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to fill up their stations in the procession; some of them right to claim the privileges of a wife; and it was no had lost their lights, and were unprepared; but it was longer in the power of her husband to dispose of her by then too late to seek them, and the cavalcade moved public sale, even if she had previously been his slave. forward to the house of the bride, at which place the (Deut. 21. 10-14.) See CONCUBINE. company entered a large and splendidly illuminated From the parable in which a great king is represented area, before the house, covered with an awning, where a as making a most magnificent entertainment at the margreat multitude of friends, dressed in their best apparel, riage of his son, we learn that all the guests who were were seated upon mats. The bridegroom was carried in honoured with an invitation were expected to be dressed the arms of a friend and placed on a superb seat in the in a manner suitable to the splendour of such an occamidst of the company, where he sat a short time, and sion, and as a token of respect to the new-married then went into the house, the door of which was imme- couple; and that, after the procession in the evening diately shut, and guarded by sepoys. I and others from the bride's house was concluded, the guests, before expostulated with the doorkeepers, but in vain. Never they were admitted into the hall where the entertainwas I so struck with Our Lord's beautiful parable, as at ment was served up, were taken into an apartment and this moment: 'And the door was shut!""

viewed, that it might be known if any stranger had Roberts informs us, “An Eastern wedding is always intruded, or if any of the company were apparelled in celebrated in the night; for though the fortunate hour raiment unsuitable to the solemnity they were going to for performing some parts of the ceremony may be in celebrate; and such, if found, were expelled the house the day, yet the festivities of the scene will not take with every mark of ignominy and disgrace. From the place till night. When the bridegroom goes forth to the knowledge of this custom, the following passage receives house of the bride, or when he returns to his own habi- much illustration. When the king came in to see the tation, or to that of his father, he is always accompanied guests, he discovered among them a person who had not by numerous friends and dependants, who carry lamps on a wedding garment. He called him and said, “Friend, and torches. When he approaches either house, the how camest thou in hither, not having a wedding inmates rush out to meet him, and greet him with their garment?” and he was speechless; he had no apology to best wishes and congratulations."

offer for this disrespectful neglect. At Kamenets Podolskoi, which has a large Jewish At nuptial and other feasts, it was usual to appoint a population, Dr. Henderson relates, “We were stunned person to superintend the preparations, to pass around by the noise of a procession led on by a band of musi- among the guests to see that they wanted nothing, and cians, playing on tambourines and cymbals, which passed to give the necessary orders to the servants. Ordinarily our windows. On inquiry, we learned that it consisted he was not one of the guests, and did not recline with of a Jewish bridegroom, accompanied by his young them; or at least he did not take his place among them friends, proceeding to the house of the bride's father, in until he had performed all that was required of him. order to convey her home to her future residence. In a This officer is, by St. John 2. 8,9, termed Architriclinus, short time they returned with such a profusion of lights and Hegumenos by the author of the Book of Ecclesiasas quite illuminated the street. The bride, deeply ticus; as the latter lived about the year 190 B.C., and veiled, was led along in triumph, accompanied by her while the Jews had intercourse with the Greeks, espevirgins, each with a candle in her hand, who, with the cially in Egypt, it is most probable that the custom of young men, sang and danced before her and the bride- choosing a governor of the feast passed from the Greeks groom. The scene presented us with an ocular illustra- | to the Jews. See ARCHITRICLINUS. tion of the important parable recorded in the 25th chapter At a marriage feast, to which Mr. Buckingham was of the Gospel of St. Matthew; and we were particularly invited, he relates, that when the master of the feast reminded of the appropriate nature of the injunction came, he was "seated as the stranger-guest immediately which Our Saviour gives to watch and be ready; for the beside him; and on the ejaculation of ‘B 'Ism Allah' reprocession must have commenced immediately on the being uttered, he dipped his fingers in the same dish, and arrival of the bridegroom.”

