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MARK, GOSPEL OF ST.-MARKET-PLACE.

is mentioned, whereas St. Matthew, in the parallel pas- thou these things ?' alluding to his expulsion of the sage, mentions two. In St. Mark's account of St. Peter's buyers and sellers from the Temple. But according to denial of Christ, the very same woman who addressed what St. Mark had previously related in the same chapter, St. Peter the first time, addressed him likewise the this question was proposed on the third day of Christ's second time, whereas, according to St. Matthew, he was entry into Jerusalem; according to St. Matthew, it was addressed by a different person; for Mark (14. 69) uses proposed on the second. If St. Mark had copied from the expression taidiokn, the maid,' which, without St. Matthew, this difference in their accounts could hardly a violation of grammar, can be construed only of the have taken place." same maid who had been mentioned immediately before, Since it is, therefore, evident that St. Mark did not whereas Matthew 26. 71 has alın, "another maid.' copy from the Gospel of St. Matthew, the question natuNow, in whatever manner harmonists may reconcile rally recurs, How are we to reconcile the striking coincithese examples, there will always remain a difference dences between them which undoubtedly exist? Koppe, between the two accounts, which would have been avoided and after him Michaëlis, endeavoured to account for the if St. Mark had copied from St. Matthew. But what shall examples of verbal harmony in the three first Gospels, we say of instances in which there is no mode of recon- by the supposition that in those examples the Evangeciliation? If we compare Mark 4. 35 and 1. 35, with lists retained the words which had been used in more Matthew 8. 28-34, we shall find not only a difference in ancient Gospels, such as those mentioned by St. Luke the arrangement of the facts, but such a determination of in his preface. But there does not appear to be any time as renders a reconciliation impracticable. For, necessity for resorting to such an hypothesis; for, in the according to St. Matthew, on the day after the sermon first place, it contradicts the accounts given from the on the Mount, Christ entered into a ship, and crossed the early Christian writers; and secondly, it may, as we have Lake of Gennesareth, where he encountered a violent already seen, be accounted for from other causes. St. tempest; but according to St. Mark, this event took Peter was, equally with St. Matthew, an eye-witness of place on the day after the sermon in parables; and on Our Lord's miracles, and had also heard his discourses, the day which followed that on which the sermon on and on some occasions was admitted to be a spectator of the Mount was delivered, Christ went, not to the sea transactions to which not all the other disciples were side, but to a desert place, whence he passed through admitted. the towns and villages of Galilee. Another instance in which we shall find it equally impracticable to reconcile MARK ON THE FOREHEAD. See FOREHEAD. the two Evangelists, is Mark 11. 28, compared with Matthew 21. 23. In both places, the Jewish priests

MARK UPON CAIN. See Cain. propose this question to Christ, ‘By what authority doest |

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MARKET, MARKET-PLACE. The word nya air, or in tents. (2Kings 7. 18.) It is still not unusual maarab, in Ezekiel 27. 13,17,19,25, rendered in our in the East for the wholesale market for country produce version “market,” refers to commerce, exchange, traffic and cattle to be held (for a short time in the early part by barter. The “market-place” of Matthew 20. 3 is of the morning) at the gates of towns; but manufactured termed in the Greek ayopa, which signifies the forum goods and various sorts of fruits are retailed in the bazaars or market-place, where things were exposed for sale, and within the towns. In the time of Our Saviour, as we where, also, assemblies and public trials were held. learn froni Josephus, the markets were inclosed in the (Mark 7. 4; Acts 16. 19.) In very early periods, I same manner as the modern Eastern bazaars, which are markets were held at or near the gates of cities, some- shut at night, and where traders' shops are disposed in times within and sometimes without the walls. Here rows or streets, and in large towns the dealers in particommodities were exposed for sale, either in the open cular commodities are confined to certain streets; that

MARKET-PLACE-MARRIAGE.

