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METALS AND METALLURGY.

861

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070 marat, (1 Kings 7.45;) the overlaying with gold, as well as in Egypt, the art of metallurgy was known at silver, or tin, 703 isaphah, (Exod. 25. 24; 1Kings a very remote period; and workmen of the same coun6. 20,) and DN hhaphah, (2Chron. 3. 25,) are also tries are noticed by Homer as excelling in the manufacmentioned as processes well known.

ture of arms, rich vases, and other objects, inlaid or The following fabrications from iron occur in various ornamented with metals. His account of the shield of passages. The axe, (Deut. 19. 5; 2Kings 6. 5;) saws, Achilles proves the art of working the various substances (2Sam. 12. 31;) chisels for stone, (Deut. 27. 5;) iron of which it was made, copper, tin, gold, and silver, to pans, (Ezek. 4. 3;) bolts, chains, knives, pieces of have been well understood at that time; and besides armour, (1 Sam. 17.7;) and in one instance a bedstead. those manufactured in the country from the produce of (Deut. 3. 11.) There were also war-chariots of iron. their own mines, the Egyptians exacted an annual tri(Josh. 17. 16; Judges 1. 19.)

bute from the conquered provinces of Asia and Africa, From copper or brass were made vessels and cups of in gold and silver, and in vases made of those materials. all kinds, (Levit. 6. 28; Numb. 16. 39; 2Chron. 4. 16; “That the knowledge of gilding was coeval with the Ezra 8. 27;) also pieces of armour, helmets, shields, sojourn of the Israelites in the country is evident front spears, harness, (1 Sam. 17. 5,6,38; 2Sam. 21. 16;) the direct mention of it in the Bible, the ark of shittim chains, (Judges 16. 21;) and mirrors. (Exod. 38. 8.) wood made by Moses being overlaid with pure gold; The larger vessels were cast, and likewise the columns and the casting of the metal is noticed on the same which served for architectural ornament. (1 Kings occasion; nor can we doubt that the art was derived by 7. 15.)

the Jews from Egypt, or that the Egyptians had long From lead were fabricated weights, and articles to mea- before been acquainted with all those secrets of metalsure with. (Amos 7. 7; Zech. 5. 8.)

lurgy in which the specimens that remain prove them to From gold and silver were fabricated various descrip- have so eminently excelled.” tions of ornaments, particularly rings, also cups and By referring to the monuments of Egypt we are at other vessels. The sacred vessels of the Temple were once supplied with numerous particulars respecting the principally made of the precious metals. (Ezra 5. 14.) various processes of metallurgy. The Egyptians, it is Those who worshipped idols had them of silver and evident, carried the working of metals to a very extragold. (Isai. 2. 20; Acts 17. 29.) They had likewise ordinary degree of perfection, especially after they had other sacred things made of silver, (Acts 19. 24;) these invented the bellows and the siphon. The following were sometimes gilt upon the silver.

illustrations are copied from the paintings in the tombs “From the mention of earrings and bracelets, and at Beni Hassan. In them almost every process of metaljewels of silver and gold, in the days of Abraham,” says lurgy will be found depicted, and the use of the blowSir John Gardner Wilkinson, “it is evident that in Asia, pipe is a most remarkable feature.

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Workers in Metal. From the Egyptian Monuments.

862

METALS AND METALLURGY-MICAH.

"For ordinary purposes," says Wilkinson, “copper | America, at a later period, was to the Spaniards; and was the metal most commonly used; arms, vases, statues, no one can read the accounts of the immense wealth instruments and implements of every kind, articles of derived from the mines of that country, in the writings furniture, and numerous other objects were made of this of Diodorus and other authors, without being struck by metal, hardened by an alloy of tin, and even chisels for the relative situation of the Phænicians and ancient cutting stone, as well as carpenters' tools, and knives, Spaniards, and the followers of Cortes or Pizarro and the were of bronze.