had the choicest bits placed before him by his own Having arrived at the place where the nuptials were hands, as a mark of his being considered a friend or to be celebrated, the men began to indulge themselves in favourite; for this is the highest honour that can be feasting and conviviality; while the women, who were shown to any one at an Eastern feast. assembled in an apartment appropriated to themselves, | “Two interesting passages of Scripture derive illuswere equally prompt in partaking of the feast, and in tration from this trait of Eastern manners. The first is the exhibition of their gaiety and cheerfulness. At that in which the Saviour says, “When thou art bidden length the nuptial blessing, a numerous offspring, was of any man to a wedding, sit not down in the highest implored upon the parties concerned. (Gen. 24. 60; room, (that is, place or station,) lest a more honourable Ruth 4. 11,12.) At a later period, there were probably man than thou be bidden of him: and he that bade thee some additional ceremonies, for we read in Tobit 7. 15, and him, come and say to thee, Give this man place; that the father took the right hand of his beautiful and thou begin with shame to take the lowest room. daughter, and placed it in the right hand of the young But when thou art bidden, go and sit down in the Tobias, before he uttered his solemn and impressive lowest room; that when he that bade thee cometh, he blessing. The spouse, who to this time had been veiled may say unto thee, Friend, go up higher; then shalt from head to foot, was at last led into the bed-chamber, thou have worship in the presence of them that sit at called 1791 hhaphah.

meat with thee.' (Luke 14. 8-10.) The other passage is The ceremonies we have described took place only that in which, at the celebration of the passover, Jesus in case of the marriage of a wife properly so called. says, (Matt. 26. 23,) 'He that dippeth his hand with Concubines (some of whom had previously acted in the me in the dish, the same shall betray me.' As there are capacity of maid-servants) were sometimes in the earlier but very few, and these always the dearest friends, or ages permanently associated by mutual consent with most honoured guests, who are seated sufficiently near individuals of the other sex; but although this connexion to the master of the feast to dip their hands in the same was in fact a marriage, and a legitimate one, it was not, dish with him, (probably not more than three or four nevertheless, celebrated and confirmed by the ceremonies out of the twelve disciples at the last supper enjoyed this above related. The concubine thus associated, had a privilege,) the baseness of the treachery is much increased,

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when one of those few becomes a betrayer; and in this respect, not absolutely and entirely, but so far as they light the conduct of Judas was, no doubt, meant to be were observed to the neglect of Christian or religious depicted by this pregnant expression.”

consecration, A modern writer states that “the expenses of Hindoo The state always possessed and claimed the power of marriages are occasionally so enormous, that princes enacting the laws of marriage; the church at the same have been known to impoverish their states by the pro time possessing a subordinate or concurrent jurisdiction. fusion and magnificence displayed at the wedding of In the Middle Ages, the church possessed a preponderattheir children. It often happens that a parent will ing power in these matters; but even during that period expend his whole fortune upon a marriage entertain- | a claim to exclusive ecclesiastical jurisdiction was by no ment, and pass the rest of his days in the most pitiable means universally established or allowed. After the destitution. The nuptial ceremonies continue many lapse of several centuries from the institution of Chris. days. On the third day the astrologer consults the zodiac, tianity, the Mosaic prohibitions and other regulations and pointing out to the married party a small star in respecting marriage were adopted, with certain modificathe constellation of Ursa Major, near the tail, directs tions, in the church. The canonists are very careful in them to offer their devotions to it, declaring it to be | their enumeration of the degrees of consanguinity or Arundhati, wife of one of the seven rishis, or penitents. aflinity, within which it became unlawful to contract The wedding-dinner is invariably furnished with an marriage. They enumerate thirteen such cases, whereas immense number of guests, and if the entertainers be the number of those which the Jewish lawgiver recounts rich, is always extremely magnificent. Upon this occa- is seventeen or nineteen; an instance of deviation from sion only, the bride sits down to partake with her hus- the original law which was deemed necessary. band of the luxuries provided; indeed, both eat out of Mixed marriages, marriages between Jews and Genthe same plates. This, however, is the only time in her tiles, were strictly prohibited by the Mosaic law. The life that the wife is allowed such a privilege; hence New Testament, if it be thought to contain no positive forward she never sits down to a meal with her husband. | prohibition of the intermarriage of Christians and Even at the nuptial feast, she eats what he leaves, unless heathens, yet, to say the least, strongly represents such she be too much of an infant to be sensible of the honour a proceeding as inconsistent with a Christian profession, to which she has been exalted. Upon the last days of (1Cor. 7. 39; 2Cor. 6. 14,) and the early Fathers dethe festival, the bridegroom offers the sacrifice of the nounce the practice as dangerous and even criminal. It Homan, the bride throwing parched, instead of boiled was afterwards positively prohibited by the decrees of rice into the fire. This is the only instance in which a councils and the laws of the empire. These prohibitions woman takes part in that sacrifice, considered by the extended to the marriage of Christians with Jows, Hindoos the most sacred of all except that of the Yajna, | Pagans, Mohammedans, and certain heretics, namels, These ceremonies being concluded, a procession is made those whose baptism was not admitted as valid by the through the streets of the town or village. It commonly church. The first interdiction of marriage with heretics takes place at night, the streets being brilliantly illumi- | on record, is one which was made about the middle of nated with innumerable torches, which gleam through the fourth century. With respect to divorce, the primithe darkness with a dazzling but unnatural glare. The tive church adhered to the rules laid down by Our Lord new-married pair are seated in the same palankeen, and his Apostles. (Mark 10. 2,12; Luke 16. 18; Matt. facing each other. They are magnificently arrayed in | 5. 31,32; 19. 2-10; 1Cor. 7. 10,11.) We do not find brocaded stuffs, and adorned with jewels presented to any office or form for the solemnization of matrimoliy them by the fathers of each, and if their fathers are | among the ancient Liturgies; probably no such form was unable to do this, the gems are borrowed for the occa- prescribed until the eighth or ninth century, when the sion. Before the palankeen marches a band of musi celebration of marriage by the church was recognised cians, who drown every other sound in the braying of and sanctioned by the state. horns, the clamour of drums, pipes, and cymbals. As There are many incidental allusions to particular mar: the procession moves onward, the friends and relatives riage rites and ceremonies in the works of Clement of of the bride and bridegroom come out of their houses to Alexandria, Tertullian, Augustine, Jerome, Basil, and express their congratulations as they pass, offering them Chrysostom, which were observed in their time, but not various presents, for which, however, they expect a more any entire or general account of them. The first writer than adequate return."