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this was also the case in the time of the prophet Jere- | the marriage contract. Thus, by the prophet Isaiah, she miah, we may infer from his expression, “the bakers' is exhorted to rejoice on her promised reconciliation to street." (37. 21.)

her Maker and husband, and on the accession of the The market, or forum, in the cities of antiquity, was Gentiles to her family. (Isai. 54. 6.) It has been a usually a public market on one side only, the other sides question in all ages, whether the literal and obvious of the area being occupied by temples, theatres, courts of meaning of the Song of Solomon be all that was ever justice, and other public buildings. In fact, the forums intended; or whether it does not at the same time, under were sumptuous squares. Here the philosophers met the veil of a sublime and mystical allegory, delineate the and taught; here laws were promulgated; and here bridal union between Jehovah and his pure uncorrupted devotion, as well as amusement, occupied the public Church. Bishop Lowth and others consider it as a attention. The nearest approach to the composition of mystical allegory, and are of opinion that, under the an ancient forum in England is Covent Garden Market; figure of a marriage is typified the intimate connexion where we have a market in the middle, a church at one between God and his Church, of which a more concise end, a theatre at one corner, and sitting magistrates model was furnished in the forty-fifth Psalm. In this close adjacent. In short, if we add a school for philo form of expression, God is supposed to bear exactly the sophical instruction, or divinity lectures, we have nearly same relation to the Church as a husband to a wife; God the composition of an ancient forum or market-place. | is represented as the spouse of the Church, and the Hence, when the Pharisees desired salutations in the Church is betrothed to God. Thus also, when the same market-places, (Mark 12. 38,) it was not from those figure is maintained with a different mode of expression, who brought their produce for sale; but as they loved to and connected with different circumstances, the relation be admired by such as frequented the temple, syna is still the same: thus the piety of the people, their gogues, &c., so they desired salutations from judges, impiety, their idolatry, and rejection, stand in the same magistrates, and other persons of consequence, in the relation with respect to the sacred covenant, as chastity, forum, that they might display their importance to the modesty, adultery, divorce, with respect to the marriage people.

contract. Of this mode of speaking, the elder sacred Mr. Robinson describes the bazaar, or street of shops writers furnish us with abundant examples; and the at Jerusalem, as being arched over and very dark and writers of the New Testament have freely admitted the gloomy, the shops paltry, and the merchandise of an same image in the same allegorical sense with their preinferior quality; and at Damascus, he says, “On either decessors, and have consecrated it by their authority. side of the bazaars are rows of diminutive recesses, around St. Paul says, “For I have espoused you to one huswhich the articles for sale are invitingly displayed, band, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to having small platforms in front, furnished with carpets Christ.” (2Cor. 11. 2.) The same union is hinted at by and cushions for the purchaser to sit down upon. No | the Apostle in writing to the Ephesians. (5. 32.) In sooner has the latter taken his seat than the vender com the visions of St. John, a period is spoken of when the mences filling a pipe, which he offers to his customer, marriage of the Lamb is come, and his bride hath made at the same time beckoning to the kavedji, who is in herself ready. (Rev. 19. 7.) As marriages were usually constant attendance, to bring two cups of coffee. A celebrated with great rejoicing, the marriage of the Lamb mutual exchange of complimentary phrases follow, but with his Church is a fit emblem of the state of prosperity meaning nothing, and intending little. These prelimi- and happiness to which God will, in the fulness of time, naries, which are rigorously observed, being once over, | raise it, after all its sufferings for the sake of truth and the parties commence talking upon business, but not till righteousness. then. The bazaars are closed at night with iron gates, | Marriage among the Jews was esteemed a matter of a few guardians alone remaining to prevent robbery, and the strictest obligation, for they understood literally those to give the alarm in case of fire. Besides the bazaars, words uttered to our first parents, “Be fruitful, and there are several large khans or caravanserais, where the multiply, and replenish the earth.” (Gen. 1. 28.) Their wholesale merchants have their counting-houses and expectation of the advent of the Messiah added great Warehouses. There is one superior to the rest, the weight to this obligation. Every family lived in the entrance to which is from one of the bazaars near the hope that this blessing would attend their posterity; great mosque. A superb gateway of the pointed arch, hence celibacy was esteemed a great reproach in Israel, vaulted and highly ornamented with sculpture, leads into | for they not only thought that no one could live a single a spacious quadrangular court, paved with broad flat | | life without great danger of sin, but they esteemed it stones, smoothly polished and admirably joined together. also a counteracting of the Divine counsels in the preAround the sides are arcades for merchandise, above mise, that the seed of the woman should bruise the head which a broad open gallery runs round, the outer portion of the serpent. On this account it was that Jephthah's of which is distributed into offices. The whole is covered daughter deplored her virginity, and for the same reason with lofty domes. The masonry is of black and white also sterility was regarded among the Jews as one of the stone, one of the peculiar features of the Saracenic style, greatest misfortunes that could befal any woman, insoof which this structure is an admirable specimen.” much that, to have a child, though the woman immedi