inhabitants of Mexico or Peru. "The whole of Spain, “ It is not known at what period they began to cast says Strabo, "abounds with mines . ... and in no country statues and other objects in bronze, or if the use of are gold, silver, copper, and iron in such abundance or beaten copper long preceded the art of casting in that of such good quality; even the rivers and torrents bring metal. No light is thrown on this point by the paintings down gold in their beds, and some is found in the sand of Beni Hassan and Thebes, or by the tombs in the and the fanciful assertion of Posidonius, regarding the vicinity of the Pyramids, which, from their early date, richness of the country in precious metals, surpasses the would be an authority highly satisfactory and important. | phantoms created in the minds of the conquerors of It is indeed singular that at no period do we find any America. The Phænicians purchased gold, silver, tin, representation among the many subjects connected with and other metals from the inhabitants of Spain and the the trades, arts, and occupations of the Egyptians, which Cassiterides, by giving in exchange earthenware vessel, relate to this process; even in tombs or on monuments oil, salt, bronze instruments, and other objects of little made at a time when we know, from positive evidence, value, in the same manner as the Spaniards on their that they were acquainted with it; another convincing | arrival at Hispaniola; and such was the abundance of proof that no argument against the existence of a custom

silver, that after loading their ships with full cargoes, they ought to be derived from the circumstance of its not stripped the lead from their anchors, and substituted the being indicated on the monuments. Many bronze statues same weight of silver.” have been found, evidently, from their style, of a very There are numerous beautiful specimens of Egyptian early period; but in the absence of a king's name, it is skill in metallurgy in the British Museum, consisting o1 impossible to fix their exact date, though I feel per- i mirrors, vases, bowls, cups, weapons, tools, &c., which suaded that the art of casting metal was known before are highly deserving of inspection by all who take an the commencement of the eighteenth dynasty, and it is interest in the subject. See Brass; COPPER; GOLD; probable that many specimens exist of the age of Osir- | IRON; LEAD; SILVER; TIN. tasen and Thothmes.” “We have no means of ascertaining the exact period

METE-YARD, 77e middah, signifies a measuring when the Phænicians first visited the coasts of Britain in

line. (Levit. 19. 35.) search of tin; some have supposed about the year 400 or 450 before our æra; but that this metal was employed METHUSELAH, nuano the son of Enoch and many ages previously is shown from the bronze vessels father of Lamech, is celebrated for having reached the and implements discovered at Thebes and other parts of greatest age attained by man. He died A.M. 1636, Egypt. It cannot, however, be inferred that the mines aged nine hundred and sixty-nine years. (Gen. 5. of Britain were known at that remote period, since the 21,25.) The year of his death was that of the Deluge. intercourse with India may have furnished the Egyptians

MEZUZZA. See HOUSE. with tin; and the Phænicians probably obtained it from Spain and India long before they visited these distant coasts, and discovered the richness of our productive I. MICAH, 7' an Israelite of the tribe of mines. Ezekiel, indeed, expressly says that the Tyrians Ephraim, was the son of a rich widow. (Judges ch. 17.) received tin, as well as other metals, from Tarshish; He became an occasion of stumbling to Israel by setting which whether it was situated, as some suppose, in up an establishment in imitation of that at Shiloh, proArabia or on the Indian coast, traded in the productions bably with an imitation of the ark, of the images of the of the latter country; and the lamentation of the prophet cherubim, and of the priestly dress, and ultimately Ezekiel, (27. 12.) on the fall of Tyre, though written as obtaining a Levite to officiate as priest. Thus idolatry late as the year 588 before our æra, relates to a commer took root and soon diffused itself throughout the land. cial intercourse with that place, which had been estab II. MICAH, the prophet, was a native of Molished and continued to exist from a much earlier period. | rasthi, a small town in the southern part of the territory It is probable that the Phænicians supplied the Egyp- of Judah; and, as we learn from the commencement of tians with this article even before it was brought from his predictions, he prophesied in the reigns of Jothani, Spain and Britain. The commercial intercourse of the Ahaz, and Hezekiah; consequently he was contemtwo nations dated at a most remote epoch; the produce porary with Isaiah, Joel, Hosea, and Amos. The time, and coasts of Arabia and India appear to have been place, and manner of his death are unknown. His próknown to the Phænicians long before any other people; phecies relating to the complete destructiou of Jeruand some have even supposed that they migrated from salem, and of the Temple, are alluded to by Jeremian. the Red Sea to the shores of Syria.

