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history of the battles of the gods or giants particular canticum. It appears, however, to denote stringed in. mention is made of the closing scene, how the con- struments of music to be played upon by the fingers: querors went and trampled on their enemies. When and Calmet proposes to translate the titles of those people are disputing, should one be a little pressed, and Psalms where this word is to be found, thus : “ A Psalm the other begin to triumph, the former will say, 'I will of David, to the master of music who presides over the tread upon thy neck, and after that beat thee. A low stringed instruments.” caste man insulting one who is high, is sure to hear Where the word occurs as a noun other than in the some one say to the offended individual, 'Put your feet | titles of the Psalms, the context determines that it on his neck.""

applies to songs, as in Job 30. 9; Lament. 3. 14. To harden the neck, (Prov. 29, 1,) appears to be a metaphor drawn from the practice of a bullock unaccustomed to the yoke.

NEHEMIAH, 700) Sept. Neeulas, the son of

Hachaliah, was born at Babylon during the captivity, NECROMANCER, Dinoto WT dorish el but his family and tribe are not known. Raised to the hammilhim, (Deut. 18. 11,) one who interrogates the distinguished office of cupbearer to Artaxerxes Longidead. Such persons presumed that the dead had the | manus, whose favour he enjoyed, Nehemiah forgot not power of revealing secrets, and of foretelling the future, his desolated country. It appears he presented wine to and they therefore sought such information from them. his royal master in the presence of the queen, and conThis they did in various ways; as calling up the dead sequently in the harem, which proves that he was in by diabolical arts; resorting to places where the shades high favour with the king; it is also evident that he was of the departed were supposed to frequent; or sleeping a person of rank and authority at the court, for he train cemeteries after certain ceremonies to obtain the velled with a great retinue, maintained a large body of response through such dreams as might then occur. servants, and kept open table at Jerusalem without The injunction of the Mosaic law is very express against receiving the usual compensation from the Jews as these practices, and the punishment to be inflicted on governor of the province. Having obtained a royal the guilty parties was stoning to death. (Levit. 20. 27.) commission, he went to Jerusalem for a limited time to See DivinaTION; INCHANTMENTS; Magic.

repair its walls and gates, and to correct many abuses NEEDLE, papis. (Matt. 19. 24.) The proverbial

which had crept into the administration of public affairs. expression used by Our Lord, “ It is easier for a camel

He subsequently returned to Babylon; whence, by perto go through the eye of a needle," we have already

mission of Artaxerxes, he proceeded a second time to

Jerusalem, where he died, B.C. 420, having governed considered under the word CAMEL. The use of the needle as a female accomplishment

the Jews for about thirty years.

In Nehemiah we have the character of an able govermay be traced up to the earliest times. It was an art in which the ladies of Egypt particularly excelled, and the

nor, truly zealous for the good of his country, and for Hebrew females also no doubt acquired it during their

the honour of his religion; who quitted a noble and residence in that country, as we read of the embroidery

gainful post at a great court, generously spent the riches

he had there acquired for the benefit of his countrymen, for the curtains of the tabernacle; and in the song of Deborah and Barak, (Judges 5. 30,) mention is made of

and encountered difficulties with a courage and spirit

which alone could, with the Divine blessing, procure the “a prey of divers colours of needle-work, of divers colours of needle-work on both sides.” See EMBROIDERY.

safety, and reform the manners of such an unhappy and In the Egyptian room of the British Museum may be

thoughtless nation. seen some needles for sewing made of bronze, three inches to three inches and a quarter in length, probably

NEHEMIAH, BOOK OF. This book is in some used by some female hand three thousand years ago.

versions termed the Second Book of Esdra, or Esdras, There are likewise some knitting-needles made of wood,

from an opinion which anciently obtained, and was

adopted by Athanasius, Epiphanius, Chrysostom, and nine inches to nine inches and a half in length; and also some skeins of thread, a portion of which is dyed of a

other fathers of the Church, that Ezra was its author. reddish colour.

In modern Hebrew Bibles it has the name of Nehe

miah prefixed to it, which is also retained in our NEEDLEWORK. See EMBROIDERY.

