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eren beheld a person, exhibiting all the common evi- The miracles of Christianity are all related by eyedences of death, instantly resuscitated merely by being witnesses, and that the Apostles could not be deceived, desired to live.”

and that they had no temptation to deceive, has been (2.) Testimony of Miracles.-A miracle is the testi repeatedly demonstrated. So powerful, indeed, is the mony of God, and therefore becomes a proof of the cha proof adduced in support of their testimony, that infidels racter or mission of him by whom it was wrought, pro of these later days have been obliged to abandon the fessedly wrought, for the confirmation of either; for, ground on which their predecessors stood; to disclaim from the perfect veracity of Him who is the Supreme all moral evidences arising from the character and relaBeing, it irresistibly results that He never can give, nor tion of eye-witnesses; and to maintain upon metaphyrationally be supposed to give, his testimony to anything sical, rather than historical principles, that miracles are but truth; therefore, when a miracle is wrought avowedly utterly incapable, in their own nature, of existing in any in confirmation of anything, or as evidence of anything, circumstances, or of being supported by any evidence. we know that that thing is true, because God has given Mr. Hume has insidiously or erroneously maintained to it his testimony. The miracles of Moses and of Our that a miracle is contrary to experience; but, in reality, Lord were thus wrought to prove that their mission and it is only different from ordinary experience. That disdoctrine were from God; therefore, they certainly were eases should generally be cured by the application of from God. Miracles, then, under which we include medicine, and sometimes at the mere word of a prophet, prophecy, are the only direct evidence which can be are facts not inconsistent with each other in the nature given of Divine inspiration. When a religion, or any of things themselves, nor, when properly considered, religious truth, is to be revealed from heaven, miracles even apparently irreconcileable. Each fact may arise appear to be absolutely necessary to enforce its reception from its own proper cause; each may exist independamong men; and this is the only case in which we can ently of the other; and each is known by its own proper suppose them necessary, or believe for a moment that proof, whether of sense or testimony. To pronounce, they ever have been or will be performed. The history therefore, a miracle to be false, because it is different of almost every religion abounds with relations of prodi- from ordinary experience, is only to conclude against its gies and wonders, and of the intercourse of men with existence from the very circumstance which constitutes the gods; but we know of no religious system, those of its specific character; for if it were not different from the Jews and Christians excepted, which appealed to ordinary experience, where would be its singularity? or miracles as the great evidence of its truth and divinity. | what proof could be drawn from it, in attestation of a The pretended miracles mentioned by pagan historians Divine message? We have been told that the course of and poets, were not even alleged to have been publicly nature is fixed and unalterable, and therefore it is not wrought to enforce the truth of a new religion, con consistent with the immutability of God to perform trary to the reigning idolatry. Many of them may be miracles. But, surely, they who reason in this manner, clearly shown to have been mere natural events; others beg the very point in question. We have no right to of them are represented as having been performed in assume that the Deity has ordained such general laws secret on the most trivial occasions, and in obscure and for his own operations as will exclude his acting in other fabulous ages, long prior to the æra of the writers by modes, and we cannot suppose that He would forbear so whom they are recorded; and such of them as at first to act, when any important end could be answered. view appear to be best attested, are evidently tricks Besides, if the course of nature implies the whole order contrived for interested purposes, to flatter power, or to of events which God has ordained for the government of promote the prevailing superstitions. For these reasons, the world, it includes both his ordinary and his extraoras well as on account of the immoral character of the dinary dispensations, and among them miracles may divinities by whom they are said to have been wrought, have their place, as an inseparable part of the universal they are altogether unworthy of comparison with those plan. This is, indeed, equally consistent with sound of the Scriptures, not to say of examination, and carry philosophy and with pure religion. He that acknowin the very nature of them the completest proof of false- ledges a God, must at least admit the possibility of a hood and imposture.

