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martyrs being mingled with the bones of camels and of his kingdom, and shortening the times of persecution. asses before they were thrown away, so that it was no Perhaps this consideration might excite many to court easy matter to distinguish them, in order to pay them martyrdom, as we believe many did. It must be recol. the last offices of respect and affection. And thus by lected, however, that martyrdom in itself is no proof of every insult that could be offered to the lifeless bodies the goodness of our cause, only that we ourselves are of the departed saints, did the hard-hearted unbelievers persuaded that it is so. Yet we may consider the try to vex and terrify the living. And then they vainly number and fortitude of those who, in the first ages, boasted of the fact of their being allowed to do so, as a suffered for Christianity, as a collateral proof at least of proof that the Christian's God was helpless, and his reli- its truth and excellence; for the thing for which they gion untrue."
suffered was not a point of speculation, but a plain “During a time of great suffering in Egypt, numbers matter of fact in which (had it been false) they could not of the Christians, to avoid the danger, fled into the have been mistaken. mountains, where many perished through want, or cold, So high was the veneration entertained in the early or disease; by the hands of robbers, or by the attacks of Church for those who had sealed their faith with their wild beasts; while some were spared to return again in blood, that the Jews and heathen affected to believe that safety to their homes, when the storm that had threat Divine worship was paid to them. At the martyrdom ened them had passed over. Among those that never of Polycarp, the Jews desired the heathen judge not to returned was a very aged bishop of one of the cities of suffer the Christians to carry off his body, lest they should Egypt. He had fled along with his wife into some leave their crucified Master, and worship him in his mountain in Arabia, but although great search was made, | stead. To which his flock answered, “We can neither no traces of them could be discovered, not even their forsake Christ, nor worship any other; for we worship bones. Whether they had been torn in pieces by sarage Him as the Son of God; but love the martyrs as the disanimals, or whether they had been seized and made | ciples and followers of the Lord, for the great affection slaves, (as many were,) by the scarcely less savage inha they have shown to their King and Master.” bitants, was unknown: they had disappeared from the A similar answer was given at the martyrdom of eyes of their brethren! And, it may be observed, a Fructuosus, in Spain; for when the judge asked Eulomartyrdom like this is quite as precious in the sight of gius, his deacon, whether he would not worship FrucGod, as one that may seem more glorious and more tuosus, as thinking, that though he refused to worship triumphant to man. We have every reason to believe the heathen idols, he might yet be inclined to worship that the hunger and thirst, the cold and misery, the fear a Christian martyr, Eulogius replied, “I do not worship and danger, the pain and horror, felt by these poor wan- | Fructuosus, but Him whom Fructuosus worships." derers in the midst of the silent desert, and in the bosom The earlier writers of the Church speak in similar of the rugged mountain, were seen in secret, and will terms, but in Origen and others of his time we see, in one day be rewarded openly;—it may be, in many cases, their undue veneration for martyrs, and in their extraeven in a yet higher degree than those sufferings, which vagant estimate of the value of the “ baptism of blood," have already in some measure had their reward in the an approach to some of the most glaring corruptions of praise and admiration of mankind.
the Romish church. Clement of Alexandria says, “We “Besides these, we must not overlook another large call martyrdom a perfection or consummation; but this class of sufferers for righteousness' sake. Who but the not on account of the man's having attained the end of Great Judge of all men can at all reckon up the trials, life, but because he has performed a work of perfect love." the heart-breaking, never-ending trials, which during He, however, condemns the practice of rushing eagerly or the first three hundred years of Christianity, the wife, unnecessarily upon martyrdom, as a species of self deor the child, the husband, the parent, or the domestic struction. “ The blood of the Christians," says Tertulservant, who believed in Christ, must have endured, lian, “is the seed of the Church. You condemn us, but unknown to the world, from the unbelief and oppression God acquits us." But he makes a sad mistake here, of those, who were of their own household, and perhaps when he implies that, for the shedding of his blood, a of their own flesh and blood.”