English Bibles. There is no historical book in the Old NEESE, 7701 zorir. (2Kings 4. 35.) In the nar

Testament of which the authorship is so distinctly rative of the raising of the Shunamite's son by the pro

announced. It begins with “The words of Nehemiah," phet Elisha, it is said, “ The boy sneezed seven times."

and throughout we have Nehemiah speaking in the The same word is, in the original, used by Job, who,

first person. The style is also different from that of speaking of Leviathan, says, “By his neesings a light

the preceding book, being considerably more plain and doth shine, and his eyes are like the eyelids of the morn

easy. It is chiefly occupied with an account of its ing." Professor Paxton remarks upon this, “ It seems

author's first administration of twelve years; after which to be generally admitted that the crocodile turns his face

he returned to the Persian court. But his subsequent to the sun when he goes to sleep on the banks of the

arrival at Jerusalem with a new commission, and furriver; and in this position becomes so heated, that the

ther reforms executed by him, are noticed at the end; breath driven forcibly through his nostrils, issues with

so that the book altogether may be considered to contain so much impetuosity, that it resembles a stream of light.

the history of twenty-four years, that is, to B.C. 420. The language of the inspired writer is highly figurative

The insertion of the names of Jaddua and Darius the and hyperbolical, painting in vivid colours the heat and

Persian, in the register in ch. 12. 1-26, which is supforce with which the breath of the crocodile rushes from

| posed to contradict the received opinion, may be his expanded nostrils.” See LEVIATITAN.

accounted for by supposing the whole register to have

been added either by some subsequent author, or perhaps NEGINOTH, nidad This word occurs in the by the authority of the Great Synagogue ; for it seems superscriptions of Psalms 4, 6, 51, 67, 76, and has occa- to be unconnected with the narrative of Nehemiah, and, sioned much discussion. The Septuagint and Vulgate if genuine, must ascribe to him a longevity which render it by “song," ujivos yalpos; Vulgate, carmen, appears scarcely credible.

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mnd fed by the priplaced there wit day on returand the

NEHILOTH, nisnis This word occurs in the kind of snake called parias, or paruas, dedicated to superscription of the fifth Psalm, and is supposed to be Æsculapius. The serpent of Melite had priests and the name of a wind instrument, probably, as Calmet ministers, a table and a bowl. It was kept in a tower, asserts, of the fute kind, being derived from 550 hhalil, and fed by the priests with cakes made of flour and "to bore through," whence 70 hhalil,,“ a pipe." The honey, which they placed there in the bowl. Having Septuagint and Vulgate derive it from 903 nachal, “to done this they retired. The next day on returning to inherit," and render, with some variation, “For that the apartment, the food was found to be eaten; and the which (or she who) obtained (or obtains) the inherit- same quantity was again put into the bowl; for it was ance.” The Arabic has simply “ Concerning the inherit- not lawful for any one to see the sacred reptile. Acance." The Targum, however, renders the title both of cording to Juvenal, the priests of Isis in his time conthis and the preceding Psalm, “To sing upon the dances, trived that the silver idols of snakes, kept in her temple, a song of David;" while Aben Ezra understands this should move their heads to a supplicating votary; and word, as he does Neginoth, to denote some old and well- extravagant notions connected with serpents are not known melody to which this Psalm was to be played. | wanting in the paintings of the tombs of the kings at Jarchi refers it to an army or multitude; but the gene- Thebes, and are traced in the religions of all nations of ral opinion is, that it refers to some kind of wind instru- antiquity. The Egyptian asp is a species of cobra de ment, but whether flutes or bagpipes, cannot now be capello, and is still very common in Egypt, where it is determined. See MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.

called nashir, a word signifying spreading,' from its dilating its breast when angry. It is the same which

the hawee, or snake-players, the Psylli of modern days, NEHUSHTAN, inwn) (2 Kings 18. 4,) a name use in their juggling tricks. given by Hezekiah to the brazen serpent that Moses “It is doubtful if the snake with its tail in its mouth had set up in the wilderness, (Numb. 21. 8,) and which was really adopted by the Egyptians as the emblem of had been preserved by the Israelites to that time. The | eternity. It occurs on papyri encircling the figure of superstitious people having made an idol of this serpent, Harpocrates; but there is no evidence of its having that Hezekiah caused it to be burnt. In this case, they, no meaning, and I do not remember to have seen it on any doubt with a recollection of its Divine origin, regarded monuments of an early Egyptian epoch. it as symbolizing the Divine healing power, and as such “The snake in former times, played a conspicuous resorted to it and burned incense before it when afflicted part in the mysteries of religion; many of the subjects with certain diseases.