who attempts any such description is Isidorus Hispaa The following account of the marriage ceremonies lensis, in the former part of the seventh century, "d of the early Christians is extracted from Riddle's Manual | undertakes to enumerate those marriage ceremonles of Christian Antiquities:

which the church had recognised as innocent and conta In early ecclesiastical writers we find more frequent nient. We possess also an official account of the o reference to the Roman laws and institutions respecting | monies used in the Roman church, A.D. 860, from marriage, than to those of the Mosaic dispensation; nor pen of Pope Nicholas the First. When persons, agar was it until the sixth or seventh century that the latter whom there lay no lawful impediment, were dispo appear to have received any especial attention in the join in matrimony with each other, they were obligeu Christian Church. By the Roman laws, it should be go through certain preliminaries appointed by custo remembered, polygamy was strictly forbidden; and so law, before they could ordinarily complete the mart well was the spirit of these laws maintained, that when | These went by the general name of sponsalia, espou Julius Cæsar endeavoured to establish the prohibited | or betrothing; and they consisted chiefly in a practice, his proposal met with universal opposition. An | contract or agreement between the parties concern edict of the Christian emperor, Valentinian I., declared | their future marriage, to be performed within a o it lawful for a man to have two wives at once; but this limited time; which contract was confirmed bye edict, which was intended to screen the emperor's own gifts or donations, called Arrhæ el Arrhabone

liss a dowry, misconduct, was not admitted into the body of the laws, earnest of marriage; as also by a ring, a kiss, ay nor did it produce any permanent effect. The early a writing, or instrument of dowry, with a su Christians borrowed from the Romans some of their | number of witnesses to attest it. Together marriage ceremonies, but Tertullian, Ambrose, and others, espousal gifts, or as a part of them, it was usual protest against the adoption of heathen customs in this man to give the woman a ring, as a rustica

