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order to watch the time when a sufficiency of birds / NETTLES. This name is assigned, in our version, would be collected in the net. There are no percep- | to two different words in the original. The first is tible traces of the use of bait in this kind of net; and 50907 hharul. (Job 30. 7; Prov. 24. 31; and Zeph. 2. 9.) it is probable that the simple clearance of the water Celsius says it is the thorn-bush, and from the passage from its reeds and lilies would be sufficient to entice in Job it is evident the nettle could not be intended, for the aquatic birds of Egypt, as it still is the river-fowl a plant is referred to large enough for people to take on the streams of Western Africa and India.
shelter under. It may very probably refer to the Cactus Our second wood-cut exhibits a different kind of ficus Indicus, or prickly pear. This plant in Syria grows
to the size of a large shrub, the stem of which is as thick
Nets, No. 2. From the Egyptian Monuments. trap-net which was requisite for birds frequenting the districts bordering on the desert, such as the partridge, the quail, and the bustard. This was usually a net stretched over a frame, which closed with a spring when the bait was touched; the mechanism of the contrivance appears to be equally simple and ingenious.
The Prophet Ezekiel says, “ Thus saith the Lord God, I will therefore spread out my net over thee with a company of many people; and they shall bring thee up in my tent.” (32. 3.) Roberts observes, that in India, “When a person has been caught by the stratagem of another, it is said, 'He is caught in his net.'
He is like a deer caught in the net.' Has a man escaped: “The fellow has broken the net. “Catch him in your net! will you catch the lightning?”
NETHINIM, O'n Sept. Nabuvalot, were ser
Cactus Opuntia. vants dedicated to the service of the Tabernacle and
The second word is wap kemosh. (Prov. 24. 31; Temple to perform the most laborious offices, as carrying Isai. 34. 13; Hosea 9. 6.) This is by the Vulgate of wood and of water. As the Levites were subordinate rendered urtica, and may probably mean the nettle. to the priests, so they, the Levites, had others under | Hasselquist, when at Jerusalem in April, noticed the them called Nethinim. They were not originally of Roman nettle, (Urtica pilulifera,) but Palestine abounds Hebrew descent, but are supposed to have been chiefly in thorny plants, several of which are slightly noticed by the posterity of the Gibeonites, who for their fraudulent | Dr. Edward Daniel Clarke. stratagem whereby they imposed upon Joshua and the Hebrew princes, (Josh. 9.3-27,) were condemned to this employment, which was a sort of honourable servitude. NEW MOON, FEAST OF, DVID 287 rashi We read in Ezra, that the Nethinim were devoted hhadashim; veourviai. (Numb. 10.10; 28. 11-15.) In by David and the other princes to the service of the order to exclude any opportunity for the exercise of the Temple, (Ezra 8. 20,) and they are called the children superstitious practices of the Gentiles who sacrificed to of Solomon's servants, (Ezra 2. 58,) being probably a the moon, Moses commands that, on the new moons, in mixture of the race of the Gibeonites, and some of the addition to the daily sacrifices, two bullocks should be remains of the Canaanites, whom Solomon constrained offered to God, a ram, and seven sheep of a year old, to various servitudes. (1 Kings 9. 20,21.) The Nethi together with a meal offering, and a libation. These nim were carried into captivity with the tribe of Judah, | were to constitute the burnt-offering, and a goat the sinand great numbers were placed not far from the Caspian offering. The return of the new moons was announced Sea, whence Ezra brought two hundred and twenty of by the sounding of the silver trumpets, Ding917 ha-isothem into Judæa. (ch. 8. 17.) Those who followed tseroth, and in this way provision was made for keeping Zerubbabel made up three hundred and ninety-two. up a knowledge of the end and commencement of each (Nehem. 3. 26.) This number was but small in regard | month. The kings, it appears, after the introduction of to their offices; so that we find afterwards a solemnity | the monarchical form of government, were in the habit called by Josephus xylophoria, in which the people car- of offering up sacrifices at the return of the new moons, ried wood to the Temple, with great ceremony, to keep (1 Sam. 20. 5; 24-27,) and those persons whose piety up the fire of the altar of burnt sacrifices. They had a led them to seek for religious instruction, visited, on particular place in Jerusalem, where they dwelt, called those occasions, the prophets. (2Kings 4. 23.) Labour Önhel, in order to be near to the service of the Temple. I was not interdicted on the day of the new moon. As
the new moon, however, of the seventh month, or Tisri
NEW MOON-NEW TESTAMENT.