on the tombs of the kings at Thebes in particular, show Serpent worship, under various forms, was one of the the importance it was thought to enjoy in a future most prevalent idolatries of the ancient world, and in state; and Ælian seems to speak of a 'subterranean Egypt we find that it prevailed to a considerable extent. chapel and closet at each corner of the Egyptian temPlutarch states, that “the asp is worshipped on account ples, in which the thermuthis asp was kept,' as if it were of a certain resemblance between it and the operations of the universal custom throughout the country to keep a the Divine power; and being in no fear of old age, and sacred serpent. That the asp was universally honoured moving with great facility, though it does not seem to appears to be highly probable; but other serpents did enjoy the proper organs for motion, it is looked upon as not enjoy the same distinction, and one was looked upon a proper symbol of the stars."

by the Egyptians as a type of the evil being, under the Sir John Gardner Wilkinson tells us, “ It was one of name of Aphophis, 'the giant.' It was represented to those creatures which were sacred throughout the coun have been killed by Horus; and in this fable may be try; though it enjoyed greater honours in places where | traced that of Apollo and Pytho, as well as the war of the deities of whom it was the type presided, and if the giants against the gods in Greek mythology. By we may believe Pausanias, particularly at ‘Omphis in the serpent the Jews, also typified the enemy of manEgypt. Phylarchus relates that great honours were kind; and such is the aversion entertained for snakes paid to the asp by the Egyptians; and from the care by the Moslems, that they hold in abhorrence everythey took of it, that it was rendered so tame as to live thing which bears a resemblance to them; and a superwith their children without doing them any harm. It stitious fancy induces them to break in two every hair came from its place of retreat, when called by the snap- that accidentally falls from their beards, lest it should ping of the fingers; and after dinner some paste mixed turn to one of these hateful reptiles. Some venerated it with honey and wine being placed upon the table, it with unbounded honours; it was an emblem of the was called to take its repast. The same signal was world, which Eusebius says was sometimes described by used, when any one walked in the dark at night to a circle intersected by a serpent passing horizontally warn the reptile of his approach.

through it; some gods were accompanied by it as a type “This serpent was called Thermuthis, and with it | of wisdom; and several religions considered it emblethe statues of Isis were crowned as with a diadem. matic both of a good and bad deity. The Hindoo serAsp-formed crowns' are frequently represented on the pent Caliya, slain by Vishnoo, in his incarnation of heads of goddesses and queens, in the Egyptian sculp- | Crishna, (which corresponded to the Python and Aphotures. The statues of the mother and wife of Amunoph, phis of the Greek and Egyptian mythologies) was the (the vocal Memnon,) in the plain of Thebes, have a enemy of the gods, though still looked upon with a crown of this kind; and the Rosetta stone mentions religious feeling; the Mexicans and Scandinavians con'asp-formed crowns,' though this last might refer to the sidered the snake the type of an evil deity; and the front of the cap usually worn by the king. Instances tempter of mankind was represented under the same sometimes occur of a fillet of asps bound round the form. Gods and heroes obtained credit for ridding the royal crown, and I have once seen the same encircling world of these hateful creatures; and humble indivithe head-dress of Osiris.

duals were sometimes made to partake of this honour. "Ælian relates many strange stories of the asp and Ælian speaks of snakes expelled by Helen from the isle the respect paid to it by the Egyptians; but we may of Pharos, on planting a herb, called after her Helenium, suppose that in his sixteen species of asps, other snakes which she had received from Polydamna, the wife of were included. He also speaks of a dragon which was | Thonis; and a similar kind office is attributed to some sacred in the Egyptian Melite (Metelis?); and another Christian saints. A remnant of superstitious feeling in