martyr receives at the hand of God forgiveness of all his 66. You may pluck the heart out of my body, but you sins. Tertullian speaks in high terms of the baptism cannot pluck the truth out of my heart, was the saying of blood (martyrdom) as a substitute for that by water. of one of those that suffered for Christ's truth. Such a Origen also highly extols the value of the baptism of saying bespeaks the firmest confidence in the strength of blood, as a means of obtaining forgiveness of sins. Christianity, and in the impossibility of that religion “For,” adds he, “as those who stood at the altar, accordbeing rooted up. Time has shown that this confidence ing to the law of Moses, appear to have obtained remiswas not misplaced. The life-blood of thousands of faith sion of sins by their ministry through the blood of bulful witnesses has been spilled, but the truth has not yet locks and goats, so the souls of those who have suffered been plucked out of the heart of that Church of which death for the sake of Jesus, do not stand in vain at the Christ is the head, of that body of which they were altar of heaven, but by their ministry they obtain the members. And now the haters of truth are no longer forgiveness of sins for those who pray. We know that, able to attack it with force. They may, and do, use | as the high-priest, Jesus Christ, offered up Himself as a their tongues and their pens, but they cannot lift up their sacrifice, so also the priests, who are under Him, offer up hands against its followers. Christ has triumphed over themselves in sacrifice; and hence they were seen at the the princes and powers of the world; He did so before altar as at their proper place. The steadfast confessor, He would admit them to serve Him. “He first,' says or the perfect martyr, is such an unblemished priest as Bishop Taylor, "felt their malice before He would make were the Jewish priests of old, and he offers an unbleuse of their defence, to show that it was not his neces- mished sacrifice.” “Perhaps,” he says in another place, sity that required it, but his grace that admitted kings | “as we have been purchased by the precious blood of and queens to be nurses of the Church.'”
Christ, some things are purchased for us by the precious The primitive Christians believed that the martyrs blood of the martyrs." It is hardly necessary to expose enjoyed very singular privileges; that upon their death or condemn this piece of false divinity; we know the they were immediately admitted to the beatific vision, use which was afterwards made of such hints to the great and that God would grant to their prayers the hastening injury of Christian faith and practice.
hristianoted up. Time life-blood of thousin has not yet
“ Histories of the lives and sufferings of martyrs and Mary till the marriage at Cana, in Galilee, at which she saints were read at a very early period of the Church, on was present with her son Jesus. She was at Jerusalem the festivals of martyrs and saints, and other particular at the last passover Our Saviour celebrated there; witoccasions, as appears from Eusebius. These histories or nessed all that was transacted; followed him to Calvary; narratives were called legends, and to this class also and stood at the foot of his cross with an admirable conbelong the martyrologia, (martyrologies,) and acta sanc- stancy and courage, though the sword, as Simeon foretold, torum (acts of the saints). The papal martyrologies are pierced through her own heart. Jesus, seeing his mother very numerous, and contain many ridiculous, and even and the beloved disciple near, he said to his mother, contradictory narratives; which is easily accounted for, if “Woman, behold thy son; and to the disciple, Behold we consider how many forged and spurious accounts of thy mother. And from that hour the disciple took her the lives of saints and martyrs appeared in the first ages home to his own house." No further particulars of this of the Church, which the legendary writers afterwards favoured woman are mentioned, except that she was a adopted, without examining into the truth of them." witness of Christ's resurrection. A veil is drawn over Riddle.
