platform is allowed to project and according to St. Augustine, they believed also in a behind into the stable, so as to form a bench to which consubstantial Trinity, though they strangely supposed the horses' heads are turned, and on which they can, if the Father to dwell in light inaccessible, the Son to they like, rest the nose-bags of hair-cloth, from which | have his residence in the solar orb, and the Holy Spirit they eat, to enable them to reach the bottom, when its | to be diffused throughout the atmosphere, on which contents get low. It also often happens that not only | acconnt they paid a superstitious and perhaps an idol. this bench exists in the stable, but also recesses corre atrous reverence to the sun and moon. Their belief in sponding to those in front of the apartments, and formed | the evil principle was no doubt adopted to solve the by the side walls, which divide the rooms, being allowed mysterious question of the origin of evil, which, says to project behind into the stable, just as the projection Dr. Lardner was the ruin of these men, and of many of the same walls into the great area forms the recesses others. As to the Hyle, though they dared not to in front. These recesses in the stable, or the bench, if | consider him as the creature of God, neither did they there are none, furnish accommodation to the servants believe in his eternity; for they contended from the or others who have charge of the beasts; and when per- Greek text of John 8. 44, that he had a father. But sons find on their arrival that the apartments usually they admitted the eternity of matter, which they called appropriated to travellers are already occupied, they are darkness; and supposed Hyle to be the result of some glad to find accommodation in the stable, particularly wonderful commotion in the kingdom of darkness, which when the nights are cold, or the season inclement." idea seems to be borrowed from the Mosaic chaos. In · Tavernier, speaking of Aleppo, states that, “in the this commotion darkness became mingled with light,

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and thus they accounted for good and evil being so certainly nothing that was common to the wilderness, mixed together in the world. Having thus brought for it is evident that the Israelites never saw it before. Hyle, or Satan, into being, they next found an empire and Moses says, (Deut. 8. 3,16,) “ He fed thee with manna employment for him. Everything, therefore, which they which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know," conceived unworthy the fountain of goodness, they attri- a fact supported by a pot of it being laid up by the ark buted to the evil being, particularly the material world, | after the miraculous supply in the wilderness had ceased. the Mosaic dispensation, and the Scriptures on which it The Psalmist also says, “He had rained down manna was founded. This accounts for their rejecting the Old | upon them; and had given them of the corn of heaven.” Testament; they received, however, generally the books (Psalm 78. 24.) of the New Testament, though they objected to parti A modern writer well observes, “The notion that any cular passages as corrupted, which they could not recon species of vegetable gum is the manna of the Scriptures cile to their system.

is so totally irreconcileable with the Mosaic account, On the seventh chapter of Romans, Mani founded the that, notwithstanding the learned names which may be doctrine of two souls in man; one the source and cause cited in support of the conjecture, it cannot be safely of vicious passions, deriving its origin from matter; the admitted as any explanation of the miracle. It is other, the cause of the ideas of justice and right, and, of expressly said that the manna was rained from heaven; inclinations to follow those ideas, deriving its origin from that when the dew was exhaled, it appeared lying on God. Considering all sensual enjoyments to be in some the surface of the ground, a small round thing, as small degree criminal, the Manichees were enemies to mar- | as the hoar frost, 'like coriander seed, and its colour riage, though at the same time, knowing that all men like a pearl;' that it fell but six days in the week, and cannot receive this saying, they allowed it to the second that a double quantity fell on the sixth day; that what class of their disciples, called auditors; but by no means was gathered on the first five days became offensive and to the perfect or confirmed believers. Another absurd bred worms if kept above one day, while that which was consequence of believing the moral evil of matter was, gathered on the sixth day kept sweet for two days; that that they denied the real existence of Christ's human the people had never seen it before, which could not nature, and supposed him to suffer and die in appear | possibly be the case with either wild honey or gum ance only. According to them, he took the form merely arabic; that it was a substance which admitted of being of man; a notion that was afterwards adopted by Mo- ground in a hand-mill or pounded in a mortar, of being hammed, and which necessarily excludes all faith in the made into cakes and baked, and that it tasted like atonement. Construing too literally, that flesh and wafers made with honey; lastly, that it continued falling blood could not inherit the kingdom of God, they for the forty years that the Israelites abode in the wilderdenied the doctrine of the resurrection: Christ came, ness, but ceased on their arriving at the borders of they said, to save the souls of men, and not their bodies. | Canaan. To perpetuate the remembrance of the miracle, No part of matter, in their estimation, could be worthy a pot of the manna was to be laid up by the side of the of salvation. In many leading principles they thus evi ark, which clearly indicates the extraordinary nature of dently agreed with the Gnostics, of whom they may be the production. In no one respect does it correspond to considered a branch. See GNOSTICS; Magi.