tain

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testimony of the contract. This was an innocent cere- | there are several rules to be observed in regard to the mony used by the Romans before the time of Christia- manner in which it is to be drawn up. It must be nity, and in some measure admitted by the Jews, whence written on ruled vellum, and contain exactly twelve it was adopted among the Christian rites of espousal. lines and no more. It must likewise be written expressly But it does not appear that the ring was originally used for a bill of divorce, and must also make mention of the in the solemnity of marriage itself. Another ceremony place of residence of both man and wife. It is also used in espousals, sometimes, was a solemn kiss, which required that the notary, the Rabbins, and the witnesses, the man gave to the woman, in confirmation of the con- shall not be related either to the husband, the wife, or tract; which was an ancient rite used by the heathen, each other. The substance of the bill of divorcement is together with joining of hands in their espousals. These this : Such a day of the week, month, year, and place, ceremonies seem to have been adopted by Christians, / (all which must be in a particular manner specified;) with such other customs, into their espousals, who never “I, A. B., the son of C. D., and whose place of abode in rejected any innocent rites because they had been this present day is in the city of L., &c., do voluntarily used by heathens, except such as naturally tended to divorce thee, and put thee away, and make thee free. defile them with some unavoidable stain of idolatry or Thee, C. D., the daughter of B. L., whose place of resisuperstition. To make the business of espousals not dence is this day in the city of L., &c., who hast hitherto only the more solemn, but also the more firm and secure, been my wife; and behold by this act thou art divorced, it was usual to transact the whole affair before chosen put away, and made free. And Ldo hereby permit thee witnesses, the friends of each party. Custom appears to to marry whom thou pleasest; and no man shall have have determined the number of witnesses to ten. It power to hinder thee from this day forward. And, seems also that a ministerial benediction was sometimes behold thou art free to any man; and this instrument used in espousals, as well as in marriage. When the shall be unto thee a bill of divorcement, putting away, contract of future marriage was thus settled by espousals, and freedom, according to the law of Moses and Israel.” it was not lawful for either party to join in marriage. The form being drawn up, the Rabbi interrogates the with any other, under very severe penalties, (which both husband in order to ascertain whether he does this volunthe civil and ecclesiastical law inflicted,) unless the time tarily. If such be the fact, then there must be ten witof marriage was fraudulently protracted beyond two nesses present at the reading and signing, besides the years, which was the period limited for the duration of two who subscribe to the instrument. espousals. But the laws relating to this matter included The husband must deliver the Ghet into the woman's certain necessary provisions and restrictions. At the hand, and as he delivers it, must express himself in time of marriage, the contracting parties having been the following manner: “Behold this is thy bill of presented to the priest, by their parents or by the para divorcement, and thou art herewith divorced from me, nymphi, or bridemen, and the ceremony of joining and art free to any other man.” The Rabbi then lays hands, and of untying the woman's hair, of covering the an injunction on the woman not to marry in less than bride with a veil, and of spreading the vitta nuptialis ninety days, lest she should be with child. over both, having taken place, and the married persons ! It often happens that the husband is in another being now ready to depart, it was usual to crown them country, but he notwithstanding can send his wife a bill both with crowns or garlands, the symbols of victory. of divorcement by a messenger, who must be specially This was indeed an old ceremony, used in heathen mar- appointed, and must be present to witness the husband's riages, and it is still retained in the Greek church. order to the notary to write the bill; he must also be preWith respect to the convivial entertainments and other sent at the writing and signing thereof; after which, he festirities which usually attended the celebration of a receives the bill from the husband in the presence of two marriage, we may observe that it was the object of the subscribing witnesses, the husband declaring as follows: church not to abolish them, but to restrain them within “Take this bill of divorcement, and deliver it to my wife, the bounds of decency and good order. For the old in any place where thou canst find her, and thy hand shall Roman custom of throwing about nuts at the time of be as mine; thy mouth as mine; thy act as my act; and marriage, the early Christians appear to have substituted thy delivery as my delivery; and I authorize and empower the better practice of distributing alms to children and thee, even to appoint another messenger, if needful, in. the poor.

order that the divorcement may reach her hands, either Marriage was dissolved among the Jews by divorce as from thy hands, or from the hands of thy messenger; well as by death. Our Saviour tells us that “Moses she is divorced from me, and is free to any other man.” suffered this because of the hardness of their heart, but when the messenger delivers the divorcement, he must from the beginning it was not so,” (Matt. 19. 8;) mean- | do it in the presence of two witnesses, and must deliver ing that they were accustomed to this abuse, and to it himself in the following manner: “Behold this is thy prevent greater evils, such as murders, adulteries, &c., | bill of divorcement which thy husband hath sent unto he permitted it: whence it should seem to have been in thee, and thou art herewith divorced from him; and art use before the law; and we see that Abraham dismissed free to any other man; and this bill of divorcement was Hagar at the request of Sarah. It appears that Sam- | written and signed in my presence." The Jews someson's father-in-law understood that his daughter had times marry their children very young, and then they been divorced, since he gave her to another. (Judges must stay till they are of a proper age before the mar15. 2.) The Levite's wife, who was dishonoured at Gi- riage can be celebrated. Hence when a girl, under ten beah, had forsaken her husband, and never would have years of age, happens to marry a man she does not like, returned, if he had not gone in pursuit of her. (Judges she is entitled to a divorce when she comes to be twelve 19. 2,3.) Solomon speaks of a libertine woman, who years and a day old, which is the time when women are had forsaken her husband, the director of her youth, and declared of age. She has only to say that she will not by doing so, contrary to her nuptial vows, had forgotten have such a man; this she does before two witnesses, the covenant of her God. (Prov. 2. 17.) See BILL OF who set down her declaration in writing, and deliver DIVORCEMENT; DIVORCE.