(26. 18,19.) “ The first mention of tin, though not the earliest proof | According to the arrangement in the Hebrew and all of its use, is in connexion with the spoils taken by the modern copies, as well as in the Septuagint, Mical." Israelites from the people of Midian in the year 1452 | placed as the third of the minor prophets. The price B.C., when they are commanded by Moses to purify cipal predictions contained in this book are, the invas

the gold and the silver, the brass, the iron, the tin, and sions of Shalmanezer and Sennacherib; the destruction the lead,' by passing it through the fire. (Numb. 31. 22.) of Samaria and of Jerusalem, mixed with consolatory Its combination with other metals is noticed by Isaiah promises of the deliverance of the Jews from the bar 760 years before our æra, who alludes to it as an alloy lonian captivity, and of the downfall of the power of their mixed with a more valuable substance, and Ezekiel | Assyrian and Babylonian oppressors; the cessa shows that it was used for this purpose in connexion prophecy in consequence of their continued deceitful with silver.

and hypocrisy; and a desolation in a then distant period, “ Spain, in early times, was to the Phænicians what still greater than that which was declared to be impeus

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ing. The birth of the Messiah at Bethlehem is also to its long-tailed congener. In the former of these expressly foretold; and the Jews are directed to look to forests 30,000 of both species were caught in the year the establishment and extent of his kingdom as an unfail-ending March, 1814, besides a large number that were ing source of comfort amidst general distress.' The pro- taken from the pitfalls by various animals and birds. phecy of Micah, contained in the fifth chapter, is per. Some writers have thought that the jerboa (Dipus haps the most important single prophecy in all the Old sagilta) is the mouse of the Scriptures, but the greater Testament, and the most comprehensive respecting the number, and more extensive ravages of the short-tailed personal character of the Messiah, and his successive field mouse, may render this doubtful. manifestations to the world. It crowns the whole chain The jerboa of Palestine and Syria is no doubt the of predictions respecting the several limitations of the same species as that in Egypt. The animal is about the promised seed to the line of Shem, to the family of size of a large rat, although its long hind legs and Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; to the tribe of Judah; and extended tail give it a much more conspicuous appearto the royal house of David, terminating in his birth at ance. The body is short, well covered with long soft Bethlehem, “ the city of David.” It carefully distin- silky hair, externally of a fawn colour, with blackish guishes his human nativity from his Divine nature and eternal existence; foretels the casting off the Israelites and Jews for a season; their ultimate restoration; and the universal peace which should prevail in the kingdom and under the government of the Messiah. This prophecy therefore forms the basis of the New Testament revelation, which commences with the birth of the Messiah at Bethlehem, the miraculous circumstances of which are recorded by St. Matthew and St. Luke in the introduction to their respective histories; the eternal subsistence of Christ as “ the Word,” in the sublime introduction of St. John's Gospel; his prophetic character, and second coming, illustrated in the four Gospels, and in the Apostolic Epistles.

culino The style of Micah is nervous, concise, and elegant, often elevated and poetical, but sometimes obscure from

The Jerdoa. the sudden transitions of subject; and the contrast of zig-zag stripes; these tints being rather dusky, are set the neglected duties of justice, mercy, humility, and off by the fine shining white of the belly. They are piety, with the minute observance of the ceremonial miniature kangaroos without the pouch. The fore feet sacrifices, affords a beautiful example of the harmony seem merely of use to rest upon the ground and to which subsists between the Mosaic and Christian dis convey food to the mouth; for if the animals are frightpensations, and shows that the Law partook of that ened, or wish to proceed at a quick rate, they stand upon spiritual nature which more obviously characterizes the their hind legs only, and take leaps of four or five yards religion of Jesus.