(October), was the commencement of the civil year, it only. The whole collection of their writings was not was observed as a festival. Hence it is called the day of then formed; they were handed about singly amongst “ trumpet-blowing," nynn Dir yom taruah, and also the early Christians, and it was natural to defer the col“the memorial of blowing of trumpets.” (Levit. 23. 24; | lection of them into one volume until after the decease Numb. 29. 1-6.) Beside the sacrifices common to other of those holy men, from whom the Church had, whilst new moons, a bullock was then offered, a ram, seven they lived, still reason to expect more inspired writings. lambs of a year old, a meal-offering of flour and oil, Neither the names of the persons concerned in making and a libation of wine for the burnt-offering. (Numb. this collection, nor the exact time when it was under29. 2-9.)
taken, can now be ascertained with certainty, but the It does not appear that the days of the new moon most general opinion seems to be, that they were first were ascertained by astronomical calculation, as the Rab collected by St. John, as appears from the testimony of bins assert, but the days so called were the days on | Eusebius, Hist. Eccles., lib. iii., c. 24; Mosheim, howwhich the new moon first made its appearance, as is ever, considers his remarks only to refer to St. John maintained by the Caraites. This is evident from the having approved of the Gospels, Matthew, Mark, and fact that Moses did not regulate his chronology on astro- Luke, and added his own to them by way of supplenomical principles, but by the aspect of the earth, the ment. Concerning any other books of the New Testareturn of the seasons, &c. The Talmudists likewise ment, Eusebius is totally silent. The volume called the speak of the signs of the appearance of the new moon, New Testament consists of several pieces, which are and it is clear that neither Philo nor Josephus knew any- ascribed to eight persons; the style of the Apostles is thing of the distinction between the astronomical and different, so that the Epistles could not have been written the apparent new moon. Still the author of the Book by the same hand. The better we are acquainted with of Kings appears to have made use of the astronomical | Jewish and heathen antiquities, with the history of the calculation, as he speaks of the twenty-seventh day of Romans, and the ancient geography of Palestine, the the twelfth month in Babylon, while Jeremiah, who was face of which has been totally changed by repeated conin Palestine, calls the same day the twenty-fifth. (2Kings quests, the more clearly we shall be able to discern their 25. 27; Jerem. 52. 31.) The modern Jews, in reference agreement with the New Testament, even in some cirto the escape of David from the meditated vengeance of cumstances so minute that probably they would have Saul, (1Sam. 20. 27,) observe the return of the new escaped the most artful and most circumspect imposture. moon for two days in succession. See Month; Moon. The books of the New Testament are quoted or alluded
to by a series of the most ancient Fathers, and even
those who were contemporary with the Apostles, such NEW TESTAMENT. The sacred books of the as Barnabas, Clemens Romanus, Hermes, Ignatius and New Testament, which were written after the ascension Polycarp ; they are also quoted by the adversaries of the of Christ into heaven, are called ń kalvn AlaOnkn, the Christian faith. This sort of evidence, Dr. Paley reNew Covenant, a title adopted at a very early age. Our marks, is of all others the most unquestionable, the Saviour, in the institution of the Holy Supper, as related least liable to any practices of fraud, and is not dimiby the Evangelist Matthew, took the cup and gave | nished by the lapse of ages. thanks, and gave it to his disciples, saying, “ Drink ye Tertullian, a presbyter of the church of Carthage, all of it; for this is my blood of the New Testament , who was born in the year 160, affirms that, when he [or covenant], which is shed for many,” for the remis wrote, the Christian Scriptures were open to the inspecsion of sins. (Matt. 26. 