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more than two thousand baths. But this notion seems determined pieces of money, but weights applied to merely fanciful, for when a complete ablution was requi- | things used in commerce. Hence those deceitful basite the priest could stand under the running streams, or lances of the merchants, who would increase the shekel, bathe in the hollow base which received the discharged that is, would augment the weight by which they water and which must likewise have had an outlet. It weighed the gold and silver they were to receive, that is not clear whence these streams were discharged, but it they might have a greater quantity than was their due; may have been from the mouths of the oxen, or, as hence the weight of the sanctuary, the standard of which some conceive, from embossed heads, in the sides of the was preserved in the Temple, to prevent fraud; and vessel.

hence those prohibitions in the law: “Thou shalt not The term “sea” is a mere Hebraism, as they were have in thy bag divers weights, a great and a small.” accustomed to give that appellation to all considerable (Deut. 25. 13.) Hence those scales that the Hebrews bodies of water.

wore at their girdles, (Hosea 12. 7,) and the Canaanites MOMENT, yan raga, (Psalm 30. 5,) an instant

carried in their hands, to weigh the gold and silver which

they received in payment. of time, a moment; a quick agitation, a sudden move

The money collected in the Temple in the time of ment. In the above passage the Psalmist says of the Lord,

Joash for its repair was told up in bags; thus we read:

“And it was so, when they saw that there was much “Ilis anger endureth but a moment; in his favour is life; weeping may endure for a night, but joy cometh

money in the chest, that the king's scribe and the highin the morning." Roberts remarks upon this: “The

priest came up, and they put up in bags, and told the Tamul method of expressing a moment is to move the

money that was found in the house of the Lord." hand once round the head, and give a snap of the finger.

(2Kings 12. 10.)

It was usual in the East for money to be put into Thus they say of anything which endures but a short time, 'It is only as the snap of the fingers. The people

bags, which, being ascertained as to the exact sum deof the East have nearly all their festivities in the night;

posited in each, were sealed, and probably labelled, and they say it is the sorrowful time, and therefore adopt

thus passed currently. Instances of this kind may be

traced in the Scriptures, at least so far as that money this plan to make it pass more pleasantly away. To

was thus conveyed, and also thus delivered, from supethose who are in difficulties or sorrow; to widows,

rior to inferior officers for distribution. Major Rennell, orphans, or strangers, 'night is the time to weep;' hence, in passing through the village may be heard people

in giving an abstract of the History of Tobit, says, “We crying aloud to their departed friends, or bitterly lament

| find him again at Nineveh, from whence he dispatches ing their own condition. They have, however, some

his son Tobias to Rages by way of Ecbatana, for the very pleasing and philosophical sayings on the uncer

money. At the latter place he marries his kinswoman tainty of the sorrows and joys of life. In the book,

Sara, and sends a messenger on to Rages. The mode of Scanda Purana, it is written, 'The wise, when pleasure

keeping and delivering the money was exactly as at

present in the East. Gabriel, who kept the money in comes, do not greatly rejoice; and in sorrow they yield not to distress; for they judge that pleasure and pain

trust, 'brought forth bags, which were sealed up, and are incident to life. The indigent become wealthy, and

gave them to him, and received in return the handthe wealthy indigent; and inferiors are exalted. Can

writing or acknowledgment which Tobias had taken care wealth or poverty, pleasure or pain, be regarded as per

to require of his father before he left Nineveh. The manent to the soul? The phases of the moon remain

money, we learn, was left in trust, or as a deposit, and not in one state; they diminish and increase; so your

not on usury, and, as it may be concluded, with Tobit's afflictions will one day terminate.""