the modern manna. The latter does not fall from The tenets of the Manichees spread widely in the heaven, it is not deposited with the dew, but exudes East, and many sects branched out from them, one of from the trees when punctured, and is to be found only which, the Paulicians, being transported as heretics and in the particular spots where those trees abound; it rebels from Asia to the borders of the Danube by the could not therefore have supplied the Israelites with emperor Constantine Copronymus, continued to exist in food in the more arid parts of the desert, where they that quarter for several centuries, and introduced their most required it. The gums, moreover, flow only for doctrines into Italy and the South of France; indeed about a month in the year; they neither admit of being the Waldenses and Albigenses are by popish writers ground, pounded or baked; they do not melt in the stigmatised as Manichæans, but as regards them, this is | sun; they do not breed worms; and they are not pecua mere calumny, though such principles certainly pre liar to the Arabian wilderness. Others have supposed vailed in their time and in their neighbourhood.

the manna to have been a fat and thick honey dew, and that this was the wild honey which John the Bap

tist lived upon; a supposition worthy of being ranked MANNA, jo man; Sept. uavva. The Israelites with the monkish legend of St. John's bread, or the journeying in the wilderness were supported by a con- locust-tree, and equally showing an entire ignorance of stant provision of manna, a substance whose real nature the nature of the country. It requires the Israelites to (a miraculous supply from heaven,) seems to have been have been constantly in the neighbourhood of trees, in altogether forgotten by the many learned commentators the midst of a wilderness often bare of all vegetation. and travellers who have expended their useless, if not Whatever the manna was, it was clearly a substitute for pernicious labour, in attempting to find its parallel | bread, and it is expressly called meat or food. The among the exudations or insect secretions common to abundant supply, the periodical suspension of it, and the many trees in warm climates at the present day. Ac peculiarity attaching to the sixth day's supply, must cording to Exodus 16.15, the name proceeds from the at all events be admitted as preternatural facts, and particle of interrogation ja man, signifying What? and so facts not less extraordinary than that the substance also the Septuagint understands it. The verse might more should be of an unknown and peculiar description. The properly be rendered thus, as is done by Dr. Boothroyd: credibility of the sacred narrative cannot receive the a And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to slightest addition of evidence from any attempt to exanother, What is it? for they knew not what it was," plain the miracle by natural causes. That narrative and therefore could not give it a name. Moses imme- would lead any plain reader to expect that the manna diately answers the question, and says, “This is the bread should no longer be found to exist, having ceased to fall which the Lord hath given you to eat." From Exodus for upwards of three thousand years. As to the fact 16. 31, we learn that this substance was afterwards that the Arabs give that name to the juice of the tarfa, called ja man, probably in commemoration of the ques- the value of their authority may be estimated by the tion they had asked on its first appearance. It was pulpit of Moses and the footsteps of Mohammed's camel,

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only made it into read into. "Over their'ing year, and; in

The cause of Revelation has less to fear from the assaults “At a distance of fifteen miles from, and at an elevation of open infidels than from such ill-judged attempts of of about two thousand feet above the level of the sea, sceptical philosophers, to square the sacred narrative by I first saw the tree which produces the manna. This their notions of probability. The giving of manna was remarkable substance is secreted by several trees, and in either a miracle or a fable."