27,28.) The prophet Jeremiah tion of all the world, and, in his time, there was already foretels, in distinct terms, the forming of this new cove a Latin version of some part of the New Testament, if nant: “Behold, the days are come, saith the Lord, that not of the whole of it; for, in one instance, he expressly. I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, appeals from the language of such version to the authoand with the house of Judah.” (Jerem. 31. 31.) The rity of the authentic copies in Greek: “Sciamus planè Apostle Paul has likewise sanctioned this name in his non sic esse in Græco authentico.” The five apostolical Second Epistle to the Corinthians, (3. 14,) when speak- Fathers above-mentioned supply an important link in ing of the Jews, “ For until this day remaineth the same the unbroken chain of evidence which was intended for veil untaken away in the reading of the Old Testament,” the conviction of the latest ages. malaia AlaOnkn, the old covenant, in opposition to Barnabas was the fellow-labourer of St. Paul : “Now ý kaivn AlaOnkn, the New Testament or covenant; there were in the church that was at Antioch certain and in the Epistle to the Hebrews, (9. 15,) “ For this | prophets and teachers, as Barnabas and Simeon, that was cause he is the mediator of the New Testament (or cove called Niger,” &c. (Acts 13. 1.) “Or I only and Barnant]." The first instance in which the term kaivn nabas, have we not power to forbear working?" (1Cor. AiaOnkn occurs in the sense of writings of the new 9. 6.) Barnabas is the author of an epistle that was covenant is in the treatise by Origen, IIepi Apxwv, lib. held in the greatest esteem by the ancients, and is still 4, c. 1. The primitive Church gave this name to the extant. This epistle contains the exact words of several writings of all the Apostles, and the first Christian texts in the New Testament, and many phrases and writers used it in the sense of a testament, as the Latin reasonings used by the Apostle Paul, whom he resemversion gives it of the passage in Matthew, Hic enim bles, as his fellow-labourer, without copying him. est sanguis meus Novi Testamente, which version is of Clemens Romanus, bishop of Rome, and fellowgreat antiquity, and of acknowledged importance as an labourer of the Apostle Paul, as mentioned in the 4th authority.
chapter of the Epistle to the Philippians,—“I entreat The sacred writers make use of no title to denote the thee, also, true yoke-fellow, help these women which collective books of the New Testament; maga ypaon, | laboured with me in the Gospel, with Clement also, and “all Scripture," mentioned by St. Paul in the Second with other my fellow-labourers, whose names are in the Epistle to Timothy 3. 16, could not mean the writings book of life,"—wrote an epistle which has not been preof the Apostles, as Timothy had not learned these from served to us entire, in the name of the Church at Rome, a child; it must, therefore, refer to the same as in verse to the Church at Corinth, in order to compose certain 15, ta iepa ypaumata, “the Holy Scriptures,” which differences that prevailed there. In this epistle there means the writings of the Old Testament Scriptures are several passages which exhibit the words of Christ
Apostleth, the house covenant with saith the new core
stand in tably to the most a ined Bishpof the
as they stand in the Gospel, without mentioning them as many texts, in a better manner than we otherwise could quotations, agreeably to the usage which then generally have done. prevailed. He also quotes most of the Epistles. It is From a very early period of Christianity, writers can supposed that Clement was ordained Bishop of Rome, be produced who considered the New Testament as the A.D. 91, and that he died in the third year of the reign work of the Apostles and the Evangelists. Chrysostom of Trajan, A.D. 100.