The bazaars of the East are in general, like that of ately died thereupon, was deemed a less affliction than Jerusalem, covered walks, but in some instances they to have none at all; and in this view Rachel was comare open streets; of this latter description is the bazaar forted in her sorrow, even though at the point of death, of Aleppo, which is besides of a more ornamented struc in these terms: “Fear not, for thou shalt bear this son ture than the majority of such edifices.

also.” (Gen. 35. 17.) This was likewise the reason why the Jews usually married very young. The age pre

scribed to men by the Rabbins was eighteen years. A MARRIAGE, JOnn hhathunnah; yapos, a mar virgin was ordinarily married at the age of twelve years, riage, or wedding. (Cant. 3. 11; John 2. 1.)

whence her husband is called the guide of her youth, Marriage, in the Scriptures, besides its literal sense of (Prov. 2. 17,) and the husband of her youth, (Joel 1. 8;) a nuptial union, also denotes the mystic union of God and the not giving of maidens in marriage is, in Psalm and his Church; the latter, in the Old Testament, being 78. 63, represented as one of the effects of the Divine often spoken of as the spouse, in terms borrowed from anger towards Israel. In like manner, among the

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Hindoos, the delaying of the marriage of daughters is to | thing does not, but still more on accidental circunsthis day most unfavourably regarded. Ward says, “In stances; and that ancient usage or religion may have a Hindoo families, sometimes the marriage of daughters is very powerful influence on the nature of the law. But delayed; this is, however, always considered as a great should even the climate actually cause a difference in calamity and disgrace. If a person sees girls more than the point in question, and make it more difficult to put a twelve years of age unmarried in a family, he says, stop to polygamy by law, among southern than northern "How is it, that that Brahmin can sit at home, and eat nations, because they are naturally more addicted to his food with comfort, when his daughters at such an it; still the cause would not be referable to any irreage remain unmarried?”

gularity in the proportion of the sexes, but to the earlier From the first institution of marriage, it is evident puberty of southern nations. The natural consequence that God gave but one woman to one man; and if it be of early and strong feelings of love, is early marriage; true as a common observation, that there are everywhere the wife in such a case can hardly be more than two more males than females born in the world, it follows that years younger, and the appropriated concubine is perthose men act contrary to the laws, both of God and haps even older, than her husband. Although the nature, who have more than one wife at the same time. Mosaic laws do not prohibit more than one wife, still The first who violated this primitive law of marriage they did not thereby authorize polygamy in the whole was Lamech, who took unto him two wives. (Gen. 4. extent of the word, and that a man might have as 19.) Afterwards we read that Abraham had concu many wives as he pleased. But if more than one bines, (Gen. 25. 6,) and his practice was followed by wife was allowed, and many forbidden, the question the other patriarchs. Though the example of Noah and comes to be, what is meant by many? And to that his sons was a good one, it was not followed, and poly question I can only give what may be called a probable gamy prevailed very much among the Hebrews in the answer, and to this effect; that by many seems to be time of Moses, as we may gather from the fact, that the meant more than four, that number being permitted, but first-born of six hundred and three thousand five hun not more. This is the doctrine of the Talmud and the dred and fifty men, above twenty years of age, amounted Rabbins, of which the reader will find a more detailed merely to the number of twenty-two thousand three account in Selden de Uxore Hebraica. To their testihundred and seventy-three. (Numb. 3. 42.) That this mony and opinion, indeed, I would pay but little respect, evil might, in process of time, be diminished, Moses | in most points relating to the original Mosaic jurisgave a narration how the institution originally stood, prudence; but here they seem for once to be in the (Gen. 1. 27,28; 2. 23,24;) stated the first transgression right. For Mohammed, who generally follows the anof it, (Gen. 4. 19,) and the inconveniences which had sub. cient Arabian usages, in the fourth chapter of the Koran, sequently resulted from having a plurality of wives, (Gen. also fixes four as the number of wives to be allowed, and 16. 4-10; 30. 1-3,15;) evils which travellers in Eastern commands that it be not exceeded; and before the time countries assure us are very great. Moses likewise of Moses there would seem to have been likewise an interdicted to the kings, whom the Hebrews might here ancient usage, in the patriarchal families, which limited after elect, a multiplicity of wives. It is true he did not polygamy to this same number, and which may also say precisely how many they should have, but probably have continued among the Jews and Arabs. We have intended the number should be limited by the custom of reason to presume that this was the case from a passage his time. Perhaps, therefore, the number was four, in Genesis 31. 50. Jacob had four wives, Leah, Rachel, which is the exposition advanced by the Rabbins and and their two maids. Laban, his father-in-law, was so Mohammedans, and is in a measure supported by the little an enemy to polygamy, that instead of one of his example of Jacob. (Deut. 17. 17.)