various countries in the East. In some parts of Persia Perfectly coinciding in these remarks, we may yet it is believed to be an insect secretion, and is collected notice the statements of some modern travellers. from a shrub called gavan, about two feet high, bearing a Speaking of the Wady el Sheikh, to the north of Mount striking resemblance to the broom. In the hilly district Serbal, Burckhardt remarks, “In many parts it was of Looristan, as in Mesopotamia, we find it on several thickly overgrown with the tamarisk, or tarfa, the Hedy trees of the oak species, which there, however, are of sarum alhagi of Linnæus. It is the only valley in the more stunted growth than those of England. From peninsula of Sinai where this tree grows at present in these the manna is collected on cloths spread beneath any great quantity; though small bushes are here and them at night, and it then bears the form of long crystal there met with in other parts. It is from the tarfa that drops of dew, such as we seen on plants in England in the manna is obtained; and it is very strange that the the early part of morning. Burckhardt observes, that at fact should have remained unknown in Europe till Erzerum, a substance resembling manna in taste and M. Seetzen mentioned it in a brief notice of his tour to consistence distils from the tree which bears galls, and Sinai, published in the Mines de lOrient. This sub | which, with the inhabitants of the country, forms one of stance is called by the Arabs mann, and accurately the principal articles of their food. These would appear resembles the description of the manna given in Scrip- to be different from the Sicilian manna used for mediture. In the month of June it drops from the thorns of cinal purposes, and which botanists have considered as the tamarisk upon the fallen twigs, leaves, and thorns, a vegetable gum, procured in Calabria and Sicily, and which always cover the ground beneath the tree in the to be exuded from the Fraxinus ornus, or flowering ash. natural state: the manna is collected before sunrise, A supposition has, however, been started that this might when it is coagulated, but it dissolves as soon as the sun also be the production of the aphis tribe. shines upon it. The Arabs clear away the leaves, dirt, “In the Red Sea, on my route to England, I met &c., which adhere to it, boil it, strain it through a with a learned Jewish Rabbi, who had traversed much coarse piece of cloth, and put it into leathern skins; in of the East, and whose travels had recently been pubthis way they preserve it till the following year, and use lished in India. From him I learned that on his it as they do honey, to pour over their unleavened bread, 1 journey through the Desert contiguous to Damascus, far or to dip their bread into. I could not learn that they removed from trees or vegetation of any kind, a suberer made it into cakes or loaves. The manna is found stance was deposited, which, from his description, in only in years when copious rains have fallen; sometimes | appearance, size, and flavour, accurately resembled the it is not produced at all. I saw none of it among the manna of Scripture. This was firmly believed by him Arabs, but I obtained a small piece of the last year's and the people of the country to have fallen there as a produce among the Arabs in the convent [of Mount | dew from heaven. Sinai], where having been kept in the cool shade and "I should, however, have scarcely ventured on his moderate temperature of that place, it had become quite single evidence to narrate a story, in appearance little solid and formed a small cake; it became soft when worthy of attention or credence, had not several Bekept some time in the hand; if placed in the sun for douins of the country, with whom I have conversed, five minutes, it dissolved; but when restored to a cool borne testimony to the same effect; and, as being likely place, it became solid again in a quarter of an hour. In to lead to the knowledge of some substance with which the season at which the Arabs gather it, it never acquires we are at present unacquainted, it may not be considered that state of hardness which will allow of its being unworthy the inquiry and investigation of future travelpounded as the Israelites are said to have done, in Num- lers. But a manna, differing in some respects from all bers 11. 8. Its colour is a dirty yellow, and the piece those which I have specified, is found near to Mount which I saw was still mixed with bits of tamarisk Sinai, and has been regarded with peculiar interest, in leaves; its taste is agreeable, somewhat aromatic, and as consequence of its connection with one of the most sweet as honey. If eaten in any considerable quantity striking events recorded in Scripture history. The tree it is said to be slightly purgative. The quantity of which produces it here is the Tamarix mannifera of manna collected at present, even in seasons when the Ehrenberg, a species differing from that found on the most copious rains fall, is trifling, perhaps not amounting sea-coast, and nearly related to the Tamarix gallica, to more than five or six hundred pounds. It is entirely but from which, beyond obtaining a greater height, and consumed among the Bedouins, who consider it the being somewhat more bushy in its foliage, it has little greatest dainty which their country affords. The har- otherwise of importance to distinguish it. The subvest is usually in June, and lasts for about six weeks. stance produced by these trees, to which the desigIn Nubia, and in every part of Arabia, the tamarisk is nation of manna has been given in Europe, retains in one of the most common trees; on the Euphrates, on the mun, among the Arabs, the name bestowed on this Astaboras, in all the valleys of the Hedjaz and the food of the wilderness by their collateral ancestors, the Bedja, it grows in great plenty. It is remarked by Hebrews. Niebuhr, that in Mesopotamia manna is produced by “It is found collected in small globules on the branches several trees of the oak species; a similar fact was of the trees, and falls during the heat of the day beneath confirmed to me by the son of a Turkish lady, who them. Whether the Sinai manna be an animal or had passed the greater part of his youth at Erzerum, in vegetable substance, it is hoped will no longer be an Asia Minor; he told me that at Moush, a town three or undecided question, since there is not only ample proof four days' distant from Erzerum, a substance is collected that the exudation is occasioned by the puncture of a from the tree which produces the galls, exactly similar small species of coccus, named by Ehrenberg the Coccus to the manna of the peninsula in taste and consistence, mannifera, which, together with the peculiar mode in and that it is used by the inhabitants instead of honey." | which its labours are conducted, is figured in his work;