unto her what is called a divorcement of dislike; she is The form of those divorces among the modern Jews then at liberty to marry whom she pleases. A modern which are termed Ghel, must be written by one of their | Jewish writer, from whom we shall borrow an account notaries, with the concurrence of three Rabbins; and of the marriage ceremonies of his people at the present.

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day, says in reference to the custom of marrying chil- ment, the bride and bridegroom are busily engaged in dren at such a tender age: “This has been a common acquainting all their friends and relations of the happy practice in the kingdom of Poland; but, at the present event that has taken place. It is lawful for first cousins time, it is discontinued by order of the legislature. to marry. An uncle may also marry his niece; but an When the husband and wife are thus divorced by mutual | aunt must not marry her nephew: the reason is obvious, consent, (except for a woman committing adultery, that the law of nature must not be reversed; for when which to the credit of their sex is a very rare occur- | the uncle marries his niece, the same person remains at rence,) they may afterwards, if they think proper, be the head who was so before; but when the nephew reunited again, and this has not unfrequently been the marries his aunt, he becomes, as it were, her head, and case.

she must pay homage to him, by which the law of nature “So particular are the Jews on this point that if the is reversed. On the day appointed for the celebration least suspicion be entertained of a woman being un- of the nuptials, the bride and bridegroom are conducted chaste, and it can be proved, the husband is compelled to the place appointed for the nuptial ceremony; the to be divorced, as the law forbids the husband to cover bridegroom by the men, and the bride by the women. her fault by keeping her. A woman divorced under There are generally assembled most of their relations these circumstances, is at liberty to marry any man she and acquaintance, for they usually invite a great many, pleases except the individual with whom she conmitted as they are obliged to have at least ten men present; adultery. Divorcement of this sort must be plainly otherwise the marriage is null and void. When all the proved before it can take place.

company are assembled, including the priest and the “Every Jew is obliged to enter into the marriage reader of the synagogue, the ceremony is performed in state, and the proper time as allowed by the Rabbins is the following manner. A velvet canopy is brought into the age of eighteen. A man that lives single until he is the room, supported by four long poles, under which the twenty is looked upon as profligate, unless he makes it bride and bridegroom are led and placed opposite to appear that he cannot find a person that suits the dispo- each other. The bridegroom is supported by two friends, sition of his mind. It is likewise the duty of a female one under each arm, and the bride, having her face to enter into the marriage state at the same age. If a covered by a veil, in token of female modesty, by two young man can find a woman according to his mind, women, who are usually the parents of the bride and and they both agree on this point, they make no scruple bridegroom, if living, otherwise the nearest kindred. to inform their parents, or near relations, of the circum | The priest then takes a glass of wine in his hand, and stance. If they have no parents, they inform their says as follows: nearest relations of their mutual intentions. Should the “Blessed art thou, O Lord, Our God, king of the parents or relations find it a suitable connexion, they universe, the creator of the fruit of the vine. Blessed will readily agree; and if it happens otherwise, or if art thou, O Lord, Our God, king of the universe, who they find it to be altogether an unequal yoke, then they hath sanctified us with his commandments, and hath will not give their consent. Sometimes it may happen forbid us fornication, and hath prohibited unto us the that love has taken a deep root on both sides. If so, betrothed, but hath allowed unto us those that are marthey then break through the rule in this way: a young ried by means of the canopy and wedding-ring. Blessed man and young woman can go to any Jew's house of art thou, O Lord, sanctifier of his people Israel, by the their acquaintance, and if they find two males under the means of the canopy and wedlock. same roof, who are known to be devout men in their reli- « Blessed art thou, O Lord, Our God, king of the gion, the young man will adopt the following plan, universe, who hast created joy and gladness, bridegroom (which is as well understood by the young woman.) He and bride, delight and song, pleasure and sympathy, love will endeavour to get into conversation, and when an and brotherhood, peace and friendship. Speedily, 0 opportunity offers, the young man will take a ring, and | Lord, Our God, let there be heard in the cities of Judah, put it on the young woman's forefinger of her right and in the streets of Jerusalem, the voice of joy, and hand, and will utter certain words in Hebrew to this the voice of gladness; the voice of the bridegroom and effect: With this ring I wed thee.' This, although it the voice of the bride; the voice of merriment of the may seem strange, is a lawful marriage to all intents and bridegrooms from out of their canopies, and youths from purposes; but still it is reckoned disgraceful. It seldom their musical feasts. Blessed art thou, O Lord, the happens, after such a marriage, but the friends mutually rejoicer of the bridegroom with the bride. agree to have it celebrated in public. It is customary! “ Then the bridegroom and bride drink of the wine; for the bride and bridegroom to be betrothed, sometimes after which the bridegroom takes the ring and puts it on six months, or even a year before marriage, according to the bride's finger, in the presence of all who stand round circumstances, as may be agreed upon by the parties; the canopy, and says, 'Behold thou art betrothed unto during which time the bridegroom visits his bride, but me with this ring, according to the rites of Moses and without any intimate intercourse. Indeed it is almost Israel. Then the instrument of the marriage-contract reckoned unchaste among them for a young man and is read, which specifies that the bridegroom, A. B., doth young woman to walk together in public without being | agree to take the bride, C. D., as his lawful wife, accordbetrothed.