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favour of the serpent still exists in Egypt, in the respect | St. Peter and St. Paul are thought to have suffered paid to the snake of Shekh Hereedee; which is supposed martyrdom, consequent on this persecution, A.D. 65. to perform cures for the credulous and devout, when See PERSECUTION. propitiated through the pockets of its keepers." See | The revolt of the Jews from the Romans occurred SERPENT WORSHIP.

about A.D. 65 and 66, in the twelfth and thirteenth

years of the reign of Nero. The city of Jerusalem NEIGHBOUR, yo ria. (Deut. 5. 20.) This word

making an insurrection A.D. 66, in consequence of the

arbitrary measures of Florus, he there slew three thotgenerally signifies a person near, and one connected

sand six hundred persons, and thus began the war. A with us by the bonds of humanity, and whom charity

| little while afterwards those of Jerusalem killed the requires that we should consider as a friend and rela

Roman garrison. Cestius on this came to Jerusalem to tion. At the time of Our Saviour, the Pharisees had

suppress the sedition; but he was forced to retire after restrained the meaning of the word neighbour to those

having besieged it about six weeks, and was routed in of their own nation, or to their own friends, holding

his retreat. About the end of A.D. 66, Nero gare that to hate their enemy was not forbidden by the law.

| Vespasian the command of his troops against the Jews. (Matt. 5. 43.) But Our Saviour informed them that the

This general carried on the war in Galilee and Judæa whole world were neighbours; that they ought not to do

during A.D. 67 and 68, the thirteenth and fourteenth of to another what they would not have done to themselves; and that this charity extended even to enemies.

Nero, but that cruel man killing himself in the four

| teenth year of his reign, Jerusalem was not besieged till The beautiful parable of the Good Samaritan is set forth

after his death, A.D. 70, the first of Vespasian. to illustrate this principle. (Luke 10. 29-37.)

NEREUS, Nnpevs, the name of a Christian at Rome mentioned by St. Paul. (Rom. 16. 15.) Nothing NEST, 17 kin, (Numb. 24. 21; Deut. 22. 6.) a is certainly known respecting him.

bird's nest.

In the Mosaic code it is enjoined upon the Hebrews, NERGAL, 5270 (2Kings 17. 30,) an idol of the

that “ If a bird's nest chance to be before thee in the Cutheans, whence the proper name 73870 373 Nergal

way, in any tree or on the ground, whether they be Sharezer. (Jerem. 39, 3,13.) The Rabbins consider it

young ones or eggs, and the dam sitting upon the young as a transposition of Siairn tarnigol, a cock, and pre

or upon the eggs, thou shalt not take the dam with the tend that this idol had the form of a cock. The

young, but thou shalt in any wise let the dam go, and nearest approximation to it is the Aramaic 1'73 Nereg,

take the young to thee, that it may be well with thee, the planet Mars, but nothing certain is known respecting

and that thou mayest prolong thy days.(Deut.22.6.7.) this idol.

The deserts which the Israelites now trod, and much

of the mountainous country of Judæa, abounded NERO. The emperor Nero is not named in with quails and plovers, and other birds of a similar Scripture; but he is indicated by his title of emperor, kind, whose eggs and whose young ones were then, and by his surname Cæsar, and in his reign commenced as now, sought after as food, and esteemed peculiar that war between the Jews and the Romans in which delicacies. They were necessary to the subsistence of the former were almost exterminated. To him St. Paul the inhabitants of the desert, in which other supplies appealed after his imprisonment by Felix, and his would sometimes fail. The object of this law was to examination by Festus, who was swayed by the Jews. prevent any unnecessary cruelty from mingling with the St. Paul was therefore carried to Rome, where he arrived proceeding. Let not another affliction be added to that A.D. 61. Here he continued two years, preaching the of her bereavement. Do not deprive her of her liberty Gospel with boldness, till he became celebrated even in and her life. She will soon forget the loss you are the emperor's court, in which were many Christians; causing, and employ herself in the rearing another brood; for he salutes the Philippians in the name of the brethren | therefore, “ Thou shalt not take the dam with her young. who were of the household of Cæsar, that is, of the “ Were there,” says Dr. Primatt, “no other text throughcourt of Nero. (Phil. 1. 12,13; 4. 22.) We have no out the Bible from which to prove the duty of mercy to particular information how he cleared himself from the | brute animals but this only, this one is enough to rest accusations of the Jews, whether by answering before it upon. The goodness and condescension of the great Nero, or that his enemies abandoned their prosecution, Creator, in this seemingly trifling instance of a birds which latter seems more probable. (Acts 28. 21.) It | nest, are so remarkably displayed, and our attention to appears, however, that he was liberated in the year 63. the law, and our compassion to the distressed bird, are