daughters, whom Jacob wished to have, he contrived by Michaëlis remarks upon this subject, “I am of opi | a piece of artifice, and contrary to Jacob's inclination, to nion that, with regard to the polygamy allowed among force them both upon him; but notwithstanding this, the Israelites, we can say nothing else than what Christ we find him in this passage requiring Jacob to take an has said on the subject of divorce. Moses tolerated it oath that he would not take any more wives. Now as on account of their hardness of heart, and because it Moses does not explain what he calls many, he must, would have been found a difficult matter to deprive them from some established custom, have pre-supposed it of a custom already so firmly established. The Egyptian | perfectly known.” monarchs endeavoured to prevent the multiplication of | Polygamy has proved, in all ages, and in all countries the Israelites, and for this purpose went so far as to where it has been suffered, a teeming source of evil. order all their male children, as soon as born, to be The jealousy and bitter contentions in the family of thrown into the Nile; and yet Moses found polygamy Abraham and of his grandson Jacob, which proceeded among them, which of course could not have been pro from that cause, are well known; and still more deplorhibited by the Egyptian government. A people, whose able were the dissensions which convulsed the house and children a tyrant drowned to hinder their increase, while shook the throne of David. Such mischiefs are the he yet dared not to check their polygamy, must have natural effects of the practice; for polygamy divides the clung very closely to that privilege and not have been affections of the husband, and consequently gives rise to likely to surrender it without rebelling. Whether the incurable jealousies and contentions among the unhappy climate may have, in any degree, contributed to produce victims of his licentious desires. To prevent his abode this hardness of heart, I will neither confidently affirm from becoming the scene of unceasing confusion and nor deny, so long as we are destitute of what I would uproar, he is compelled to govern it, as the Oriental call a geographical history of polygamy and monogamy, polygamist still does, with despotic authority, which at which a person might survey at a short glance; for thus once extinguishes all the rational and most endearing much is certain, that, in the most northerly regions of comforts of the matrimonial state. The husband is a Siberia and Tartary, there are nations that live in poly- stern and unfeeling despot; his harem, a group of tremgamy; and in the very warmest climates, on the con- / bling slaves. The children espouse, with an ardour trary, we find Christians, and even heathen nations, unknown to those who are placed in other circumsatisfied with monogamy. If the former is more prevalent stances, the cause of their own mother, and look upon towards the south, we must bear in mind that in regard | the children of the other wives as strangers or enemies. to laws, though much depends on climate, yet every- They regard their common father with indifference or