Lieutenant Wellsted, in his Travels in Arabia, (1838,) but at the period of my visit, in September, although, has also given us some particulars of the tamarisk tree: | after the minutest inspection, no insects were visible,

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yet the extremities of the twigs and branches, where MANOAH, niso the father of Samson, was of the they are commonly found, retained that peculiar sweet- tribe of Dan, and a native of the city of Zorah. (Judges ness and flavour which characterises the manna. The 13. 6-23.) See Samson. Bedouins collect it early in the morning, and after

MANSION, uovn, signifies an abode or dwelling. straining it through cloths, place it in either skins or gourds. A considerable quantity is consumed by them

“In my Father's house are many mansions," says Our

Lord, in John 14. 2. The reference is to a palace, which selves, a portion is sent to Cairo, and some is also disposed of to the monks at Mount Sinai. The latter

contains numerous apartments. retail it to the Russian pilgrims, who receive it with MAN-SLAYER. See AVENGER OF BLOOD; CITIES much reverence, as an incontestible proof of the event

OF REFUGE. to which it refers. The Bedouins assured me that the whole quantity collected throughout the peninsula in the most fruitful seasons did not exceed one hundred and MANTLE. There are various words in the original fifty wogas (about seven hundred pounds); and that it Hebrew which our translators have rendered “mantle," was usually disposed of at the rate of sixty dollars the in some cases incorrectly. In Judges 4. 18 we read that woga. They regard it as a luxury, and use it for all the Jael covered Sisera with a mantle; here the word is purposes of honey; but if taken in any large quantity, it 7'si simechah, which signifies more properly a matis said to prove a mild laxative. In this respect, there- trass, or covering; 750w simlah, is understood to be the fore, it bears a resemblance to the manna of commerce; wide cloak of the Orientals, rendered “garment,” in our but here it is only collected in seasons after heavy rains, version, (Gen. 9. 23,) which also served for a bed-coverand has sometimes been withheld for a period of seven | ing. (Deut. 22. 17.) The witch of Endor said to Saul, years. From its having retained the name, and being “ An old man cometh up, and he is covered with a found in such a locality, the thoughts naturally wander mantle;" (1Sam. 28. 14;) here the word is 5 miel, to the event recorded in Iloly Writ; and though well, which we have already explained under the article pleased, could we establish a further identity with the CLOAK. This was an upper garment or robe, and, from substance there described, yet, when we are told the the description of the miel of the high priest, it was no latter rained from heaven, was collected during six days mantle, but a second larger and longer tunic, without only, and would not keep more than one, we are com- | sleeves. It was worn by women and persons of distincpelled, however reluctantly, to abandon further expec tion. See Cloak; CLOTHES; DRESS. tation of doing so."