Nero, the successor of Claudius, and the fifth em enforced with the promise of a blessing of so extraordi peror of Rome, the most wicked and depraved of men, nary a kind for so small a service, that to reflect on it began his persecution of the Christian Church A.D. 64, at all, one would think sufficient to soften the hardest on pretence of the burning of Rome, of which some heart." have thought himself to be the author. He endeavoured Michaëlis says, “It is the command of Moses, that it to throw all the odium of it on the Christians: those a person find a bird's nest in the way, whether on a ti were seized first that were known publicly as such, and | or on the ground, though he may take the eggs, ortum by their means many others were discovered. They | young, he shall not take the mother, but always alion, were condemned to death and were exposed to every her to escape. It is clear that he here speaks, nos variety of torture. Some were sewed up in the skins of those birds which nestle upon people's property; in beasts, and then exposed to dogs to be torn in pieces; words, that he does not, for instance, prohibit an some were nailed to crosses; others perished by fire. from totally destroying a sparrow's, or a swallo The latter were sewed up in pitched coverings, which that might happen to be troublesome to him, or to being set on fire, served as torches to the people, and pate to the utmost of his power the birds that i were lighted up in the night. Nero gave permission to | his field or vineyard. He merely enjoins what use his own gardens, as the scene of all these cruelties. to do on finding such nests on the way, that is,

her the utter From this time edicts were published against the Chris- | one's property: thus guarding against either the tians and many martyrs suffered, especially in Italy. ) extinction, or too great diminution of any species

es property; in other

ne was


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indigenous to the country. And this, in some countries, I noted, which would naturally make the Hebrew legislator is still, with respect to partridges, an established rule ; | singularly attentive to the preservation of birds. which, without a special law, is observed by every real “(1.) He was conducting a colony of people into a sportsman, and the breach of which subjects him to the country with which they were unacquainted, and where reproaches of his brethren. Nor would any further they might very probably attempt to extirpate any illustration be necessary, if Moses spoke only of edible species of bird that seemed troublesome, without advertbirds, and as if merely concerned for their preservation. ing to its real importance; just as the Virginian colonists