seal on the bags. In the East, in the present times, a bag of money passes (for some time at least) currently,

from hand to hand under the authority of a banker's MONEY, 702 keseph. (Gen. 23. 9,13.) The pri- seal, without any examination of its contents.” In like mary signification of the Hebrew word is silver, but it is manner we may understand the passage in Job, “My likewise used in the sense of money, as with the Greek transgression is sealed up in a bag.” (ch. 14. 17.) Sir apyuplov, Latin argentum, and the French argent. John Chardin says, “ The money that is collected toThe various coins mentioned in the Scriptures will be gether in the treasures of Eastern princes is told up in found described under their respective heads, and the | certain equal sums, put into bags and sealed.” present article will therefore be restricted to some notices In Job 42. 11, we read, “Then came there unto him all of money in general.

his brethren and all his sisters, and all they that had been The Scriptures often speak of certain sums of money, of his acquaintance before, and did eat bread with him of purchases made with money, of current money, of in his house; and they bemoaned him, and comforted money of a certain weight; but we do not observe him over all the evil that the Lord had brought upon coined or stamped money till a late period; which him; every man also gave him a piece of money, and makes it probable that the ancient Hebrews took gold every one an earring of gold.” Roberts informs us, and silver only by weight; that they considered the | “The custom alluded to of relations and friends giving purity of the metal and not the stamp. See Genesis 23. relief to a person in distress, is practised in the East'at 15,16; 43. 21; Exodus 30. 24; 38. 29; 2Samuel 14. 26; this day. When a man has suffered a great loss by an Isaiah 46. 6; Jeremiah 32. 10; Amos 8. 5. In these | accident, by want of skill, or by the roguery of another, passages three things only are mentioned: (1.) The he goes to his brothers and sisters, and all his acquaintmetal, that is, gold or silver, and never copper, that not ances, and describes his misfortunes. He then mentions being used as money. (2.) The weight, a talent, a a day when he will give a feast, and invites them all to shekel, a gerah, or obolus, the weight of the sanctuary, partake of it. At the time appointed, they come arrayed and the king's weight. (3.) The alloy (standard) of in their best robes, each having money, ear-rings, fingerpure or fine gold and silver, and of good quality, as rings, or other gifts suited to the person in distress. received by the merchant. The impression of the coinage The individual himself meets them at the gate, gives is not referred to; but it is said they weighed the silver them a hearty welcome, the music strikes up, and the or other commodities, by the shekel and by the talent. guests are ushered into the apartments prepared for the The shekel and the talent therefore were not fixed and feast. When they have finished their repast, and are

purity of the n, Exodus 39;2.10; Amosioned: (1.) Thot ances, afhen he will go

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about to retire, they each approach the object of their payment, called Kolbon. It was the tables on which commiseration, and present their donations, and best they trafficked for this unholy gain which Our Lord wishes for future prosperity. A rich merchant in North overturned. This profanation had probably grown up Ceylon, named Siva Sangu Chetty, was suddenly re- with the influence of Roman manners, which allowed duced to poverty; but by this plan he was restored to the argentarii to establish their usurious mensas (tables), his former prosperity. Two money-brokers, also, who by the statues of the gods, even at the feet of Janus, in were sent to these parts by their employer, (who lived the most holy places, or in the temples. on the opposite continent,) lost one thousand rix-dollars | The half-shekel tax was a tax or tribute to be paid belonging to their master; they therefore called those of every year by every adult Jew at the Temple. It was their caste, profession, and country, to partake of a feast, introduced after the captivity in consequence of a wrong at which time the whole of their loss was made up. understanding of certain expressions in the Pentateuch, When a young man puts on the ear-rings or turban for and was a different thing both from the revenue which the first time, a feast of the same description, and for the accrued to the kings, tetrarchs, and ethnarchs, and from same purpose, is given, to enable him to meet the the general tax that was assessed for the Roman Cæsars. expense of the rings, and to assist him in his future pur It was required that this tax should be paid in Jewish suits in life. When a young woman also becomes mar coin, a circumstance to which an allusion is made in riageable, the female relations and acquaintances are Matthew 22. 17-19, and likewise in Mark 12. 14,15. called to perform the same service, in order to enable It was in consequence of this state of things, as the her to purchase jewels, or to furnish a marriage-portion. Talmudists assert, that money-changers, koaluBiotal, In having recourse to this custom, there is nothing that seated themselves in the Temple, on the fifteenth of the is considered mean; for parents who are respectable and month Adar, for the purpose of exchanging for those wealthy often do the same thing."