remarks, with great force and justice, that Celsus and PorHermes also was contemporary with St. Paul, by phyry, two enemies of the Christian religion, are powerful whom he is mentioned in the Epistle to the Romans, witnesses for the antiquity of the New Testament, since ch. 16. 14: “Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes," &c. they could not have argued against the tenets of the Hermes wrote a book towards the close of the first cen Gospel, if it had not existed in that early period. tury, entitled The Pastor, or Shepherd, which was highly Celsus flourished towards the close of the second cenesteemed by the early Fathers. It was originally written tury. He not only mentions by name, but also quotes in Greek, though now extant in a Latin version only, passages from the books of the New Testament. In no and contains numerous allusions to the New Testament. one instance did he question the Gospels as books of
Ignatius was bishop of Antioch, A.D. 70; and suf- history. He, however, accuses the Christians of alterfered martyrdom, A.D. 107. If he was not (as some ing the Gospels, which refers to the alterations made by have supposed,) one of the little children whom Jesus the Marcionites, Valentinians, and other heretics. took up in his arms and blessed, it is at least certain | Porphyry was born A.D. 233, and was of Tyrian that he conversed familiarly with the Apostles, and was origin. Unfortunately for the present age, the mistaken perfectly acquainted with their doctrine. He has left zeal of Constantine and other Christian emperors in several epistles that are still extant, in which he dis- causing his writings against Christianity to be destroyed, tinctly quotes the Gospels of Matthew and John, and has deprived us of the means of knowing the full extent cites or alludes to the Acts, and most of the Epistles. of his objections against the Christian faith. Enabled
Polycarp was an immediate disciple of the Apostle by his birth to study the Greek as well as the Syriac, John, by whom he was appointed Bishop of Smyrna, he was, of all the adversaries of the Christian religion, and had conversed with many who had seen Jesus Christ. the best qualified for inquiring into the authenticity of He is supposed to have been the angel of the church of the sacred writings. He possessed every advantage Smyrna, to whom the epistle in the Apocalypse is which natural abilities or political situation could afford, addressed. He suffered martyrdom, A.D. 166. Of his | to discover whether the New Testament was the genuine various writings only one epistle remains; in this nearly work of the Apostles and Evangelists, or whether it was forty allusions are made to the different books of the imposed upon the world after the decease of its preNew Testament.
tended authors; but no trace of this suspicion is to be The adversaries and heretics of the first three centu found, and it must be allowed that it never occurred to ries also furnish testimony still more important than Porphyry to suppose that it was spurious. even that of the orthodox Fathers. Cerinthus, who was | Julian the Apostate flourished A.D. 350-364, surcontemporary with the Apostle John, maintains the named thus, from his renunciation of Christianity after necessity of circumcision, and the observances of the he mounted the imperial throne. He resorted to the Mosaic law; and because St. Paul delivered a contrary most artful political means for undermining Christianity, doctrine in his Epistles, Cerinthus and his followers but from various extracts of his work against the denied that he was a Divine Apostle. St. Paul's Epistles | Christians, transcribed by Jerome and Cyril, it is evident are, therefore, the very same that we now have, were that he did not deny the truth of the Gospel history, as extant in the first century, and were acknowledged to be a history, though he denied the deity of Jesus Christ. his by the Cerinthians; and as this sect received and He quotes from the Four Gospels, and the Acts of the approved the Gospel of St. Matthew because it did not | Apostles; he states the early date of these records; he contradict their tenets, it is consequently evident that his calls them by the names which they now bear; he noGospel likewise was extant in the first century.
where attempts to question their genuineness or auIn the same age the Ebionites rejected all the Epistles thenticity, nor does he give the slightest intimation of St. Paul, and called him an apostate because he de that he suspected the whole or any part of them to be parted from the Levitical law; and they adopted the forgeries. Gospel of St. Matthew, which, however, they corrupted | Towards the end of the second, or in the third cenby various alterations and additions. This must also | tury of the Christian era, certain pieces were published, prove that the Gospel of St. Matthew was then pub | written by heretics and false teachers, in order to support lished, and that St. Paul's Epistles were known.