ing to the law of Moses and Israel; and that he will “The following is the manner of the betrothing. keep, maintain, honour, and cherish her according to the According to appointment, both parties invite their manner of all the Jews, who honour, keep, maintain, nearest relations, and the heads of the synagogue. and cherish their wives, and keep her in clothing There is a scribe present who draws up an agreement | decently, according to the manner and custom of the between the bride and bridegroom. A day is fixed world. It likewise specifies what sum he settles upon when they shall be joined in wedlock; and on this bond her in case of his death; and he therein obliges his it is stipulated by a certain fine, sometimes from fifty to heirs, executors, administrators, &c., to pay the same to five hundred pounds penalty, that if the bridegroom for her out of the first produce of his effects. The reader sakes the bride, or the bride the bridegroom, unless by then drinks another glass of wine, and, after a prayer, the consent of both parties, such penalty will be inflicted. the bride and bridegroom drink of the wine. The At the time of these betrothings there is great feasting empty glass is then laid upon the ground, and the brideand rejoicing, and generally the day after the betroth- groom stamps on and breaks it; the intent and meaning

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of which ceremony is, to remind them of death, to whose seems strange, yet, when we contemplated the scene power frail mortals must sooner or later yield; and before us, it did not seem very improbable. The torrents therefore to induce them to lead such a life as not to be during the rainy season had brought down immense terrified at the approach of death. This being con- | masses of salt; and we observed that the strata were cluded, all present cry out, 'Mosol tov,' May it turn out generally in perpendicular lines.” It seems that the happily; which ends the ceremony. It is not uncom plain itself, which, properly speaking, is part of the bed mon to see congregated at weddings from three to four of the Dead Sea, becomes in part a marsh when the hundred individuals of both sexes, who come gaily water is high during the wet season, but when that is attired. These entertainments are held generally in over, is soon dried by the effects of evaporation. The places of public resort, particularly in London, such as travellers do not speak of any saline incrustation or the London Tavern, &c., &c., where a very sumptuous impregnation in the barren flats thus formed; but such dinner is provided. A month before the wedding-day, must be the case, not only from the strongly saline it is usual for the bride and bridegroom, and their rela character of the evaporated water and the rocks of salt tions, to send circulars to their numerous acquaintances; already referred to, but from the fact that, in a subsesomething in this form: 'Mr. Aaron Levi and Rebecca quent visit to the part of the valley east of the southern Josephs present their compliments to , and beg to bay, the remarkably saline character of the dried soil is inform them that they are to be joined in wedlock particularly mentioned. See DEAD SEA. - ; their company is requested to the ceremonies of their nuptials, and likewise to dinner, tea, and ball, I MART, ND sachar, (Isai. 23. 3,) a trading place and the evening following likewise to tea and ball.