who might wish it, Roman and Greek coins, for Jewish Solomon says, “ The sleep of a labouring man is half-shekels. The object of the Temple money-changers sweet, whether he eat little or much; but the abundance was their own personal gain, but the acquisition of proof the rich will not suffer him to sleep.” (Eccl. 5. 12.) perty in this way was contrary to the spirit of the law. Roberts here remarks, “In many parts of the East (Deut. 23. 19,20;) and it was for this reason that Our there are not any banks or public offices in which the Saviour drove them from the Temple. (Matt. 21. 12; affluent can deposit their money, consequently the pro Mark 11. 15; John 2. 15.) perty has to be kept in the house, or concealed in some Buckingham, in his Travels among the Arab Tribes, secret place. Under these circumstances, it is no wonder affords an illustrative sketch :-describing a mosque, he that a man having great wealth should live in constant says, “ At the time of our passing through it was full of dread of having it stolen. There are those who have people, though these were not worshippers, nor was it large sums of money concealed in their houses, or gar- either of the usual hours of public prayers. Some of dens, or fields, and the fact being known, they are the parties were assembled to smoke, others to play at closely watched whenever they pay special attention to chess, and some apparently to drive bargains of trade, any particular object or place. The late king of Kandy, but certainly none to pray. It was, indeed, a living pieafter he was taken prisoner, and on his voyage to ture of what we might believe the Temple at Jerusalem Madras, was much concerned about some of his con to have been when those who sold oxen, and sheep, and cealed treasures, and yet he would not tell where they doves, and the changers of money sitting there were were. So great is the anxiety of some, arising from the driven out by Jesus with a scourge of cords, and their jewels and gold they keep in their frail houses, that tables overturned. It was, in short, a place of public they literally watch a great part of the night, and sleep | resort and thoroughfare, a house of merchandise, as the in the day, that their golden deity may not be taken temple of the Jews had become in the days of the from them. I knew a man who had nearly all his wealth Messiah.” in gold pagodas, which he kept in a large chest in his There are still in the East persons who pursue the bed-room; neither in body nor in mind did he ever avocation of money-changers similar to those found wander far from the precious treasure; his abundance | sitting in the Temple by Our Lord. Mr. Callaway, in hindered him from sleeping, and, for a time, it seemed his Oriental Observations, remarks: “In Ceylon, Mooras if it would hinder him from dying; for when the men, whose business it is to give cash for notes, may be fatal moment came, he several times, when apparently seen sitting in public places with heaps of coin before gone, again opened his eyes, and again gave another them. On observing a person with a note, or in want look at the chest; and one of the last offices of his of their services, they earnestly solicit his attention." hands was to make an attempt to feel for the key under his pillow!" See Coins; and APPENDIX.

MONSTERS, y'ın tannin. “Even the sea-mon

sters draw out the breast, they give suck to their young MONEY-CHANGERS. The money-changers, ones.” (Lament. 4. 3.) The Hebrews appear to hare called KolduBIOTWV, (Matt. 21. 12.) Tpamegitat, understood by the word tannin all large sea animals, (Matt. 25. 27,) and kepuatiotal, in John 2. 14, especially those of the mammiferous class. The same driven by Our Lord from the Temple, were those who word is also rendered in our version, (Gen. 1. 21) made a profit by exchanging money. They supplied “great whales." See JONAH; WHALE. the Jews who came from distant parts of Judæa and other parts of the Roman empire, with money to purchase the necessary sacrifices, and it is probable they MONTH. Among the Hebrews, a month was exchanged foreign coins for such as were current at sometimes called Wir hhodesh, (Gen. 8. 4,) which sigJerusalem. The Talmud and Maimonides inform us nifies a new moon, as the month with them began with that the half-shekel paid yearly to the Temple by all the new moon; at other times it is termed 077yarach, the Jews (Exod. 30. 15,) was collected there with great (1Kings 6. 37,38,) which also signifies a lunar month. exactness in the month Adar, and that on changing the The lunar changes most probably furnished the first shekels and other money into half-shekels for that pur- measure of time, as we find such measure very generally pose, the money-changers exacted a small stated fee, or employed by rude nations even at present, but weeks