her character and history; as though with the design to “It was a noble wish,” says Mr. Pridden, “that was reprove that idolatry of which she was made the subject uttered by a female martyr, when she beheld some of her when Christianity became corrupted and paganized. fellow-sufferers being stoned to death, “That with you
I II. MARY was the name of the mother of the EvanI may live in heaven, with you may I perish on earth! gelist Mark, and at her house the Christians in Jerusalem But without perishing as they did, we may ourselves were wont to convene. The faithful were assembled in hope to be even as they are. There are other trials this house, and were praying there, when St. Peter, delibesides the fiery trials of martyrdom for the Christian to vered by the ministry of an angel, knocked at the door. endure and conquer. There are other ways to heaven (Acts 12. 12.) beside that which is sprinkled with our own blood. III. MARY, the mother of James the Less, and of Nay, there are cases in which a man may give his body Joses, was sister to the mother of Jesus, and was the to be burnt, and it shall profit him nothing. Our duty wife of Alpheus, or Cleophas. (Matt. 27. 56,61; 28. 1; is to endeavour to go through our trials as the first Mark 15. 40,47; 16. 1; John 19. 45.) Cleophas and believers went through their trials; and then, though Alpheus are the same persons; as James, son of Mary, our paths be different, we shall meet in the end. And, wife of Cleophas, is the same as James, son of Alpheus. while yet on the way, we may be reminded of the vast She was an early believer in Jesus Christ, and attended worth of that object after which we seek, by learning him on his journeys to minister to him. She was present what a price of sufferings and sorrows they cheerfully at the last passover, and at the death of Our Saviour she paid in order to secure it. That death which is but the followed him to Calvary; and during his passion she close of a good life is not to be thought evil. For it is was with the mother of Jesus at the foot of the cross. what follows death that alone can render it evil. Where- She was also present at his burial; and on the Frid iy fore, for such as must necessarily die, it matters not so before, had, with others, prepared the perfumes to embalm much by what that event is brought to pass, as whither him. (Luke 23. 59.) But going to his tomb very early through death they may be compelled to go. And in the morning, with other women, they then learnt accordingly the Christian knows that the departure of a from the mouth of an angel that their Lord was risen; poor religious man, surrounded by the dogs licking up of which they carried the news to the Apostles. (Luke his blood, is far better than that of the rich ungodly man 24. 1,5.) Jesus appeared to them by the way; and clothed in purple and fine linen. For, after all, what they embraced his feet, worshipping him. . harm do these horrible kinds of deaths bring to such as IV. MARY, the sister of Lazarus, lived with her have led a good life?'”
brother and her sister Martha, at Bethany; and Jesus
Christ, having a particular affection for chis family, often I. MARY, Mapia, Maplan, from Onn Miriam, | retired to their house with his disciples. Six days before the virgin mother of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, the passover, after having raised Lazarus from the dead, is called by the Jews the daughter of Eli; but by he came to Bethany with his disciples, and was invited the early Christian writers, the daughter of Joakim and to sup with Simon the leper. (John 12. 1,2.) Mary, Anna; Joakim and Eliakim, however, are sometimes grateful for the recovery of so dear a brother, expressed interchanged, (2Chron. 36. 4,) and Eli, or Heli, is there her feelings in a costly manner, at which Judas Iscariot fore the abridgement of Eliakim. (Luke 3. 23.) She murmured; but Jesus justified Mary in what she had was of the royal race of David, as was also Joseph her done, saying that by this solemn unction she had anticihusband; and she was also cousin to Elizabeth, the wife pated his embalmment, and in a manner had declared of Zacharias the priest. (Luke 1. 5,36.) Mary being his death and burial, which were at hand. From this espoused to Joseph, the angel Gabriel appeared to her, period the Scriptures make no mention of either Martha to announce that she should be, by a miracle of Divine or Mary. power. the mother of the Messiah. (Luke 1.26,27, &c.) V. MARY MAGDALENE was so called, probably. To confirm this message, and to show that nothing is from Magdala, a town of Galilee, of which she was a native, impossible to God, he added that her cousin Elizabeth, or where she had resided during the early part of her who was old, and had been hitherto barren, was then in life. Out of her, St. Luke tells us, Jesus had cast seven the sixth month of her pregnancy. Mary, thus con- devils, by whose malignant power she had been afflicte). vinced, answered, “Behold the handmaid of the Lord; (Luke 8. 2.) Some have erroneously imagined her to be it unto me according to thy word.” (Luke 1. 38.) be Mary, the sister of Lazarus. There is no doubt bint
The subsequent scenes connected with the birth and that Mary Magdalene, both in character and circumthe presentation of Christ in the Temple, the flight into stances, was a woman of good reputation and standing
Egypt, and other events in the infancy of Our Lord, are in society. She is mentioned by the Evangelist as being • plainly related in the Gospels. “His mother," it is said, one of those women that followed Our Saviour to minis
—and it marks her character of quiet thoughtfulness, ter to him according to the custom of the Jews. She profound piety, and deep maternal love,—“laid up all attended him in the last journey he made from Galilee these things in her heart.” (Luke 2. 51, &c.)