miracle. He who admits the creation of the world, - In the conduct of Providenca respecting the Jewish believes in the actual occurrence of a miracle. He who people, from the earliest periods of their existence as a concedes that the world is under the control of a wise distinct class of society to the present time, we behold and beneficent Providence, cannot deny that a particular a singularity of circumstance and procedure which we operation of that Providence for beneficent purposes is cannot account for on common principles. Comparing both consistent and desirable. their condition and situation with that of other nations, l. Whenever miracles are wrought, they are matters of we can meet with nothing similar to it in the history of fact, and are capable of being proved by proper evidence, mankind. So remarkable a difference, conspicuous in as other facts are. To those who beheld the miracles every revolution of their history, could not have sub wrought by Moses and Jesus Christ, as well as by his sisted through mere accident. There must have been a Apostles, the seeing of those miracles performed was cause adequate to so extraordinary an effect, and what sufficient evidence of the Divine inspiration of Moses and can this cause be, but an interposition of Providence, in Jesus Christ. That, abstractedly considered, they are not a manner different from the course of its general govern incredible; that they are capable of indirect proof from ment? For the phenomenon cannot be explained by an analogy, and of direct, from testimony; that in the comapplication of those general causes and effects that operate mon and daily course of worldly affairs, events, the in other cases. It may also be observed, that the insti improbability of which, antecedently to all testimony, tutions of the Law and the Gospel may not only appeal was very great, are proved to have happened, by the for their confirmation to a train of events which, taken authority of competent and honest witnesses; that the in a general and combined view, point out an extraordi Christian miracles were objects of real and proper expenary designation, and vindicate their claim to a Divine rience to those who saw them; and that whatsoever the authority; but also to a number of particular operations senses of mankind can perceive, their reports may subwhich, considered distinctly, or in a separate and de stantiate, are points which it is impossible for any clear tached light, evidently display a supernatural power, reasoner, or any believer in Revelation, to deny. Should immediately exerted on the occasion.

it be asked whether miracles were necessary, and

TITATILE DITESHTITUTE SELLET

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whether the end proposed to be effected by them could should act thus in opposition to every dictate of common warrant so immediate and extraordinary an interference sense, and every principle of common honesty, every of the Almighty, as such extraordinary operations sup restraint of shame, and every impulse of selfishness, is pose; to this we might answer, that if the fact be esta a phenomenon not less irreconcileable to the moral state blished, all reasonings à priori concerning their necessity of things than miracles are to the natural constitution must be frivolous and may be false. We are not capable of the world. of deciding on a question which, however simple in (i.) Miracles of Our Lord.—Since Our Lord hingappearance, is yet too complex in its parts, and too self constantly appealed to the “wonderful things He extensive in its object to be fully comprehended by the did,” (Matt. 21. 15,) as the evidences of his Divine human understanding. God is the best, and indeed the mission and character, we may briefly examine how only judge, how far his miracles are proper to promote far they justified and confirmed his pretensions. That any particular design of his providence, and how far Our Lord laid the greatest stress on the evidence they that design would have been left unaccomplished if com- | afforded; nay, that He considered that evidence as suf. mon and ordinary methods only had been pursued. So | ficient to authenticate his claims to the office of the from the absence of miracles we may conclude, in any | Messiah, is manifest not only from his own words. (Matt. supposed case, that they were not necessary; from their 11. 25; John 10. 25,) but also from a great variety of existence, supported by fair testimony, in any given other passages in the Evangelists, especially John 10.37, case, we may infer with confidence that they are proper. “If I do not the works of my Father, believe me not;

A view of the state of the world in general, and of but if I do, though ye believe not me, believe the works." the Jewish nation in particular, and an examination of This appeal to miracles was founded on the following the nature and tendency of the Christian religion, will just and obvious grounds :- First, That they are visible point out very clearly the great expediency of a mira- proofs of Divine approbation, as well as of Divine culous interposition at the very period when the miracles power; for it would have been quite inconclusive to rest of Our Lord are related to have been performed; and an appeal on the testimony of the latter, if it had not, when we reflect on the gracious and important ends that at the same time, included an evidence of the former; were to be effected by it, we shall be convinced that it and it was, indeed, a natural inference, that the power was not an idle and useless display of Divine power; | of working miracles, in support of a particular cause, but that, while the means effected and confirmed the was the seal of heaven to the truth of that cause. To end, the end fully justified and illustrated the means. suppose the contrary would be to suppose that God not If we reflect on the extent and importance of the Chris only permitted his creatures to be deceived, but that He tian revelation; what was its avowed purpose to effect, deviated from the course of his providence purposely and what difficulties it was necessarily called to struggle with a view to deceive them. with before that purpose could be effected; how much it Secondly: When Our Lord appealed to his miracles was opposed by the opinions and the practice of the as proofs of his Divine mission, it pre-supposed that generality of mankind, by philosophy, by superstition, those miracles were of such a nature as would bear the by corrupt passions and inveterate habits, by pride and strictest examination; that they had all those criteria sensuality, in short, by every engine of human influ which could possibly distinguish them from the delusions ence; if we reflect on the almost irresistible force of pre of enthusiasm, and the artifices of imposture; else the judice, and the strong opposition it universally makes to appeal would have been fallacious and equivocal. This the establishment of a new religion on the demolition of appeal was not drawn out into any laboured argument, rites and ceremonies, which authority had made sacred, nor adorned by any of the embellishments of language. and custom had familiarized; if we seriously reflect on It was short, simple, and decisive. He neither reasoned these things, and give them their due force, and expe nor declaimed on their nature or their design; he barely rience shows us that we can scarcely give them too pointed to them as plain and indubitable facts, such as much,) we shall be induced to admit even the necessity spoke their own meaning, and carried with them their of a miraculous interposition, at a time when common own authority. The miracles which Our Lord performed means must inevitably have failed of success.