other partition came from

Shelctness in thel, 30. 15,94 yearly to 10

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were not, as some suppose, suggested by those changes, | coming of the Messiah. In the compass of the cycle since four weeks make only twenty-eight days, while the there are twelve common years consisting of twelve lunar period is twenty-nine and a half; nor is it allow months, and seven intercalary years consisting of thirteen able to suppose, that the changes of the moon first sug- / months. gested the method of computation by years. Years were Originally, the Jews had no particular names for their regulated at first by the return of summer or autumn; months, but called them the first, second, &c. Thus we but when, in the progress of time, it was discovered that read that the Deluge began in the second month, and the ripe fruits, by which the year had been previously came to its height in the seventh month, at the end of limited, statedly returned after about twelve lunar one hundred and fifty days, (Gen. 7. 11-24; 8. 4;) and months, or three hundred and fifty-four days, the year decreased until the tenth month, when the tops of the was regulated by these months, and restricted to that mountains were seen. (Gen. 8. 5.) number of days. It was afterwards seen that, in the Afterwards, however, the months acquired distinct course of seventeen years, on the return of the same names; thus Moses named the first month of the year month, all the appearances of nature were reversed. JAX Abib, (Exodus 12. 2; 13. 4,) signifying green, Hence, as is evident from the history of the Deluge, an from the green ears of corn at that season; for it began attempt was made to regulate the months by the motion about the vernal equinox. The second month was named of the sun, and to assign to each of them thirty days; q Ziv, signifying, in Chaldee, glory or splendour, in but it was nevertheless observed, after ten or twenty which the foundation of Solomon's Temple was laid. years, that there was still a defect of five days.

(1 Kings 6. 1.) The seventh month was styled D'IDX Moses did not make any new arrangement in regard | Ethanim, which is interpreted “harvests," by the Syriac to the lunar months of the Hebrews, nor the year, which version. (1 Kings 8. 2.) The eighth month 572 Bul, was solar; but in order to secure a proper reduction of from the fall of the leaf. (1 Kings 6. 38.) But concerning the lunar to the solar year, he obliged the priests to pre the origin of these appellations, there is a diversity of sent at the altar, on the second day of the Passover, or opinion. During the captivity, the Hebrews adopted the the sixteenth day after the first new moon in April, a ripe names they had found among the Chaldæans and Persians. sheaf: for if they saw, on the last month of the year, Thus, the first month was also called Nisan, 7o3 signithat the grain would not be ripe, as expected, they were fying flight; because in that month the Israelites were compelled to make an intercalation, and this happened | thrust out of Egypt, (Exod. 12. 39;) the third month, 770 every third year. After their departure from Egypt, Sivan, signifying a bramble, (Esther 3. 7; Nehem 2. 1;) there existed among the Hebrews two modes of reckon- and the sixth month, 777X Elul, signifying mourning, ing the months of the year, the one civil, the other probably because it was the time of preparation for the sacred. The Rabbins say that March and September, great day of atonement, on the tenth day of the seventh instead of April and October, were the initial months of month, (Nehem. 6. 15;) the ninth month was called these two years. That they were so at a late period, is 7502 Kisleu, signifying chilled; when the cold weather admitted, but the change was probably owing to the sets in, and fires are lighted, (Jerem. 36. 22; Zech. example of the Romans, who began their year with the 7. 1;) the tenth month was called nao Tebelh, signimonth of March, and the Jews, perhaps overruled by fying miry, (Esther 2. 16;) the eleventh, WOW Shebet, their authority, adopted the same practice. That this is signifying a staff or sceptre, (Zech. 1. 7;) and the the most probable statement, is evident also from the twelfth, 778 Adar, signifying a magnificent mantle, fact that the position of the Rabbins is opposed not only probably from the profusion of flowers and plants with by Josephus, but by the usage of the Syriac and Arabic which the earth at that season begins to be clothed in languages; from the fact, also, that the prescribed observ- warm climates. (Ezra 6. 15; Esther 3. 7.) It is said ance of the three great festival days will not agree with to be a Syriac term. (2Macc. 16. 36.) the months of March and September, as has been shown The civil year commenced with the month Tishri, by Michaëlis.