In 1 Kings 19. 13, we read, “And it was so, when The manna common in our druggists' shops comes Elijah heard it, that he wrapped his face in a mantle;" from Calabria and Sicily, where it oozes out of a species and in the 19th verse of the same chapter, “So he of ash, from the end of June to the end of July, when departed thence, and found Elisha the son of Shaphat, the bicada appears, an insect at first sight resembling who was ploughing with six yoke of oxen before him, the locust, but distinguished from it by a thorn under and he with the twelfth; and Elijah passed by and cast the belly, with which it punctures this tree; the juice his mantle upon him.” Here the word in the original issuing from the wound is in the night fluid, and looks is 1778 adderelh, which refers to a large cloak used as like dew, but in the morning it begins to harden. The an outer garment, probably a hairy cloak, by 077X European manna is not so good as the Oriental, which addereth siar, as it is designated in Zechariah 13. 4. is gathered in Syria, Arabia, and Persia, partly from which our version renders “a rough garment;" this was the Oriental oak, and partly from a shrub which is the distinctive garb of the prophets. called in Persia, terendschabin. Gmelin remarks that Roberts tells us, in illustration of the conduct of the manna is as white as snow, and consists of grain | Elijah, that in India “ the natives use the ox for the like coriander seeds. The peasants about Ispahan gather plough, and all other agricultural purposes. It is no it at sunrise, holding a sieve under the branch into disgrace for a great man to follow the plough; and, which the grains fall when the branches are struck with generally speaking, the master is the first to commence a stick; if the gathering be put off till after sunrise, no the operations of the season. The first day is always manna can be obtained, because it melts.

settled by a soothsayer or a book of fate. In the figurative language of Scripture, manna is the “Elijah passed by him, and cast his mantle upon emblem or symbol of immortality. “I will give him to him.' By this act, Elisha was invested with the sacred eat of the hidden manna,” (Rev. 2. 17,) that is, the office; but it is probable there would be other ceremotrue bread of God, which came down from heaven, , nies, and a more pointed address and extended converreferring to the words of Christ in John 6. 51: “I am sation, than that recorded in the verse. When a Brahthe living bread which came down from heaven. If | min is invested with the sacred office, both in the first, any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever, and the second, and third initiations, he is always covered with bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for a yellow mantle, and in such a way as to prevent him the life of the world.” It is called hidden or laid up, in from seeing any object. The sacred string is also put allusion to that which was laid up in a golden vessel in over his right shoulder, and worn like a soldier's belt, the holy of holies; (compare Exod. 16. 33,34, and Heb. which indicates his office. Elisha said, “Let me, I 9. 4.) It is in a subordinate sense only, that what pray thee, kiss my father and my mother, and then I dropped from the clouds, and was sent for the nourish- will follow thee. And Elijah said unto him, Go back ment of the body, still mortal, could be called “the again: for what have I done to thee? The answer of bread of heaven,” being but a type of that which has Elijah is certainly not very easy to be understood. The descended from the heaven of heavens, for nourishing Hebrew has, instead of 'go back again,' 'go return; the immortal soul unto eternal life, and which is, there this makes good sense, especially when the conjunction fore, in the sublimest sense, the bread of heaven. The is added, "go and return. The Tamul version has it original manna was corruptible, and they who ate also in that way. The same translation has, instead of thereof died; but those who partake of this heavenly ‘for what have I done to thee?' what I have done to manna shall never hunger, but shall live for ever. The thee, think;' literally, 'I to thee what have done, think.' immortality which it procures is the portion of all the | I have called thee according to the Divine command; saints.

now thou askest to take leave of thy father and mother:

T

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