at a time, with the tail horizontally extended. The

jerboa feeds after the manner of a squirrel, by the aid of MICAIAH, the son of Imlah of Ephraim, was a

its fore feet, which serve the purpose of hands. It is a

lively harmless animal, lives entirely on vegetables, and prophet who lived in the time of Ahab, whom he in

burrows in the ground like 'a rabbit. vain endeavoured to dissuade from his purposed expe

The excavations dition against Ramoth Gilead. (1Kings 22. 8-38.) See

which it forms are many yards long, oblique, and wind

ing, but not more than half a yard from the surface of LYING SPIRIT.

the ground. It is fond of warmth, making its nest of

the finest and most delicate herbage. The jerboa does MICE, 7DY akbar. The mouse is declared by not hybernate in the warm climate of Egypt. Sonnini Moses to be unclean, (Levit. 11. 29,) but the prophet suspected it must do so in more northern clines; which Isaiah (66. 17) reproaches the Jews of his time with conjecture has been confirmed by Pallas; and, according eating the flesh of mice and other things that were to Russell, a partial hybernation takes place even in impure and abominable.

Northern Syria. His captured jerboas began to grow The common mouse and the field mouse are both too sleepy towards the approach of winter, and slept two well known to need description, but we may remark that or three days together without eating; they then had a they are numerous enough in the East to commit very waking interval of two or three days, and they someextensive ravages: thus Burckhardt acquaints us that times remained asleep for eight days together, without the province of Hamah (Hamath) is the granary of tasting food and without apparent signs of life, their Northern Syria, though the harvest never yields more limbs being quite stiff and their bodies cold to the touch. than ten for one, “chiefly in consequence of the immense The burrows of the jerboas are of frequent occurrence numbers of mice, which sometimes wholly destroy the in the plains and deserts of Palestine and Syria, and crops." He subsequently repeats the same statement | various travellers complain of the inconvenience of the with reference to the crops of the Haouran; and it numerous holes to their cattle. This, however, occurs seems that throughout Syria the field mice commit | less frequently in Palestine than in the bordering deserts. dreadful havoc in the cultivated fields in those years In particular, almost every traveller across the desert when there has been little or no frost in winter. For from Damascus to Palmyra, from the first discoverers of this reason the Bedouins and peasants are encouraged the ruins down to Addison, take notice of these burto destroy them by a price upon the head of every one rows. The last mentioned traveller describes the soil produced dead. Their ravages are sometimes expe- of the vast plain upon which the traveller enters after rienced in England; a serious devastation in the young quitting the last inhabited village as everywhere burplantations of the Forest of Dean' and the New Forest rowed by the jerboa, in some parts completely honeyin 1812, 1813, was made chiefly by the short-tailed field combed, which renders riding dangerous. He states mouse, which was found to be fifty to one as compared that some of the animals were so tame as to sit up in

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their holes, and watch the party as it passed. It was | intercessor for the Jewish people before the throne of October, and he adds, “ how the little animals exist at God. See ANGEL and ARCHANGEL. this season of the year appears to me passing strange, The Apostle Jude speaks (v. 9,10,) of Michael conas the herbage is all burnt up, and there is no water.” tending with the devil, and disputing about the body of The flesh is reckoned a delicacy by the Arabs. Sonnini, Moses; an expression which has given rise to many opi- . however, heard that the flesh was not very palatable, and nions. Without entering upon a recital of these, we Russell heard that it was well tasted; but neither took may remark that the opinion of Dr. Macknight seems to the trouble to ascertain the fact.