beginning on the 15th of our September, because it was While the Jews continued in the land of Canaan, the | | an old tradition that the world was created at that time. commencement of their months and years was not settled From this year the Jews computed their jubilees, dated by any astronomical rules or calculations, but by the | all contracts, and noted the birth of children, and the phasis, or actual appearance, of the moon. As soon as reign of kings. It is said also that this time was they saw the moon, they began the month. Persons appointed for making war; because the great heats were therefore appointed to watch on the tops of moun being passed, they were likely to suffer less from going tains for the first appearance of the moon after the into the field. In 2Samuel 11. 1 we read that David change: as soon as they saw it, they informed the San- sent Joab and his servants with him and all Israel, to hedrin, and public notice was given by the sounding of destroy the Ammonites, at the return of the year, (martrumpets, to which there is an allusion in Psalm 81.3, ginal rendering,) at the time when kings go forth to or by lighting beacons throughout the land; they also battle, that is, in the month of September. The annexed used to announce the appearance by sending messengers. | table exhibits the months of the Jewish civil and eccleAs, however, they had no months longer than thirty siastical years, with the corresponding months of our days, if they did not see the new moon the night follow computation. ing the thirtieth day, they concluded that the appearance

Civil YEAR. was obstructed by the clouds; and, without watching any 1 Tishri . . . part of September and October longer, made the next day the first day of the following

2 Marchesvan

“ October and November 3 Kisleu .

November & December month. But on the dispersion of the Jews throughout

4° Tebeth.

December and January all nations, they learnt to have recourse to astronomical

5 Shebet ..

January and February calculations and cycles, in order to fix the beginning of 6 Adar .

February and March their months and years. At first they employed a cycle 7 Nisan or Ab

March and April of eighty-four years; but this being discovered to be

8 Yiar or Ziv

April and May 9 Sivan . . .

May and June defective, they had recourse to the Metonic cycle of nine

10 Tammuz

June and July teen years, which was established by the authority of 11 Ab . . . .

July and August Rabbi Hillel, prince of the Sanhedrin, B.C. 360. This 12 Elul . .

August and September. they still use, and say that it is to be observed until the

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6

· ECCLESIASTICAL YEAR.

“In embolismic years Adar has 30, and the inter1 Nisan or Abib . . part of March and April calary month of Veadar, 29. As a lunation from one 2 Yiar or Ziv . .

April and May

conjunction to another, termed a synodical month, con3 Sivan .

May and June

sists of 29d 12h 44m 31s being 294 days and about 4 Tammuz .

June and July 5 Ab .

three-quarters of an hour, it could not be better arranged July and August . 6 Elul .

August and September than by making one month of 29, and the following of 7 Tishri

September and October 30 days. When a month has 30 days, the last day 8 Marchesvan.

October and November of that month and the following day are both kept as 9 Kisleu or Chisleu

November & December

new moon, on the principle that a holyday cannot be 10 Tebeth.

December and January . 11 Shebet . .