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terror; while they cling to their own mother with the | 11,12; Josh. 15. 16; 1Sam. 18. 23-26,) but afterwards fondest affection, as the only parent in whom they feel varied according to circumstances. In the time of any interest, or from whom they expect any suitable Moses, the medium estimation was thirty shekels, and return of attention and kindness. This state of feeling the highest fifty. (Deut. 22. 29, comp. with Hosea and attachment is attested by every writer on the man 3.1,2.) Wives who were thus purchased were too often ners of the East, and accounts for a mode of speaking so regarded as mere servants by their husbands, though common in the Scriptures: “It is my brother, and the there are not wanting instances, where they obtained the son of my mother." “ They were my brethren," said ascendancy. (1Sam. 25. 19-30; 1 Kings 11. 2-5; 19. 1,2; Gideon, speaking to his prisoners, Zebah and Zalmunnah, 21. 7,8.) The wife who was freely given up by her “even the sons of my mother; as the Lord liveth, if ye had father, without his receiving for her any pecuniary comsaved them alive, I would not slay you.” (Judges 8. 19.) | pensation, was the more highly esteemed. (Gen. 16. 5,6; It greatly aggravated the affliction of David, that he had 21. 9-11; comp. 31. 14,15.) Some obtained a wife as become an alien to his mother's children; the enmity of the reward of their bravery, (Josh. 15. 16-19; Judges his brethren, the children of his father's other wives, or 1. 15; 1Sam. 18. 24-27;) and it was sometimes, though his more distant relatives, gave him less concern: “I am rarely the case, that the bride, instead of being purchased become a stranger to my brethren, and an alien to my by the bridegroom, received a dowry from the father. mother's children.” (Psalm 69. 8.) The same allusion (Josh. 15. 18,19; 1 Kings 9. 16.) occurs in the complaint of the spouse: “Look not upon Similar customs to these obtained among the Greeks me, because I am black, because the sun hath looked and other ancient nations, and are practised to this day upon me: my mother's children were angry with me; in several Eastern countries. Mr. Buckingham, in his they made me the keeper of the vineyards." (Cantic. travels among the Arab tribes, informs us that young 1. 6.) The children of one wife scarcely looked upon girls are given in marriage for certain sums of money, the children of the other wives as their brothers and | varying from 500 to 1000 piastres, among the better sisters at all; and they scarcely felt more regard for order of inhabitants, according to their connections or their father. An Oriental, in consequence of this unna beauty; though among the labouring classes it descends tural practice, takes little notice of an insult offered to as low as 100 or even 50. This sum being paid by the his father, but expresses the utmost indignation when a bridegroom to the bride's father adds to his wealth, and . word is spoken to the disadvantage of his mother. To makes girls (particularly when handsome,) as profitable defame or to curse her, is the last insult which his to their parents as boys are by the wages they earn by enemy can offer, and one which he seldom or never their labour. forgives.

Herodotus gives us a somewhat amusing account of a Among the Hebrews the father of a family it seems custom, which he says obtained among the ancient selected wives for his sons and husbands for his daugh- inhabitants of Babylon, in respect to marriage. Once ters, (Gen. 21. 21; 24. 31; Exod. 21. 9; Deut. 22. 16; a year all the young marriageable women were collected Judges 14. 1-4,) but he did not ordinarily marry the together in a certain spot, and surrounded by the bachedaughter without the consent of the brothers. (Gen. lors of all classes, whose inclinations prompted them to 24. 50; 34. 11-27; 2Sam. 13. 20-29; comp. Gen. 12. become candidates for the marriage state. An auctioneer 11-13; 20. 2-6; 26. 7-17.) The restraints by which then put the women up severally for sale, beginning the fathers of families were limited in making choice of with those of the handsomest and most agreeable person; wives for their children, are mentioned in Leviticus for these, there was always great competition between 18. 7-18; 20. 11-20. Intermarriages moreover were the most wealthy of the bidders, and thus a considerable prohibited with the Canaanites, lest the Hebrews should sum of money was collected. When all those of the be seduced to idolatry. (Exod. 34. 15,16; Deut. 7. 3.) assembled maidens who had any pretensions to beauty The law was extended by Ezra and Nehemiah to inter were disposed of, the mode of sale was reversed, and a marriages with all foreigners, on the ground that there dowry was given with those whose want of personal was as much danger of contamination from other nations attraction rendered their disposal a matter of greater in their time, as there was from the Canaanites anciently. difficulty, the sum always varying in proportion to the (Ezra 9. 2-12; 10. 3; Nehem. 13. 23.) It was not plainness of the damsel. Thus all the young women lawful for a priest to marry a divorced or a profane were certain of meeting with a partner; for even if there woman, and in the case of the high-priest the inter- existed any absolute deformity, the irresistible charm of diction was extended to widows, and to women of | a weighty dower soon obtained for her a husband from foreign extraction. (Levit. 21. 7,13,14.) Daughters among those who, either from avarice or want of taste, who through a want of brothers were heiresses to an were willing to overlook the fleeting advantage of posestate, were commanded to marry some one of their sessing a handsome wife for the sake of the more subown tribe, and indeed, if possible, some kinsman of more stantial benefits which were to be gained by espousing or less remote relationship, lest the estate should go to an ugly one. another tribe or family. (Numb. 27. 1-11; 36. 1,12.) With the Israelites there was usually an interval of