be the most reasonable, and the least liable to exception. Sir John Gardner Wilkinson observes, “ The injuries In Daniel 10. 13,21, and 12. 1, Michael, he remarks, caused by mice and rats, in a country like Egypt, were is spoken of as one of the chief angels who took care of far from suggesting any sanctity in these destructive ani- the Israelites as a nation; he may, therefore, he thinks, mals; though jerboas, from their more secluded habits have “ been the angel of the Lord,” before whom Joshua and smaller numbers, might not have excited the same the high-priest is said to have stood, “Satan being at animosity, either among the peasantry, or the inhabit- his right-hand to resist him,” (Zech. 3. 1,) namely, in ants of the towns. Two species of jerboa inhabit the his design of restoring the Jewish church and state, country. They are the same which Pliny and Ælian called by Jude “the body of Moses," just as the Chrismention as 'mice walking on two legs,'"using,' as the tian church is called by St. Paul “ the body of Christ." latter observes, their fore-feet for hands, and leaping, Zechariah adds," And the Lord," that is, the angel of the when pursued, upon their hind legs. Those with Lord, as is plain from v. 1, " said unto Satan, The Lord bristles like the hedgehog, described by Pliny, are still rebuketh thee, O Satan! even the Lord who hath chosen common in Egypt, principally in the desert, where their Jerusalem, rebuketh thee.” Dr. Adam Clarke adopts abode is among stones and fallen rocks. The mummies this view of the passage, and adds to the remarks of of mice and rats are said to have been found in the Dr. Macknight the following: tombs of Thebes."

“ Among the Hebrews 712 guph, body, is often In 1Samuel 6. 5, we read that the Philistines, on used for a thing itself; so Romans 7. 24, 'the body of the return of the ark of the Lord, inquired, “What sin,' signifies sin itself. So the body of Moses may sige shall be the trespass offering which we shall return nify Moses himself; or that in which he was particularly to him? They answered, Five golden emerods, and concerned, namely, his institutes, religion, &c." See five golden mice, according to the number of the JUDE. lords of the Philistines.” It seems it was a prevalent custom among the ancient idolatrous nations to MICHMASH, DOO Michmas, or raza Michoffer to the god from whom they expected, or to whom mash; Sept. Maxuas, was a city belonging to the tribe they attributed the cure of their diseases, a representa of Benjamin, (Ezra 2. 27; Nehem. 7. 31,) about ten tion in metal or otherwise, of the parts affected, of the miles from Jerusalem, to the east of Beth-Aven. Condisease itself, or of the means of cure. On this prin- / tiguous to this place was a ledge of sharp rocks, two of ciple the Philistines sent not only the images of their which, named Bozez and Sineh, faced Michmash and emerods, with reference to their disease, but also images Gibeah; the one north, the other south. One of these of the “mice” which marred the land. The same prac was ascended by Jonathan and his armour-bearer, who tice still subsists in India, as Mr. Roberts informs us routed the garrison of the Philistines that defended the that “it is a remarkable fact, that when the Hindoos are pass of Michmash. In the vicinity of this place were afflicted in any particular member, (or in the person caves, thickets, rocks, and pits, in which the Israelites generally,) they make an image to represent the afflicted concealed themselves from their enemies. (1 Sam. 13. 6.) part, and send it to the temple of Kanda Swamy, the Here Sennacherib laid up his heavy carriages and proScandan of Bengal, in order to get relieved from their visions, and probably mustered his army, when he trouble. The temple of Kattaragam (sacred to Scandan,) invaded Judea. (Isai. 10. 28.) After the return from is famous in all parts of the East for the cures which the captivity, Michmash was rebuilt, (Nehem. 11. 31,) have been performed by the deity there. IIence may be | and a village called Mukhmas still occupies its site. seen pilgrims at its shrine, suffering under every kind of Rocks and pits characterize the present appearance of disease, who have walked, or have been carried, from an the place to which tradition has given the name of immense distance. The images presented are generally Michmash; but no thickets or bushes are to be seen. made of silver, and I have seven of them in my posses- A succession of low and barren hills leads up to the sion, which were offerings in the famous temple already higher one of Michmash, which commands a fine and mentioned. The first represents a boy with a very extensive view. There are also several caves on the large belly, which has probably been presented by the spot. Mr. Rae Wilson states at present this place is parents for their child labouring under that (very com- distinguished by the name of Beer, signifying a well; mon) complaint. The second is that of an infant, pro- most probably from its containing a very delicious spring bably sent by a mother who had a sick infant. The of water." third is, I suppose, intended to represent an old man, Professor Robinson, however, gives a different account. who may have made a vow in his sickness that he would He thus describes the country northward of Jerusalem : present an image of silver to the temple should he | “Our first excursion from Jerusalem was made on recover," Among the Greeks and Romans, the temples horseback, and occupied two days, the 4th and 5th of of Æsculapius and of other gods, supposed to have the May. We were accompanied by friends from the city, care of men's health, were crowded with similar repre and made in all a party of six, besides our attendants sentations, and, like many other heathenish customs, Our road led at first north-east over the ridge which this is still the practice of many of the more ignorant extends northward from the Mount of Olives; and after votaries of the Romish church.