to Jerusalem, and was at the foot of the cross with the The Gospel mentions nothing more of the Virgin Holy Virgin, (John 19. 25,) after which she returned to
Jerusalem to buy and prepare with others certain per-| when he comes to that part of it where the tracings and fumes, that she might embalm him after the Sabbath first outlines show that this great work was never was over, which was then about to begin. All the Sab finished. But the black dust that, to the depth of many bath day she remained in the city; and the next day, inches, covers the rocky floor on which he treads, and into early in the morning, went to the sepulchre along with which the doors, the door-posts, and internal fittings of Mary, the mother of James and Salome. (Mark 16. 1,2; the temple have long since corroded and mouldered, soon Luke 24. 1,2.) For other particulars respecting her see convinces him of his mistake, by showing him demonalso Matthew 28. 1-5; John 20. 11.18.
strably that the hands by which these wonders were VI. MARY is the name of an unknown disciple accomplished have been for ages motionless in the grave. resident at Rome, to whom St. Paul sent his salutation, The impression upon the mind of the spectator when with this eulogy: “Greet Mary, who bestowed much he first enters one of the vast halls which still remain in labour on us,” (Rom. 16. 6,) or “on you,” according to the interior of the palaces at Thebes, is described to be the Alexandrian and other manuscripts, and the Syriac, absolutely overwhelming. Some of these halls are six Ethiopic, Coptic, and Arabic versions. It is, therefore, hundred feet both in length and breadth, and are crowded uncertain whether the Apostle here speaks of services throughout their entire area with massive columns actually rendered to himself, or to the believers at Rome. twelve feet in diameter, and sixty-six feet high. The
walls, pillars, and gateways, are all covered with colossal MASCHIL, Siva is a title or inscription at the
figures in relief of gods and kings, and with the repre
sentation of long triumphal and religious processions; head of thirteen psalms, which has been very variously
these designs are also painted with the most vivid interpreted. Thus, Psalm 32 is inscribed, “ A Psalm of
colours, which are applied everywhere with very skilful David, Maschil;” and Psalm 42, “To the chief musi
attention to general harmony of effect. It may readily cian, Maschil, for the sons of Korah.” The root die
be imagined that the sensations excited by the contemsachal, may be understood to make wise, to instruct.
plation of a scene so wonderful and so strange, are as Some of the Rabbins suppose that in repeating the
difficult for one who has seen it to describe, as for one psalms which have this inscription, it was usual to add
who has not seen it to conceive. an interpretation or explication to them; Rosenmüller
The monumental portraitures of the various processes adopts this opinion, and thinks the word might be ren
| of the building art are very numerous. Masons, cardered “a song of instruction.” From the Arabic root,
penters, blacksmiths, brickmakers, &c., may be seen hard shakal, to intertwine, Michaëlis thinks it was a kind of
at work, and appear to be depicted with minute fidelity, poem of a restricted kind, or of a peculiar measure.