the case. His expression is so general, did, in the case of their crow. that we must needs understand it of all birds whatever, “(2.) Palestine is situated in a climate producing even those that are most destructive, besides what are poisonous snakes and scorpions, and between deserts and properly birds of prey. And here many readers may mountains, from which it would be overrun with those think it strange that Moses should be represented as snakes, if the birds that lived on them were extirpated. providing for the preservation of noxious birds; yet, in L “ (3.) From the same deserts, too, it would be overfact, nothing can be more conformable to legislative whelmed with immense multitudes of locusts and mice, wisdom, especially on the introduction of colonies into a if it were destitute of those birds that resort thither to new country. To extirpate, or even to persecute to too feed on them; not to mention the formidable swarms of great an extent, any species of birds in such a country, flies in the East, and particularly in Palestine.” from an idea, often too hastily entertained, of its being Of birds, that which most attracts the attention of a hostile to the interests of the inhabitants, is a measure stranger in the West Indies is the large carrion crow, of very doubtful policy. It ought, in general, to be con called by the negroes the “John Crow," found in the sidered as a part of Nature's bounty, bestowed for some island of Jamaica. It is a large, heavy, sluggish bird, important purpose; but what that is, we certainly dis- about the size of a British turkey, the head exactly cover too late, when it has been extirpated, and the evil resembling that of the latter. It is black in colour, and consequences of that measure are begun to be felt. In in the interior of the country is seen floating at an this matter, the legislator should take a lesson from the immense height above every hamlet. Its sense of smell naturalist. Linnæus, whom all will allow to be a perfect is so keen, that it will discern the effluvia from the body master in the science of natural history, has made the of the smallest dead animal at several miles' distance; above remark in his dissertation entitled Historia Natu- and has been known to scent the dead bodies in wrecks ralis cui Bono? and gives two remarkable examples to when the vessels themselves were out of sight of land. confirm it: the one in the case of the little crow of They are found so beneficial to the health of this island, Virginia, (Gracula quiscula,) extirpated at a great ex- in thus consuming all putrid animal substances, that a pense, on account of its supposed destructive effects, and fine of a doubloon (51. currency) is exacted for killing which the inhabitants would soon gladly have re-intro- one of them. A similar law prevails in the southern duced at double the expense; the other in that of the part of the United States for the same reason; but the Egyptian vulture, or racham (Vultur percnoplerus). | bird there is the turkey buzzard, and it is commonly In the city of Cairo, every place is so full of dead car- | known as “the five-pound bird." casses, that the stench of them would not fail to produce | The Psalmist says, “ Yea, the sparrow bath found putrid diseases; and where the caravans travel, dead a house, and the swallow a nest for herself, where she asses and camels are always lying. The racham, which may lay her young, even thine altars, O Lord of hosts, molests no living thing, consumes these carcasses, and | my King, and my God.” Rosenmüller observes upon clears the country of them, and it even follows the track | this passage, “ By the altars of Jehovah we are to underof the caravan to Mecca, for the same purpose; and so stand the Temple. The words probably refer to the grateful are the people for the service it thus does the custom of several nations of antiquity, that birds which country, that devout and opulent Mohammedans are build their nests on the temples, or within the limits of wont to establish foundations for its support, by provid- them, were not suffered to be driven away, much less ing for the expense of a certain number of beasts to be killed, but found a secure and uninterrupted dwelling. daily killed, and given every morning and evening to the Hence, according to a tradition preserved by Herodotus, immense flocks of rachams that resort to the place where when a man named Aristodikus disturbed the birds' criminals are executed, and rid the city, as it would nests of the temple of Kumæ, and took the young from seem, of their carcasses in like manner. These eleemo | them, a voice is said to have spoken from the interior of synary institutions, and the sacred regard shown to these the temple, Most villanous of men, how darest thou birds by the Mohammedans, are likewise testified by Dr. | do such a thing? to drive away such as seek refuge in Shaw, in his Travels. These examples serve pretty my temple?' and the Athenians were so enraged at strongly to show, that in respect at least to birds, we | Atarbes, who had killed a sparrow which built on the ought to place so much confidence in the wisdom and temple of Æsculapius, that they killed him. Among kindness of nature, as not rashly to extirpate any species | the Arabs, who are more closely related to the Hebrews, which she has established in a country, as a great and birds which have built their nests on the temple of perhaps indispensable blessing. Limit its numbers we Mecca, were inviolable from the earliest times. In the certainly may, if they incommode us; but still so as that very ancient poem of a Dschorhamidish prince, published the race shall not become extinct. Of quadrupeds and by A. Schultens, in which he laments that his tribe had insects I say nothing, because with regard to them we been deprived of the protection of the sanctuary of have not such experience to guide us. No inconvenience Mecca, it is said, has arisen in England, nor even in that populous part

We lament the house, whose dove of Germany between the Weser and the Oder, from the

Was never suffered to be hurt; loss of the wolves; although I cannot understand, but

She remained there secure; in it also must leave it to naturalists to find out, how it should

The sparrow built its nest. happen, that in any country, beasts of prey can be extir- Another ancient Arabian poet, Nabega, the Dhobianit, pated with less inconvenience than birds; wild cats, for swears by the sanctuary which affords shelter to the instance, and to bring that parallel closer, than owls, birds which seek it there. Niebuhr says, ' Among the both of which live upon mice?