crossing several wadys and hills, we came in about an hour to Anâta, the ancient Anathoth, the birth-place of

Jeremiah. It is a miserable village, situated on a high MICHAEL, 53'Sept. Muxanı, (Dan. 10. ridge which slopes gradually to the east, with a deep 13,21; Jude 9; Rev. 12. 7,) is the name of one of the valley on the north. From this point there is a wide seven archangels, stated by the Talmudists to be the view over the whole eastern slope of the mountainous

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region; including also the valley of the Jordan, and the The Midianites, together with their neighbours the northern part of the Dead Sea. The whole tract is Ishmaelites, were early engaged in the trade between made up of deep rugged valleys, running eastward, the East and the West, as we find those to whom with broad ridges of uneven table-land between, often Joseph was sold carrying spices, the produce of the rising into high points. The sides of the valleys are so East, into Egypt; and taking Gilead in their way, to steep that, in descending into them, we were usually | add the highly prized balm of that country to their merobliged to dismount from our horses. The whole dis- chandise. It appears that at the time of the passage of trict is a mass of limestone rock, which everywhere juts the Israelites through the country of the Amorites, the out above the surface, and imparts to the whole land only Midianites had been subdued by that people, as the the aspect of sterility and desolation. Yet wherever chiefs or kings of their five principal tribes are called soil is found among the rocks it is strong and fertile; dukes, or lieutenants, of Sihon. (Josh. 13. 21.) It was fields of grain appeared occasionally; and fig-trees and at this time that the Midianites, alarmed at the numbers olive-trees were scattered everywhere among the hills. and progress of the Israelites, united with the Moabites Lower down the slope, towards the Jordan valley, all is in sending for Balaam, the soothsayer, thinking to do desert. The region now before us was that alluded to in that by incantation which they despaired of effecting by Isaiah 10. 28 et seq., where the approach of Sennacherib force. The result of this measure, the constraint imposed towards Jerusalem is described. Proceeding from Ana on Balaam to bless instead of to curse, and the subsethoth northwards, and crossing two deep valleys, we quent defeat and slaughter of the Midianites, form one came in eighty minutes to Jeba, the ancient Gibeah of of the most interesting narratives in the early history of Saul. West of this, on a conical hill near the Nablous the Jews. (Numb. ch. 22-25, 31.) About two hundred road, is Râm, the ancient Ramah, now a deserted vil years after this, the Midianites having recovered their lage. North-east of Jeba, across the very deep valley, numbers and their strength, were permitted by God to lies Mukhmas, the ancient Michmash, to which we came distress the Israelites, for the space of seven years, as a in about three-quarters of an hour. In the bottom of punishment for their relapse into idolatry. But at length the valley, directly between Jeba and Mukhmas, are two | their armies, which had encamped in the valley of conical hills, not very high, which are probably the scene Jezreel, were miraculously defeated by Gideon. (Judges of Jonathan's romantic adventure against the Philistines ch. 6-8.) The Midianites appear not to have survived this recorded in ] Samuel, ch. 14. From Mukhmas we con- second discomfiture as a nation, but became gradually tinued our way northward to Deir Diwan, a large vil incorporated with the Moabites and Arabians. lage lying also on the southern brow of a deep valley. In this vicinity must have been the site of ancient Ai.