and some of these explain to us a curious circumstance Others, on the contrary, think it shows the clearness
mentioned by the sacred historian in the account of the and perspicuity of such psalms, and that they needed no
erection of Solomon's Temple: “And the house when particular explication. The most probable opinion is,
it was in building, was built of stone made ready before that it means an instructive poem or song.
it was brought thither; so that there was neither hammer
nor axe, nor any tool of iron, heard in the house while it MASON, 10X VIN hharashiy aben, a worker in was in building.” (1 Kings 6. 7.) This previous squaring stone, a stone-cutter. (2Sam. 5. 11.) From this passage, and preparation of the stones is frequently delineated; which states that “ Hiram, king of Tyre, sent messengers they are accurately measured under the superintendence to David, and cedar trees, and carpenters, and masons, of a principal architect, the shape marked on the rough and they built David an house," we may infer that block with a dark line, so as to determine the course of the Hebrews were not very skilful in architecture, the stone-cutter accurately, and a mark, or number, is though they had long sojourned in the country where fixed to the finished stone, so as to point out its place in that art attained a high degree of perfection at a very the building. early period. The ruins of immense temples and palaces | Masons and carpenters' tools have frequently been at the present day fill the traveller in Egypt with wonder found in the tombs, and some of them are to be seen in and astonishment. The sculptures on the granite, the Egyptian room of the British Museum. Most of basalt, and hard limestone, of which the Egyptians made the blades have been attached by linen bandages and an so free a use in their constructions, still remain unde- adhesive composition. On the blades of the larger, and faced, and they seem to have undergone no change in handles of the smaller tools, is generally inscribed a line the long period since many of them were sculptured; so of hieroglyphies relative to “the gracious god, the sun, that fragments of temples which were levelled to the the establisher of the world, the prænomen of Thothmes ground by Cambyses five hundred years before the Chris- III., or Mæris, beloved of Amoun.” See SCULPTOR; tian æra have not lost the polish they possessed when STATUE. they first issued from the artist's hands. The obelisk that is still erect among the ruins of Alexandria, retains MASORA. On the dispersion of the Jews into much of the freshness, sharpness, and high polish of its various countries of the Roman empire after the destrucfirst execution on its north and east faces; but the tion of Jerusalem, some of those who were settled in minute particles of sand with which the air is charged in the East applied themselves to the cultivation of literapassing over the desert, have entirely defaced its south ture, and opened schools in which they taught the and west sides by beating against it during the sixteen Scriptures. The most distinguished of these acadehundred years in which it has stood in its present posi- mies was that established at Tiberias in Palestine, which tion; for probably about that time it was removed to Jerome mentions as existing in the early part of the fifth Alexandria from some other city, where it had been ori century. The doctors of this school, it is said, (though ginally erected. On first surveying the immense cavern- | the fact is disputed by some writers, who attribute the temple at Ipsambul in Nubia, the spectator might well work to a long succession of learned men, commencing imagine that the artists were still at work in it. He in the time of Ezra,) agreed to revise the sacred text, conceives it to be impossible that the white of the walls and issue an accurate edition of it; for which purpose can, at any time, have been purer or more perfect, the they collected all the scattered critical and grammatical outlines of the figures sharper, or the colours more bril- | observations they could obtain, which appeared to them liant, than now; and this impression is strengthened likely to contribute towards fixing both the reading and