Mohammedans, not only is the Kaaba a refuge for “ There are yet three peculiar circumstances to be pigeons, but also on the mosques over the graves of Ali

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and Hossein, on the Dsjamea, or chief mosque at Helle, ent purposes. In one the hen performs the office of and in other cities, they are equally undisturbed.'” incubation; another, consisting of a little thatched roof,

The nests of different birds are wonderfully different. and having a perch, is occupied by the male, who, with One is a basket-maker, and he interweaves a variety his chirping note, cheers the female during her maternal of twigs, some of them flexible, and others which it duties. It is added that the Hindoos are very fond of would be thought that he could hardly bend to his these birds on account of their docility and sagacity. purpose, until he has formed a basket; sometimes coarse When young, they teach them to fetch and carry; and enough, at other times excelled only in beauty, in deli- at the time when the young women resort to the public cacy, in closeness, and in strength, by the savages of fountains, their lovers instruct the baya to pluek the Southern Africa. These are the missel-thrush, the bull-teca, or golden ornament from the forehead of their finch, the jay, the rook, and many others. Some are favourites, and bring it to their masters. Dr. Fryer says weavers, and few of the fabrics of the loom excel their of the same bird, “ She builds her nest like a steepleproductions in the complicated variety and delicacy of hive, with winding meanders in it. Before it bangs a the web. The beak beats the shuttle. The chaffinch, penthouse, to defend it from the rain. It is tied with so the greenfinch, the water-wagtail, and the hedge-sparrow, slender a thread to the bough of the tree, that the squirare weavers. Others are tailors. Mr. Wilson, the orni- rel dares not venture to attack it. Yet it is strong thologist, had the curiosity to examine the nest of the enough to bear the hanging habitation of the ingenious orchard starling. One of the stalks of dried grass—the contriver, free from all the assaults of its antagonists, thread that the bird had used—had been passed no less and all the accidents of gusts and storms." than thirty-four times through the material. One bird “I observed," says a distinguished naturalist, “a pair of —the tailor-bird par excellence-picks up a dead leaf, goldfinches beginning to make their nest in my garden. and, with the dried fibres of grass for his thread, sews it They had formed the groundwork with moss and grass to the side of a living one, and then lines the bag with as usual; but on my scattering small parcels of wool in feathers or with down. Another, more ingenious, different parts of the garden, they in a great measure weaves his own thread. He gathers some fibres from a left off the use of their own stuff and employed the wool. cotton-tree, and spins it into a thread with his bill and Afterwards I gave them cotton, on which they rejected his toes. We have no native British bird who follows the wool and proceeded with the cotton. The third day the tailor's trade. Some are masons, others are carpen- I supplied them with fine down, on which they forsook ters. There are those who build on platforms, or who both the others, and finished the work with the last perforate the sand, or even the stone-banks. Some form article. This they rendered firm and compact by presstheir nests of the most adhesive cement; others give to ing the materials with their breasts, and turning them. their roofs the form of a dome; others content themselves selves round and round upon them in every direction. with no nests at all; and—the worst set of the whole- They then formed a plain border round the nest, which there are some who expel the rightful proprietors from they afterwards turned; and upon this they piled up their home, and then set them at complete defiance. tufts of cotton, which they felted into the wall by beating One of the most singularly composed nests is that of the and pressing upon it, as with the other parts; arranging Hindoostan baya, or bottle-nested sparrow. It is formed every projecting corner with their beaks, so as to interof long grass, woven together in the shape of a bottle, lace it into the tissue. What nice hand, with every with the neck hanging downwards, and suspended by implement and means of art,' could make a bird's nest? the other end to the extremity of a flexible branch, the In the British Museum there is an extensive collection more effectually to secure the eggs and young birds from of birds' nests; no two of them are exactly alike, and serpents, monkeys, squirrels, and birds of prey. The many of them differ very materially. nests contain different apartments appropriated to differ- |

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NET, na mazor. (Prov. 1. 17.) Solomon says, water-fowl. The lotus beds were of considerable extent, “ Surely in vain the net is spread in the sight of any and appear to have been kept constantly flooded to the bird."

depth of about six or seven inches. These reedy shades Nets were used by the ancients to catch birds, fish, or therefore formed very dense coverts, and were used by wild beasts, and having in the articles FISHING, FOWLING, the fowlers for setting their trap-nets, which from the and HUNTING, given some illustrations of these practices extreme abundance of aquatic birds in Egypt were made from the Scriptures and the monuments of Egypt, we so large, that the exertions of several persons were here limit ourselves to observing that our wood-cut necessary to close them. One of the fowlers appears to No. 1., exhibits the large net used in Egypt for catching have been usually concealed among the lily stems in

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