were too public to be suspected of imposture; and being The revelation of the Divine will by inspired persons objects of sense, they were secured against the charge of is, as such, miraculous; and therefore before the adver enthusiasm. An impostor would not have acted so saries of the Gospel can employ with propriety their absurdly as to have risked his credit on the performance objections to the particular miracles on which its credi- of what he must have known it was not in his power to bility is based, they should show the impossibility of any effect; and though an enthusiast, from the warmth of revelation. In whatever age the revelation is given, imagination, might have flattered himself with a full that age can have no other demonstration of its autho persuasion of his being able to perform some miraculous rity but miracles, and succeeding ages can know it only | work, yet, when the trial was referred to an object ou from testimony; so that if they admit the one, they can sense, the event must soon have exposed the delusion. not deny the other.

The impostor would not have dared to say to the blind, (3.) Credibility of the Evangelical Records.- The Receive thy sight; to the deaf, Hear; to the dumb, Speak; miracles performed by Our Lord and his Apostles are to the dead, Arise; to the raging of the sea, Be still; lest facts which were recorded by those who must have | he should injure the credit of his cause by undertaking known whether they were true or false. The persons more than he could perform; and though the enthusiast, who recorded them were under no possible temptations under the delusion of his passions, might have cona. to deceive the world; and we can only account for their dently commanded disease to fly, and the powers conduct on the supposition of most perfect convic | nature to be subject to his control, vet their obedience tion and disinterested zeal. That they should assert would not have followed his command. what they knew to be false; that they should publish it The miracles of Our Lord, then, were such as an in with so much ardour; that they should risk everything | postor would not have attempted, and such as an entile dear to humanity, in order to maintain it; and at last | siast could not have effected. They had no disguise submit to death, in order to attest their persuasion of its and were, in a variety of instances, of such a nature truth in those moments when imposture usually drops to preclude the very possibility of collusion. They its mask, and enthusiasm loses its confidence; that they performed in the midst of his bitterest enemies; a

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were so palpable and certain as to extort the acknow- could be no hesitation. Of the time at which several ledgment of their reality even from persons who were of the Apostles died, we have no certain knowledge. most eager to oppose his doctrines, and to discredit his St. Peter and St. Paul suffered at Rome about A.D. 66 pretensions. (John 11. 47,48.) They could not deny or 67; and it is fully established, that the life of John the facts, but they imputed them to the agency of an was protracted much longer, he having died a natural infernal spirit. Now, supposing miracles to be in the death A.D. 100 or 101. Supposing that the two former power of an infernal spirit, can it be imagined that he of these Apostles imparted spiritual gifts till the time of would communicate an ability of performing them to their suffering martyrdom, the persons to whom they persons who were counteracting his designs ? (Matt. were imparted might, in the course of nature, have lived 12. 24-26.) Thus as Our Saviour appealed to miracles | through the earlier part of the second century; and if as proofs of his power, so He appealed to the inherent John did the same till the end of his life, such gifts as worth and purity of the doctrines they were intended to were derived from him might have remained till more bear witness to, as a proof that the power was of God. than the half of that century had elapsed; and that such In this manner do the external and internal evidences of was the fact is asserted by ancient ecclesiastical writers. the miracles of Our Lord give and receive mutual con- | Whether after the generation immediately succeeding firmation and mutual lustre.