interpretation of Scripture, into one book, which they | The age when the Masorites lived has, as we have called 177100 Masorah, from DX asor, to bind, and from said, been much disputed. According to Elias Levita, this circumstance they have themselves received the name they were Jews of the school of Tiberias, about A.D. of Masorites. Much of their labour was undoubtedly 500; Archbishop Usher places them before the time mere learned trifling; but it must also be confessed that of Jerome; Cappel, at the end of the fifth century; they rendered some service to the cause of sacred litera Bishop Marsh is of opinion that they cannot be dated ture, for they were the first who distinguished the books higher than the fourth or fifth century. Aben Ezra and sections of books into verses, thus affording great makes them the authors of the points and accents in facility of reference; they also, to prevent interpolation the Hebrew text, as we now find it, and which serve for or omission, marked the number of all the verses of each | vowels; and Basnage says they were not a society, but a book and section, and placed the amount at the end of succession of men; and that the Masora was the work each in numeral letters, or in some symbolical word of many grammarians, who, without associating or comformed out of them; but here their useful labours end. municating their notions, composed this collection of criAfter marking the middle verse of each book, they like ticisms on the Hebrew text. Bishop Walton adopts the wise noted the verses where something was supposed same opinion, which has many strong probabilities in its to be forgotten; the words which they believed to be favour, and says, “They lived at different periods from the changed, (see KERI AND KETIB;) the letters which they time of Ezra to about the year of Christ 1030, when deemed to be superfluous; the repetitions of the same the two famous Rabbins, Ben Asher and Ben Naphtali, Terses; the different readings of the words which are flourished; since whose time little more has been done redundant or defective; the number of times that the than to copy after them without making any more corsame word is found at the beginning, middle, or end of rections or Masoretical criticisms. These two Rabbins a verse; the different significations of the same word; were chief teachers or rectors of the great schools of the the agreement or conjunction of one word with another; Jews at Babylon and in Palestine. Each of them, we what letters are pronounced, and what are inverted, are told, laboured to produce a correct copy of the Scrip. together with such as hang perpendicularly, and they tures; and their respective followers corrected theirs by took the number of each, for the Jews cherish the sacred that of their master; the Eastern, or Babylonian Jews, books with such reverence that they make a scruple of adhering to the copy of Ben Naphtali: the Western changing the situation of a letter which is evidently mis- Jews, or those inhabiting Palestine, following that of placed, supposing that some mystery has occasioned the Ben Asher. Maimonides, who wrote about the middle alteration. They also reckoned which is the middle of the twelfth century, says, 'The copy whereon we letter of the Pentateuch, which is the middle clause of | depend is the well-known copy in Egypt, which contains each book, and how many times each letter of the alpha | the twenty-four books, and which was many years at bet occurs in all the Hebrew Scriptures. The following Jerusalem for the purpose of correcting copies from it, table from Bishop Walton affords an illustration of their and upon it all of them depend; for Ben Asher revised laborious minuteness in these researches.
it, and minutely corrected it, revising it many times Times.
over.' Another copy, in high estimation among the x Aleph occurs 42,377 5 Lamed occurs 41,517 modern Jews, is said to have been corrected by Rabbi Beth
Hillel, and for several centuries to have been kept at à Gimel 29,537 ) Nun
Toledo in Spain. Elias Levita also mentions two other 7 He 47,554 y Ain
20,175 celebrated copies, one brought from Jericho, and the
22,725 Arabian, or one preserved at Sinai.”