January and February

kept part of a day; the 30th day being half in the pre12 Adar . .

February and March ceding month and half in the new moon, the whole day

is made a holyday, and the following as a matter of The ecclesiastical or sacred year began in March, or

course, from its being the first whole day of the new on the first day of the month Nisan, because at that

moon. time they departed out of Egypt. From that month

“That this rule was followed in ancient times is to be the Hebrews computed their feasts, and the prophets

seen in 1Samuel, ch. 20, from which it appears that also occasionally dated their oracles and visions. Thus

David was accustomed to eat with Saul on the new Zechariah (7.1) says, that “the word of the Lord came

moon: 'And David said unto Jonathan, Behold tounto him in the fourth day of the ninth month, even in

morrow is the new moon, and I should not fail to sit Chisleu;" which answers to our November, whence it is

with the king at meat.' (ver. 5.) And it came to pass evident that in his computation he adopted the ecclesiastical year. The month Nisan is noted in the Old

on the morrow, which was the second day of the month,

that David's place was empty, and Saul said unto JonaTestament for the overflowing of Jordan, (Josh. 3. 15;

than, his son, Wherefore cometh not the son of Jesse to 1 Chron. 12. 15;) the river being swollen by the melted

meat, neither yesterday nor to-day?' (ver. 27.) snows that poured in torrents from Mount Lebanon.

.“ It will have been seen that by this arrangement A modern Jewish writer says, “The Jewish year is

there is yet a deficiency every month of 44m 3$, making lunisolar, for although the months are lunar, our calcula

nearly nine hours in years of twelve months; to make tions being founded on the lunar cycle, every nineteenth

up this deficiency, one day is added to Hesvan every year we come to the same date in the solar year. The cycle contains 235 lunations, which we divide into

second or third year, by which that month then consists

of thirty days. When Hesyan has thirty days, Kisleu twelve years of twelve months, and seven (termed embo

invariably has the same. lismic) of thirteen months.

“Without Hesvan having thirty days, Kisleu is some“The celebrated mathematician, Meton, of Athens,

times made thirty, which is done to prevent Passover who flourished 432 B.C., made the same division of time,

happening on Monday, Wednesday, or Friday, for as but by making every third year embolismic, the 18th and

that festival regulates all the other holydays, it is 19th, were both of thirteenth months: by our arrange

| arranged that none may fall on days on which they could ment the solar and lunar years are better equalized :

not be properly observed.” 19 years, according to Rab Ada, each

Sir John Gardner Wilkinson observes, in reference to of 365d 5h 55m 25% 55=6939d 16h 33m 34s

the ancient Egyptians, that “it is highly probable, in 235 lun, months 29d 12h 44m 31s = 6939d 16h 33m 315 “ The year is of three kinds, perfect, common, and

their infancy as a nation, they divided their year into

twelve lunar months; the twenty-eight years of Osiris's imperfect. “The perfect has 355 days, and is when the months of

reign being derived, as Plutarch observes, from the num

ber of days the moon takes to perform her course round Hesvan and Kisleu have each 30 days; the common,

the earth; and it is worthy of remark that the hiero354 days, when Hesvan has 29 and Kisleu 30; the

glyphic signifying month' was represented by the imperfect, 353 days, when both have only 29 days. “ The embolismic year is formed by the introduction

crescent of the moon, as is abundantly proved from the of an intercalary month immediately after Adar, which

sculptures and the authority of Horapollo. From this

we also derive another very important conclusion; tbat is called Veadar or the second Adar.

the use of hieroglyphics was of a far more remote date “The year then consists of 385, 384, or 383 days, according to the above rule. The reason of the intro

than is generally supposed, since they existed previous duction at that period is, that Passover may be kept in

to the adoption of solar months. The substitution of

solar for lunar months was the earliest change in the its proper season, which is the full moon of the vernal