the Apostles had passed away, the power of working (ü.) Miracles of the Apostles.—The truth of the miracles was again communicated, is a question, the Christian religion does not, however, wholly depend on solution of which cannot be so satisfactory. The prothe miracles wrought by its Divine founder, though these bability is, that there was no such renewal; and this may be fairly reckoned sufficient in themselves to esta- opinion rests upon the ground that the attestation of blish his claims; but in order to give the evidence of Christianity was already complete, and that other means miracles all the force they could possibly acquire, that were now sufficient to accomplish the end for which evidence was extended still farther, and the same power miracles were originally designed that Our Lord possessed was communicated to his dis (5.) Spurious Miracles.-As to the alleged miracles ciples, and their more immediate successors. Whilst yet of the Romish church, it is certain, as Doddridge on earth, He imparted to them this extraordinary gift, as observes, that many of them were ridiculous tales, even the seal of their commission, when He sent them to according to their own historians; others were performed preach the Gospel; and after his glorious resurrection without any credible witnesses, or in circumstances and ascension into heaven, they were endowed with when the performer had the greatest opportunity for powers yet more stupendous. Sensible of the validity of juggling; and it is particularly remarkable, that they this kind of evidence, the Apostles of Our Lord, with were hardly ever said to be wrought where they would the same artless simplicity, and the same boldness of seem to be most necessary, that is, in countries where conscious integrity which distinguished their great those doctrines are renounced which that church esteems Master, constantly insisted upon the miracles they of the highest importance. It was, in fact, foretold wrougbt, as strong and undeniable proofs of the truth that such “ lying wonders” should be connected with the of their doctrines. The heathen philosophers imputed great apostasy. (2Thess. ch. 2.) These counterfeits to them some occult power of magic; and thus applied therefore not only presuppose the existence of the true, what has no existence in nature, in order to account for but fulfil the voice of prophecy. a phenomenon that existed out of its common course. Such, then, are a few of the heads of the diversified But if we consider their nature, their greatness, and and authentic testimony for the miracles recorded in the their number; and if to this consideration we add that Scriptures, especially those related in the New Testawhich respects their end and design, we must acknow- ment; and the conclusion seems inevitable, that to reject ledge that no one could have performed the miracles these facts after all, and to pretend to excuse ourselves wrought by the Apostles unless God was with him. from not believing them upon the bare suspicion of a These miracles were of a nature too palpable to be mis- possibility that they may be false, is a most glaring contaken. They were the objects of sense, and not the trradiction to the principles of common sense, and to the precarious speculations of reason concerning what God universal practice of mankind. See JESUS CHRIST; might do, or the chimerical suggestions of fancy con- MESSIAH. cerning what He did.

(4.) Duration of Miracles in the Church.-How long MIRAGE, I sharab. In the prophecy of the the power of working miracles was continued in the "joyful flourishing of Christ's kingdom,” we read, “The Church has been matter of keen dispute, and has been parched ground shall become a pool,” (Isai. 35. 7;) investigated with as much anxiety as if the truth of the but Bishop Lowth translates the passage, “The glowing Gospel depended upon the manner in which it was sand shall become a pool," and in his note on the decided. Assuming, as we are here warranted to do, subject he remarks, " The word is Arabic, as well as that real miraculous power was conveyed in the way Hebrew, but it means the same thing in both languages, detailed by the inspired writers, it is plain that it may a glowing sandy plain, which in the hot countries at a have been exercised in different countries, and may have distance has the appearance of water. It occurs in the remained, without any new communication of it, Koran, c. 24; “But as to the unbelievers, their works throughout the first, and a considerable part of the | are like a vapour in a plain which the thirsty traveller second century. The Apostles, wherever they went to thinketh to be water, until, when he cometh thereto, he execute their commission, would avail themselves of the findeth it to be nothing. Mr. Sale's note on this passtupendous gift which had been imparted to them; and sage is, 'The Arabic word serab, signifies that false it is clear, not only that they were permitted and enabled appearance which in the Eastern countries is often seen to convey it to others, but that spiritual gifts, including in sandy plains about noon, resembling a large lake of the power of working miracles, were actually conferred | water in motion, and is occasioned by the reverberation on many of the primitive disciples. Allusions to this of the sunbeams. It sometimes tempts thirsty travellers we find in the Epistles of St. Paul; such allusions, too, out of their way, but deceives them when they come as it is utterly inconceivable that any man of a sound near, either going forward, (for it always appears at the judgment could have made, had he not known that he same distance,) or quite vanishes." was referring to an obvious fact, about which there There is a passage in Jeremiah 15. 18, which is sup

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posed to refer to the same phenomenon: “Why is my of it afforded us ideas of the horrible despondency to pain perpetual, and my wound incurable, which refuseth which travellers must be exposed, who in travelling the to be healed? Wilt thou be altogether unto me as a interminable desert, destitute of water and perishing liar, and as waters that fail?" The Hebrew gives more with thirst, have sometimes this deceitful prospect before properly, “Waters that are not to be trusted,” that is, their eyes." such as are delusive and disappoint expectation.