As to the value of the Masoretic system of notation,
equal difference of opinion prevails: some writers have Yod
highly commended the undertaking, and have considered Caph 9 48,253 In Tau 5, 59,343 the work of the Masorites as a monument of stupendous All these various matters, which are called by the labour, and an admirable invention for delivering the Jews the Fence or Hedge of the Law, were at first sacred text from a multitude of equivocations and perwritten in separate rolls, but they are now usually placed plexities to which it was liable, and for putting a stop to in the margin, or at the top and bottom of the page in the unbounded licentiousness of transcribers and critics, printed copies. In order, however, to bring them within who often made alterations in the text on their own prithe margin, it became necessary, when the plan was first vate authority. Others, on the contrary, have altogether adopted, to abridge the work, which abridgment was censured the design, suspecting that the Masorites corcalled the little Masora, or Masora parva, but this being rupted the purity of the text by substituting for the found too short, a more copious abridgment was inserted, ancient and true reading of their forefathers, another which was distinguished by the appellation of the great reading more favourable to their prejudices, and more Masora, or Masora magna; and that nothing might be opposed to Christianity, whose testimonies and proofs lost, the omitted parts were added at the end of the text, they were desirous of weakening as much as possible. and were called the final Masora, or Masora finalis. Without adopting either of these extremes, Bishop These Masoretic notes, if not useful are often orna Marsh observes that “the text itself, as regulated by the mental appendages to the rolls of the Hebrew Scrip- learned Jews of Tiberias, was probably the result of a tures, as some transcribers, with a design to decorate collation of manuscripts. But as those Hebrew critics their manuscripts, have contrived to form the marginal were cautious of introducing too many corrections into lines of the Masora into all sorts of fanciful devices; the text, they noted in the margins of their manuscripts, such as triangles, circles, knots of various kinds, birds, or in their critical collections, such various readings, beasts, &c. A copy of the Law, of this kind, was pre- derived from other manuscripts, either by themselves or sented by the Emperor Maximilian I. to the celebrated by their predecessors, as appeared to be worthy of attenHebraist Reuchlin. It had originally been written for tion. This is the real origin of those marginal or MasoRabbi Aben Ezra in the twelfth century; the Masora retic readings which we find in many editions of the was in extremely small characters, arranged not lineally, Hebrew Bible. But the propensity of the later Jews to but in the form of certain animals; it is said to be now scek mystical meanings in the plainest facts, gradually in the grand-ducal library at Baden.
induced the belief that both textual and marginal read
MASORA-MATTHEW, GOSPEL OF ST.
ings proceeded from the sacred writers themselves; and | crowned with martyrdom at Naddabar, or Naddaver, á that the latter were transmitted to posterity by oral tra- city in that country; but as there is no account of him dition, as conveying some mysterious application of the extant in any writer of the first four centuries, we must written words. They were regarded, therefore, as mate- | consider it as uncertain into what country he went, and rials, not of criticism, but of interpretation.” Bishop | likewise in what manner, and at what time, he died. Marsh elsewhere remarks, that notwithstanding all the care of the Masorites to preserve the sacred text without variation, that most desirable object has not been attained, MATTIIEW, GOSPEL OF ST. The variations of but yet, “if their success has not been complete, either appellation of this, the first book of the New Testament, in establishing or preserving the Hebrew text, they have are numerous. In some Greek and Latin manuscripts only been guilty of the fault which is common to every and the earlier printed editions, as well as in the Coptic human effort."
version and many Greek and Latin Fathers, its title is
Evayyeliov kara Mardalov, “Gospel according to MAST. In the 23rd chapter of Proverbs, in Matthew.” In many other manuscripts, however, but of speaking of a drunkard, occurs a word not met with later date, it is To kata Maratov aylov Evayelsewhere in the Hebrew Scriptures, San hhebil, which yellov, which may be rendered either, “The Holy our translators have rendered “mast:” “He that tar- Gospel according to Matthew," or (which is adopted in rieth long at the wine ...i. is as he that lieth upon the our authorized version,) “ The Gospel according to St. top of a mast.” (Prov. 23. 30,34.) In Isaiah 22. 23 Matthew.” But in many of the most ancient Greek and Ezekiel 27. 5, the word rendered “mast” is 170 manuscripts, and in several editions, it is To kata Mattoren, and hence some doubts have been expressed as to Dalov Evayyelioy, which, in the ancient Latin versions, the correctness of our authorized version; but it is clear is rendered, Evangelium secundum Matthæum, “The from the context that some part of a ship is meant, and Gospel according to Matthew.” In the Arabic version, certainly “ lying (sleeping) upon the top of a mast,” as printed in Bishop Walton's Polyglot, this Gospel is affords a lively image of the heedless security of the entitled, “The Gospel of St. Matthew the Apostle, which drunkard.