The marriage vow, v7X ires, was a covenant between | ten or twelve months between the time when the agreethe father and the brothers of the bride, and the father ment to marry was made and the time when the marof the bridegroom, made in the presence of witnesses. riage was celebrated. (Gen. 24. 55; Judges 14. 8.) At a somewhat recent period, the covenant was com From the time of the agreement until the marriage, mitted to writing, and was sometimes confirmed by the although there was no intercourse between the bride additional precaution of an oath. ,(Prov. 2. 17; Ezek. and bridegroom, not even so much as conversation, they 16. 8; Mal. 2. 14.) A reference seems to have been were nevertheless considered and spoken of as man and had to this oath in the nuptial sacrifices, of which men wife. If, at the close of this probationary period, the tion is made by Josephus. By the marriage vow or bridegroom felt unwilling from any cause to solemnize covenant, not only the wedlock was confirmed, but the his engagement by the marriage of the bride, he was amount of presents was determined, which was to be bound to give her a bill of divorce, the same as if she given to the brothers; and also the dowry 170 mochar, had been his wife; and if the bride had been guilty of which went to the father of the bride: this, formerly, unchastity with any person during this period, she was was estimated at a certain price, (Gen. 29. 18,27; 34. condemned to be stoned, the same as if she had been

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married. (Matt. 1. 18-20; Luke 2. 5.) When the day | from Matthew 25.1-10, and also from the Talmud. The of marriage had arrived, the bride adorned herself with ten virgins are represented as taking their lamps to meet the choicest of those ornaments which were considered the bridegroom; five of whom were prudent, and took appropriate to the women. Her head was encircled with them a supply of oil, which the others had negwith a crown; a fact which is a sufficient reason of lected. In the mean time they all slumbered and slept, itself why the word 72 kalah, which primarily means until the procession approached; but in the middle a person that is crowned, should possess the secondary of the night there was a cry made, “Behold, the bridesignification of bride. We learn from the Mishnah that groom cometh! go ye out to meet him.” On this, all the Jews were accustomed to place crowns or garlands the virgins arose speedily to trim their lamps. The on the heads of newly-married persons, and it would wise were instantly ready; but the imprudent virgins appear from Canticles 3. 11, that the ceremony of puts were thrown into great confusion. Then, first they ting it on was performed by one of the parents. Among recollected their neglect; their lamps were expiring, and the Greeks the bride was crowned by her mother; they had no oil to replenish them. While they were and among them, as well as among the Orientals, it was gone to procure a supply, the bridegroom arrived; they customary on festal occasions to wear crowns or gar- that were ready went in with him to the marriage; and lands, not merely of leaves or flowers, but also of gold or the door was shut, and all admittance was refused to the silver, in proportion to the rank of the person presenting | imprudent virgins. them; but those prepared for the celebration of a nup The solemnities here described are still practised by tial banquet, as being a festivity of the first consequence, the Jews in Podolia, and also by the Christians in were of peculiar splendour and magnificence. It was Syria and in Egypt. The custom of conveying the the duty of the bridegroom to see that a feast was made bride with great state to her future husband is universal ready on the occasion, and in case he was a person of in the East; but the details are modified by the local wealth it was prolonged through the whole week. usages and religions of the different countries; and some(Judges 14. 17.) The Jews say that the nuptial feast | times there are differences even in the same country. for a virgin lasted seven days, while that for a widow | In Syria, Persia, and India, the bridegroom in person was limited to three days. This week was spent in brings home his bride; the Turks more usually devolve feasting and mirth. To the festivites of this occasion this duty on a near relative, and remain at home to Our Lord refers: “ Can the children of the bride receive the lady on her arrival. We may collect from chamber mourn, as long as the bridegroom is with them? | Scripture and the Rabbinical traditions, that the Jews But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be had both usages, but that the former was the most taken from them, and then shall they fast.” (Mark common. Again, in Egypt the bridegroom goes to 2. 19,20.) About evening, the bridegroom, clothed in the mosque when the bride is expected, and returns the festal robe, (Isai. 61. 10,) attended with a company home in procession after she has arrived. In Western of young men about the same age, and cheered with Asia the procession usually walks, if the bride's future songs and instrumental music, conducted from her house is at no great distance in the same town. The father's house the bride, who was in like manner sur bride then generally walks under a canopy, but when rounded with virgins of her own age, to his father's the distance is too great, and in Central and Eastern house. (Judges 14. 11-16; John 3. 29; comp. Jerem. Asia whether the distance be great or small, the bride 7. 34; 25. 10; 33. 11.) These attendants are termed rides upon a mare, mule, ass, or camel, or is carried in children of the bride-chamber. (Matt. 9. 15; Mark a litter or palanquin. Sometimes when the distance is 2. 19.)