Egyptian year. It was then made to consist of twelve equinox, or after the sun has entered Aries; it is indif

months, of thirty days each, making a total of three ferent at what period of it the full moon happens, but it

hundred and sixty days; but as it was soon discovered must be kept while the sun is in that sign. That a

that the seasons were disturbed, and no longer corretime was fixed for its observance is shown in Numbers

sponded to the same months, five additional days were 9. 2: “Let the children of Israel also keep the Passover

introduced at the end of the last month, Mesore, in order at its appointed season.' That our months have always been lunar, is shown by 1 Kings 6. 38: “And the eleventh

to remedy the previous defect in the calendar, and to

insure the returns of the seasons to fixed periods. year, in the month of Bul, which is the eighth month;'

“The twelve months were Thoth, Paopi, Athor, Chocak, and by a reference to the Hebrew text it will be seen

Tobi, Mechir, Phamenoth, Pharmathi, Pachous, Paoni, that the two words translated ‘month' are different, the first being derived from the word 777" yariach,

Epep, Mesore: and the year being divided into three moon, and the latter from WIN hhodesh, innovation.

seasons, each period comprised four of these months. “Our months are the following:

That containing the first four was styled the season of

the water-plants, the next of the ploughing, and the Tisri · has 30 days | Nisan has 30 days last season was that of the waters. The 1st of Thoth, Hesvan, “ 29 or 30

Yiar .

in the time of Julius Cæsar, fell on the 29th of August; Kisleu " 29 or 30 Sivan. « Tebeth. “

Tammuz "

and Mesoré, the last month, began on the 25th of July. Sebat. " Ab ..

“A people who gave any attention to subjects so Adar . "

| important to their agricultural pursuits could not long

29
30

29

30

Elul

MONTH-MONUMENTS OF EGYPT.

885

remain ignorant of the deficiency which even the inter- | tion of Biblical history, whereby the two most ancient calation of the five days left in the adjustment of the records in the world, one pictorial and the other written, calendar; and though it required a period of fourteen are found mutually to illustrate and confirm each other hundred and sixty years for the seasons to recede | under circumstances which render designed coincidence through all the twelve months, and to prove, by the defi- impossible. Thus we find the most minute circumciency of a whole year, the imperfection of this system, stances recorded in the biographies of Abraham, Jacob, yet it would be obvious to them, in the lapse of a very Joseph, and Moses, respecting their residence in Egypt, few years, that a perceptible alteration had taken place perfectly correspond with the sculptured and pictorial in the relative position of the seasons; and the most representations of Egyptian manners on the monuments; careless observation would show that in one hundred and whence it follows that the narrative of the Pentateuch twenty years, having lost a whole month, or thirty days, could have been written only by a person who had the rise of the Nile, the time of sowing and reaping, resided in Egypt during the reign of the Pharaohs, and and all the periodical occupations of the peasant, no was thoroughly conversant with its usages. This conlonger coincided with the same month. They therefore sideration is of itself sufficient to excite the attention of added a quarter day to remedy this defect, by making the Christian to all that relates to that country; nor can every fourth year to consist of three hundred and sixty- he hear without deep interest that a vast mass of facts six days; which, though still subject to a slight error, has been providentially preserved to us concerning the was a sufficiently accurate approximation; and, indeed, manners, customs, and arts of common life of its ancient some modern astronomers are of opinion, that instead of inhabitants. exceeding the solar year, the length of the sidereal, com The site of almost every city of note in Upper or puted from one heliacal rising of the Dog Star to ano Southern Egypt is marked by the ruins of a palacether, accorded exactly in that latitude (in consequence temple, which served at once for the residence of the of a certain concurrence in the positions of the heavenly monarch, and the place where the solemn religious and bodies,) with the calculation of the Egyptians. "This civil assemblies of the chief estates in Egypt were held. sidereal or Sothic year,' says Censorinus, the Greeks These ruins are covered with reliefs, generally coloured, term KUVLKOV, the Latins canicularem, because its com representing the idols to which they had been dedicated, mencement is taken from the rising of the Dog Star on and the kings by whom they had been founded; as well the first day of the month, called by the Egyptians as the battles, sieges, and other events of the wars, in Thoth ;' which, while it accords with the observations of which the latter had been victorious. These pictures Porphyry, that the first day of the month is fixed in often cover a vast extent of wall, and are crowded with Egypt by the rising of Sothis,' fully confutes the opinion | figures in action, executed with much spirit and fidelity; of those who suppose that the name Thoth was applied the costume and the peculiarities of feature and colour to the first day alone, and not to the month. That the of the inhabitants of the different nations being strictly five days, called of the Epact, were added at a most preserved. These reliefs are accompanied by explanaremote period, may readily be credited; and so convinced tory inscriptions in the hieroglyphic or sacred characters irere the Egyptians of this, that they referred it to the of Egypt. The mode of reading these characters has fabulous times of their history, wrapping it up in the been recently so far recovered as to enable us to ascerguise of allegory; and it is highly probable that the tain that they embody exactly the information that was intercalation of the quarter day, or one day in four wanted to make the pictures they accompany available years, was also of very early date." See YEAR. for the elucidation of the religion and history of Egypt.