he wrote in Hebrew. by the inspiration of the Holy MASTER, '978 adoni; kaOnyons, is, in the
| Spirit;" in the Persian version it is, “Gospel of sense of a ruler or instructor, a title applied to Our
to Our St. Matthew, which was spoken in the Hebrew tongue, blessed Lord. (Matt. 23. 8.10-) also to ministers. (Foel | in a city of Palestine, but written in Syriac at Antioch," 12. 11,) to tutors. (Luke 6. 40.) It is also used in a
and in the Syriac version, “The Gospel, the preaching more restricted sense for an employer or the owner of
of Matthew." slaves, as in Genesis 39. 20; Isaiah 24. 2. It is the
Differences of opinion have existed as to the date of duty of masters to instruct their servants in the know
this book, as well as with regard to its original lanledge of Divine things, to pray with them and for them,
guage, but it appears certain that a very early date must (Josh. 24. 15,) and to allow them time and leisure for
be assigned to it, and that it was composed in Hebrew. religious services. (Ephes. 6. 9.)
Of its early date, and of its general reception by the primitive Church, the proofs are most satisfactory, and
that it is rightly ascribed to the Apostle whose name it MATTHEW, Mardalos, called also Levi, was the bears has never been disputed. It appears very improson of Alpheus, but not of that Alpheus or Cleophas who bable that the Christians should be left any considerable was the father of James, mentioned in Matthew 10. 3. number of years without a written history of Our He was a native of Galilee, but of what city in that | Saviour's ministry, and we may with reason conceive country, or of what tribe of the people of Israel, we are that the Apostles would be desirous of losing no time not informed. Though a Jew, he was a publican or in writing an account of the miracles which Jesus pertax-gatherer under the Romans; and his office seems to formed, and of the discourses which he delivered, because have consisted in collecting the customs due upon com- the sooner such an account was published, the easier it modities which were carried, and from persons who would be to inquire into its truth and accuracy; and passed over the lake of Gennesareth. While employed consequently, when these points were satisfactorily “at the receipt of custom,” Jesus called him to be a ascertained, the greater would be its weight and auwitness of his words and works, thus conferring upon ) thority. We must own that these arguments are so him the honourable office of an Apostle. From that strong in favour of an early publication of some bistory time he continued with Jesus Christ, a familiar attendant of Our Saviour's ministry, that we cannot but accede to on his person, a spectator of his public and private con- the opinion of Wetstein, Dr. Owen, and Jones, that duct, a hearer of his discourses, a witness of his mira- | St. Matthew's Gospel was written about A.D. 38. cles, and an evidence of his resurrection. St. Matthew, This Gospel also affords some striking internal evisoon after his call, made an entertainment at his house, dences of its early date. The writer invariably ascribes at which were present Christ and some of his disciples, those titles of sanctity to Jerusalem by which it had and also several publicans, (Luke 2. 15-17, when the been distinguished by the prophets and ancient historemarks made by the Scribes and Pharisees drew from rians, and also testifies a higher veneration for the Our Lord the gracious declaration, “ I came not to call Temple than the other Evangelists; and this fact proves the righteous, but sinners to repentance.” After Our that his Gospel was written before the destruction of Saviour's ascension St. Matthew continued at Jerusalem Jerusalem, and not after it, as has been recently asserted with the other Apostles, and with them, on the day of contrary to all evidence. The Evangelist's comparative Pentecost, was endowed with the gift of the Holy Spirit. gentleness in mentioning John the Baptist's reproof of How long he remained in Judæa after that event, we of Herod, and his silence concerning the insults offered have no authentic account, nor indeed of any subsequent by Herod to Our Lord on the morning of his cruciincident of his life. Socrates, an ecclesiastical historian fixion, are additional evidences for the early date of his of the fifth century, relates, that when the Apostles Gospel; for, as Herod was still reigning in Galilee, the went abroad to preach to the Gentiles, Thomas took Evangelist displayed no more of that sovereign's bad Parthia for his lot; Bartholomew, India; and Matthew, character than was absolutely necessary, lest he should Ethiopia; and the common opinion is, that he was excite Herod's jealousy of his believing subjects or their