not great, the bride alone (or the bridegroom also if At every wedding two persons were selected who present) rides, and the rest walk, as among the Druses devoted themselves for some time to the service of the in Lebanon. Much depends on the circumstances of the bride and bridegroom. The companion of the bride parties. The Jews it seems practised nearly all these

bana bithulah, gave her personal attendance during methods; but that when the bridegroom's residence was the marriage season; but the offices assigned to the near, the bride walked under a canopy. bridegroom's friend, j']Ww susebin, were more varied The Rev. Mr. Hartley, in his Researches in Greece and important; and on account of these the Baptist and the Levant, describing an Armenian wedding, compares himself to the friend of the bridegroom. (John says, “The large number of young females who were 3. 29.) The offices of the paranymph were threefold: present naturally reminded me of the wise and foolish before, at, and after the marriage. Before the marriage virgins in Our Saviour"s parable. These being friends of his friend it was his duty to select a chaste virgin, of the bride, the virgins, her companions, (Psalm 45. 14,) and to be the medium of communication between the had come to meet the bridegroom. It is usual for the parties till the day of the marriage. At that time he bridegroom to come at midnight; so that literally, at continued with them during the seven days allotted for midnight the cry is made, ‘Behold, the bridegroom the wedding festival, rejoicing in the happiness of his cometh! go ye out to meet him. But on this occasion, friend, and contributing as much as possible to the the bridegroom tarried; it was two o'clock before he hilarity of the occasion. After the marriage, the para- arrived. The whole party then proceeded to the Armenymph was considered as the patron and friend of the nian church, where the bishop was waiting to receive wife and her husband, and was called in to compose them; and there the ceremony was completed." any differences that might take place between them. Mr. Ward gives us the following description of a As the forerunner of Christ, the Baptist may very suit Hindoo wedding, which furnishes some parallels to the ably be compared to the paranymph of the Jewish parable of the wedding feast in the Gospel. “At a marriages.

marriage, the procession of which I saw some years ago, It seems to have been customary for the Hebrew the bridegroom came from a distance, and the bride lived bridegroom to prepare garments for his guests, (Matt. at Serampore, to which place the bridegroom was to 22. 11,) which it appears from Revelation 19. 8 were come by water. After waiting two or three hours, at white. In the time of Our Saviour, whenever the bride length near midnight it was announced, as if in the very was conducted by the bridegroom and his attendants to words of Scripture, “Behold, the bridegroom cometh! the house of the bridegroom's father, the way before go ye out to meet him. All the persons employed now them was lighted by torches or flambeaux, as we learn lighted their lamps, and ran with them in their hands

er of Christ, the place between mpose them; anch, where the bishen proceeded to

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