Belzoni describes the mirage as appearing like a still This very remarkable phenomenon, the mirage, has | lake, so unmoved by the wind, that everything above is been noticed by numerous travellers in the East, some to be seen most distinctly reflected by it. If the wind few of whose statements we shall extract: Sir John agitate any of the plants that rise above the horizon of Chardin says, “ There is a vapour or splendour in the the mirage, the motion is seen perfectly at a great displains of the desert formed by the repercussion of the tance. “If the traveller stand elevated much above the rays from the sand, that appears like a vast lake. Tra mirage, the apparent water seems less united and less vellers afflicted with thirst are drawn on by such appear deep; for, as the eyes look down upon it, there is not ances, but coming near find themselves mistaken; it | thickness enough in the vapour on the surface of the seems to draw back as they advance or quite vanishes.” | ground to conceal the earth from the sight; but if the

Buckingham, in his Travels in Mesopotamia, speaks traveller be on a level with the horizon of the mirage, much to the same effect: “To the south-east, at a dis he cannot see through it, so that it appears to him clear tance of four or five miles we noticed on the yellow water. By putting my head first to the ground, and sands two black masses, but whether they were the then mounting a camel, the height of which from the bodies of dead camels, the temporary hair tents of wan ground might have been about ten feet at the most, I dering Bedouins, or any other objects magnified by the found a great difference in the appearance of the mirage. refraction, which is so strongly produced in the horizon On approaching it, it becomes thinner, and appears as if of the desert, we had no means of ascertaining. With agitated by the wind, like a field of ripe corn. It grathe exception of these masses, all the eastern range of dually vanishes as the traveller approaches, and at last vision presented only one unbroken waste of sand, till entirely disappears when he is on the spot." its visible horizon ended in the illusive appearance of a | Another modern traveller states, “We have suffered lake, thus formed by the heat of a midday sun upon a very much from the fatigue of this day's journey, and nitrous soil, giving to the parched desert the semblance have still five days' march through this waterless deof water, and reflecting its scanty shrubs upon the view, sert. The only object to interest us, and relieve the like a line of extensive forests; but in no direction was weariness of mind and body, has been the mirage so either a natural hill, a mountain, or other interruption to often described. Some travellers state that this phenothe level line of the plain, to be seen.”

menon has deceived them repeatedly. This I am surDr. Edward Daniel Clarke, in his Travels in the prised at, since its peculiar appearance, joined to its Holy Land, fic., gives us the following graphic de occurrence in a desert, where the traveller is too forcibly scription of the mirage in the north of Egypt. “We impressed with the recollection that no lakes or standing arrived at the wretched solitary village of Utko, near the pools exist, would appear to me to prevent the possimuddy shore of the lake of that name. Here we pro bility, that he who has once seen it, can be a second cured asses for all the party; and setting out for Rosetta, time deceived. Still, this does not diminish the beauty began to scour the desert, now approaching like an of the phenomenon; to see amid burning sands and ocean of sand, but flatter and firmer as to its surface hills an apparently beautiful lake, perfectly calm, and than before. The Arabs, uttering their harsh guttural unruffled by any breeze, reflecting in its bosom the surlanguage, ran chattering by the side of our asses, until rounding rocks, is, indeed, an interesting and wonderful some of them calling out 'Raschid,' or Rosetta, we per spectacle; but it is a tantalizing sight, traversing the ceived its domes and turrets, apparently upon the oppo desert on foot, always with a scanty supply of water, site side of an immense lake or sea, that covered all the and often, owing to great imprudence, wholly destitute intervening space between us and the city.

of it." “Not having in my own mind at the time any doubt as to the certainty of its being water, and seeing the tall MIRIAM, On Sept. Mapiau, (Exod. 2. 4,) minarets and buildings of Rosetta, with all its groves of was the sister of Moses and Aaron. When her brother dates and sycamores, as perfectly reflected by it as by a Moses was exposed on the banks of the Nile, Miriam a mirror, inasmuch that even the minutest detail of the watched the ark, and offered Pharaoh's daughter to fetch architecture and the trees might have been delineated her a nurse when the child was discovered. The princess thence, I applied to the Arabs to know in what manner accepting the offer, Miriam fetched her own mother, to we were to pass the water. Our interpreter, although a whom the infant Moses was given. (Exod. 2. 5-10.) Greek, and therefore likely to have been informed of We next read of her as leading the songs and dances of such a spectacle, was as fully convinced as any of us that the women on the occasion of the destruction of the we were drawing near to the water's edge, and became host of Pharaoh. (Exod. 15. 20.) It is thought that indignant when the Arabs maintained that within an Miriam married Hur, of the tribe of Judah, (Exod. hour we should reach Rosetta, by crossing the sands in 17. 10,11,) but it does not appear that she had any chil. the direct line we then pursued, and that there was no dren by him. Miriam had the gift of prophecy, but this water. “What!' said he, giving way to his impatience, did not prevent her from joining with others in “ speak