| or emporium. The root signifies to travel about as NB. The ceremony of nuptials will take place pre- traders, buying and selling; thus pointing out at once cisely at two o'clock in the day, at - , according to the general character of the commerce of the East from appointment.'

the earliest age to the present. See COMMERCE; Mer“ For a stranger to behold a Jew's wedding, would

| CHANT. strike him with wonder, particularly during the time of the ceremony of the nuptials. What with the solemn

MARTHA, the sister of Lazarus and Mary, resided scene, and the band of music playing solemn Jewish

in the village of Bethany, where she hospitably entermelody, and the splendid appearance of the company,

tained Our Saviour. Martha is always named before I should not be surprised that many would say, 'As rich

Mary, probably because she was the elder sister. Wheas Jews. It must be understood that a beholder could

ther she was truly pious previous to the time referred to not tell if the parties so married were rich or poor, as

by St. Luke, (10. 38,) is uncertain; but that she was so none come unless they give a present, either of money

afterwards, at the period of her brother's death, seems or plate, according to each one's circumstances. It is

clear. (John ch. 11.) generally calculated that the presents so received will cover the expenses, which are usually very considerable.” MARTYR, waptus. This word signifies a wit

ness; but it is generally applied in a more limited

sense to denote one who, by his death, bears witness to MARROW, na moach, (Job 21. 24,) a soft olea- the truth, as in Acts 22. 20; Revelation 2. 13. The ginous substance contained in the hollow of the bones of Christian church is illustrious for her martyrs. Proanimals. The term is used figuratively for the delicate phecy had foretold that it should be so, and history is and most satisfying provisions of the Gospel, (Isai. | filled with surprising accounts of their singular constancy 25. 6,) and likewise in the New Testament, for the most

and fortitude under the most cruel torments. secret thoughts of the heart. (Heb. 4. 12.)

“It would be painful and useless," says the Rev. W. MARS HILL. See AREOPAGUS; ATHENS.

Pridden, in his interesting work entitled The Early
Christians, “to enter at large into the various cruelties

to which, in those days, almost every true Christian was MARSH, ybots, a swamp or marsh. The prophet likely, at some part or other of his life, to be exposed; Ezekiel, in his vision of the holy waters, says, “But the to be beaten with whips loaded with leaden balls; to be miry places thereof, and the marishes thereof, shall not nailed to a cross, and there left, as it might happen, to be healed: they shall be given to salt.” (47. 11.) It is pine, to bleed, or starve to death; to be put upon the supposed that the “ valley of salt” in the neighbourhood rack, and have their joints forced out of place by the of the Dead Sea is here referred to. This plain or valley strength of screws; to be fastened to a wheel (sometimes has been traversed and described by Captains Irby and set with iron spikes) and have their naked bodies torn Mangles. “We entered,” say they, “the great plain at as they were whirled round by its rapid motion; to be the end of the Dead Sea; for about a quarter of an hour burned alive by a slow fire; to be thrown to wild beasts; to we had a few bushes, and afterwards found the soil sandy be sent, after being deprived of an eye or a foot, to the and perfectly barren. On our right we had a continued mines to labour in the midst of cold, and filth, and starhill of sandy soil, running in a south-east and north-west vation; these were the common penalties for being a direction towards the middle of the plain.” On proceed- Christian.” ..... “But grievous as were the sufferings ing across the plain, they had still the same sand-hill on of the soldiers of Christ during their lives, these were their right. “We found, exclusive of the saline appear- not enough to satisfy the hatred of their destroyers, who, ance left by the retiring of the waters, several large feeling themselves baffled and set at nought by the fragments of clear rock salt lying on the ground, and on meekness, patience, and unconquerable fortitude of those examining the hill, we found it composed partly of salt | Christian heroes, did all that was in their power to show and partly of hardened sand. In many instances the their spite against them, even after they had deprived salt was hanging from cliffs in clear perpendicular points, them of life. What fierceness, what savageness, what like icicles; and we observed numerous strata of that | madness to refuse light to the living, and earth to the material of considerable thickness, having very little dead!' exclaimed a Christian author of those times. sand mixed with it. Strabo mentions that, to the And to their refusal of a decent burial the heathens southward of the Dead Sea, there are towns and cities sometimes added the most unfeeling mockery of the built entirely of salt;' and although such an account dead. For example, we read of the bones of certain

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