They give the names of the gods represented, the cereMONUMENTS, D'7933 nitsurim, (Isai. 65. 4;) monies to be observed in their worship, their genealogies Sept. évoin alois. In the denunciation of the idola- and other mythological particulars. The pictures of the tries and superstitions of Israel, those who “remain kings have likewise their names written over them; and among the graves, and lodge in the monuments,” are this is also the case with the foreigners with whom they included. Bishop Lowth reads the last word as were at war, the towns and fortresses they were besieging, “caverns," instead of “monuments," and Gesenius has, and the captives that were led bound in the triumphal " that pass the night in concealed places.” It was an processions. The dates of the erection of the temples, ciently a practice in most nations for persons to resort to and of the occurrence of the wars, have also been prethe sepulchres, for the purpose of magic or necromancy, served. They are computed by the years and months of and it still holds its ground in India. Roberts speaks the monarch's reign exactly in the same manner as in of devotees, “ who wander about in the dark in the the Books of Kings in the Old Testament. Portions of place of burning the dead, or among the graves; there these ruins, consisting of statues of gods, sphinxes, obethey affect to hold converse with evil and other spirits; | lisks, and of fragments of columns, friezes, &c., have and there they pretend to receive intimations respecting been removed from Egypt and transferred to the various the destinies of others.”

museums in Europe. These have likewise hieroglyphic

inscriptions, which, in some instances, are important as MONUMENTS OF EGYPT. This term is used to historical documents. denote those wondrous piles reared by the ancient Egyp-! “The tombs," says a writer on the Antiquities of tians for purposes of religion or of civil polity, which Egypt, in reference to Scriptural Illustration, "have furhaving survived the revolutions of thirty centuries, offer nished in abundance the monuments of her ancient in their sculptures and paintings the lively image of the greatness. In Upper Egypt, the dead were deposited in race to whom they owe their origin. Highly curious in immense caverns hollowed out in the rocky mountains themselves, these relics become of the first importance that form the western boundary of the valley of the to the Biblical illustrator, for they belong to the country Nile. In Lower Egypt, where the mountains disappear, with which the Hebrews were, in all ages, closely con deep pits were dug and lined with bricks, or hewn in nected, and from which unquestionably all their know the rock for this purpose. These sepulchral caverns ledge of the arts which distinguish the wanderers of the would seem to demonstrate the literal truth of the re.. desert from the members of a highly civilized commu mark of Diodorus Siculus respecting this extraordinary nity were derived. These stores have accordingly been people, that they spent more upon their tombs than upon largely drawn upon in the present work for the illustra their houses. Some of these are common cemeteries, of

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