do you suppose me to be an ideot, to be persuaded con ing against Moses, saying, Hath the Lord indeed spoken trary to the evidence of my own senses?' The Arabs, only by Moses? hath he not spoken also by us?" (Numb. smiling, soon pacified him, and completely astonished 12. 2.) For this she was stricken with leprosy, and was the whole party, by desiring us to look back at the desert for a while shut out of the camp, but was healed upon we had already passed, when we beheld a precisely the earnest prayer of her brother. similar appearance. It was in fact the mirage, a pro

MIRROR. See LOOKING-GLASS. digy to which every one of us were then strangers, although it afterwards became more familiar. Yet, MISHNAH, 7wo or Repelilion, as the word sig. upon no future occasion did we behold this extra- nifies, is a collection of various traditions of the Jews, ordinary illusion so marvellously displayed. The view and of expositions of Scripture texts, which they pre

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tond were delivered to Moses during his abode on the widow, who threw into the Temple treasury“ two mites, Mount, and transmitted from him, through Aaron, Elea- which make one farthing." The word rendered “farzar, and Joshua, to the prophets, and by them to the thing” in this place is different from that so rendered in men of the Great Sanhedrin, from whom they passed in Matthew 10. 29; Luke 12. 6. There it is aoo aplov, succession to Simeon, Gamaliel, and ultimately to Rabbi or the Roman as; here it is koopavons, or the Roman Judah, surnamed the Holy. The Mishnah forms a part quadrans, so called from being the fourth part of the of the Jewish Talmud, being the text; while the Ge- preceding. The Romans had no coin of which, like the mara is the commentary; so that the Gemara is, as it “mite” of the above passage, two were equal to the were, a gloss on the Mishnah. See GEMARA; Talmud. quadrans; although they had one, the uncia, worth MIST, 7X id, (Gen. 2. 6,) signifies a rising mist, a

a third of that coin. Some writers think that the mite fog, or cloud, which again distils upon the ground. (Job

"T(NETTOV) was a native coin, as it was not lawful to take 36. 27.) The Chaldee paraphrase renders it Xidy anana,

heathen coins to the Temple treasury. a cloud.

MITE, LETTOV, was the name of the smallest coin current among the Jews in the time of Our Saviour; its value was half a koopavons, or the eighth part of an aocaplov, which latter was equal to about three far

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The Roman Quadrans. MITRE, noga mitznepheth, (Exod. 28. 4,) is the name given in our translation to a sacerdotal ornament worn by the ancient Jewish high-priest. See HighPRIEST.

In modern times, the term mitre refers to a head-dress worn by bishops and certain abbots, being a sort of turban or cap cleft at the top. The mitre is frequently met with in early Christian manuscripts, in illuminated missals, and upon the oldest ecclesiastical monuments; it was sometimes called otepavos, corona, crown, Kidapıs, diadema, and Tiapa, tiara. A statue of St. Peter, erected in the seventh century at Rome, bears this mark of distinction in the shape of a round, high, and

pyramidal cap, and offers, perhaps, one of the earliest The Roman As.

instances of its use. The Pope wears four different things of our money. (Mark 12. 42.) See Coin. The mitres, wbich are more or less richly adorned, according word occurs in the account of the charity of the poor to the nature of the festivals on which they are assumed.

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Mitylene. MITYLENE, Mitulnun, was the capital of the to fifteen miles; it is fertile and well cultivated, and has Isle of Lesbos, and was visited by St. Paul while on his a population of forty thousand persons, principally journey from Corinth to Jerusalem. (Acts 20. 14.) Greeks. Its history is much the same as that of the Some remains of the ancient city still exist near a place other islands of the Ægean. Once a free state, it has called Castro, which is the chief town of the island. since belonged in succession to the Roman and Greek

Lesbos is an island on the coast of Asia Minor, fifty empires; was, for a considerable time, possessed by the miles in length, and with a breadth varying from seven / Venetians; and is now in the hands of the Turks.

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