MIDNIGHT, 77950 '99 hhalsi ha-laila, (Exod. It probably lay a short distance south of the modern village, where are still the remains of an ancient city, such

12. 29,) MEGOVUKTLOV, (Acts 16. 25,) signifying the as portions of wall, reservoirs for water, and sepulchres

middle of the night. In the New Testament the term hewn in the rock.”

is used to denote the midnight watch. (Mark 13. 35.)

See Day; Hours. MID-DAY. The word 097,73 tsaharaim, ren I MIGDOL, Simo Sept. Maydwlov, was a town in dered in our version“ mid-day” in 1 Kings 18. 29, is Egypt not far from the Arabian Gulf. (Exod. 14. 2; translated “noon” in Genesis 43. 16,25; Deut. 28. 29. Jerem. 44. 1; 46. 14.) It was one of the cities in which The word in the original is in the dual form, and signi. | the Jews dwelt that took Jeremiah with them to Egypt, fies properly “double light." See AFTERNOON; DAY; | as the prophet informs us in the following passage: HOUR; TIME.

“ The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the MIDIAN, 1970 The land of Midian, or country

Jews who dwelt in the land of Egypt, who dwelt at of the Midianites, (Exod. 3. 1,) derived its name from

Migdol, and at Tahpanhes, and at Noph, and in the Midian, the son of Abraham by Keturah. This coun

country of Pathros.” (ch. 44. 1.) This passage likewise try extended from the east of the land of Moab, on the

points out Egypt Proper, or the northern division of east of the Dead Sea, southward along the Elanitic gulf

Egypt, in opposition to the land of Pathros, or the of the Red Sea, stretching some way into Arabia. It

southern division of it, as the region in which Migdol further passed to the south of the land of Edom, into

stood; and the history of the journeyings of the children the peninsula of Mount Sinai. To it Moses retired

of Israel from Egypt indicates the part of this northern from Egypt, and in it dwelt Jethro, one of whose

division in which it stood, namely, near the end of the daughters Moses married. (Exod. 2. 21.)

Red Sea, on the western shore of it; for, in Exodus 14.2, we read that the last encampment of the Israelites before

they went across the Red Sea, was between Migdol and MIDLANITES, O'I'O Sept. Madlavitai, Madin that sea. Some writers, however, think the Migdol of valot. (Gen. 25. 2,4; Judges 6. 7.) The Midianites Jeremiah stood on the verge of the desert between Egypt occupied a large tract of country reaching from the | and Canaan, and much nearer to the Mediterranean than north-east of the Dead Sea, far into the Arabian penin- | to the Red Sea. Herodotus represents Nekus, or Phasula; and accordingly they are often distinguished by raoh Necho, as gaining a great victory over the Jews, writers into the northern and southern Midianites. The when Josiah was killed, at this place, mistaking Maglatter were also called Cushites, because they occupied dolon for Megiddo. the country that originally belonged to Cush; they The name Migdol signifies a tower, whence it is proretained the knowledge of the true God, as we may | bable that the city so designated was a strong fortress. infer from the story of Jethro, (Exod. ch. 2, 3,) which See MAGDALA. appears to have been lost among the eastern or

MIGRON, 117m (1Sam. 14. 2; Isai. 10. 28,) was northern Midianites, (Gen. 25. 2-6; 37. 28; Exod.

| a city in the tribe of Benjamin to the south of Aiath and 2. 3,18;) these latter were either subject to ør allied with the Moabites; and their women were the principal

north of Michmash, but nothing is now known of it. means of seducing the Israelites to idolatry, which MILDEW, gipan yirakon. (Deut. 28. 22; Amos wickedness was punished by the almost total destruc- 4. 9.) This term appears to refer to the state of turning tion of their nation. (Numb. 22. 4-7; ch. 25, 31.) yellow, in reference to the fading of trees and plants.

from peninsula of the south of the way into Arabiac gulf

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