their errors; they succeeded only among sects whose Among the heretics who erased and altered passages interest it was to defend them as genuine and authentic; of Scripture, to make it agree with their doctrine, was or if they sometimes imposed on the simplicity of ChrisMarcion, who flourished in the beginning of the second tian believers, these soon recovered from the imposition. century. He affirmed that the Gospel of St. Matthew, | These pretended sacred books had nothing Apostolic in the Epistle to the Hebrews, with those of Peter and their character: their origin was obscure, and their James, as well as the Old Testament in general, were publication modern; the doctrines they professed to writings not for Christians but for Jews. He published support were different from those of the Apostles; indeed, a new edition of the Gospel of St. Luke, and the first a design to support some doctrine or practice which ten Epistles of St. Paul, in which Epiphanius charges arose subsequently to the Apostolic age is apparent him with altering every passage that contradicted his throughout. own opinions. In consequence of Marcion's rejecting | There is, therefore, sufficient proof, that during the some books entirely, and mutilating others, the early first three centuries of the Christian era, the authenticity Christians were led to examine into the evidence of of the tracts composing the New Testament was univerthese sacred writings, and to collate copies of them, and, sally admitted. These writings, then, if they are as on this account, to speak very frequently, in their works, | ancient as they claim to be, certainly carry with them as well of whole books as of particular passages; and an undeniable and indelible mark of their Divine ori.. thus we who live in a later age are enabled to authen- ginal, for the Epistles refer to certain miraculous gifts ticate their books, and to arrive at the genuine reading of which are said to have been imparted by the imposi
tion of hands, and to have been conferred by God, in acquired. One of them, it is true, was a man of great confirmation of the oral and written doctrines of the erudition, and born at Tarsus; but he was educated at Apostles.
Jerusalem, and his erudition was that of a Jewish not a St. Paul's First Epistle to the Thessalonians is ad- | Grecian school; and all those Jews who spoke Greek dressed to a church which was hardly formed, to which corrupted it; from which arose that dialect called the he had not preached the Gospel more than three Sab- | Hellenistic. bath days. (Acts 17. 2.) He had been obliged to quit The first Christian Churches, for whom more immedithis church abruptly on account of an impending perse. ately the Apostolical writings were drawn up, concution, (v. 10,) and being apprehensive lest the perse sisted of Jews. St. Paul himself preached the Gospel cution should cause some to waver in the faith, he lays only in those places where Jews resided, and made use before them, in the first three chapters, arguments to of them to pave the way for him to the Gentiles. As, prove the truth of his Gospel. The first of these argu therefore, the Apostles wrote to people whose native ments is that which confirmed his doctrine at Thessa- language was the Jewish-Greek, it was natural for them lonica, (1.5,) “For our Gospel,” says he, “came not to write in that language. They could not, indeed, to you in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy without a frequent miracle, avoid a mixture of Hebrew Ghost.” Power, is an expression used elsewhere in the and Greek in their style; such a miracle would bare New Testament, to signify miraculous acts. Admit him been not only useless, but pernicious; for any one who only to be a rational man, and we cannot suppose him was not firmly persuaded of the Divine inspiration of to write thus to an infant church, if no member thereof these books, would raise a doubt of their authenticity had ever seen a miracle of his, or received a miraculous from the circumstance that they were not written in the gift of the Holy Ghost by the imposition of his hands. style that might be expected from their pretended If these miracles be true, then the doctrine and the book authors. As the Greek version of the Old Testament in confirmation of which they were wrought are Divine; abounded in Hebraisms, it was necessary for them either and the more certainly so, as there is no room for decep to give up writing in the Scripture style, or to be less tion. A juggler may persuade some persons that he concerned about a barbarism than the fastidiousness of performs miracles, but he can never persuade a body of the Grecian schools would allow. men of sound intellect that he has communicated to As a large proportion of the phrases and constructions them the gift of working miracles and speaking foreign of the New Testament is pure Greek,—that is to say, of languages, unless they can work the miracles and speak the same degree of purity as the Greek which was spoken the languages.
in Macedonia, and that in which Polybius and Appian The works of the Apostles which have been transmitted | wrote their histories,—the language of the Apostles and to us were all written by them in Greek, except the Gospel Evangelists will derive considerable illustration from of St. Matthew and the Epistle to the Hebrews. These consulting the works of classic writers, and especially were first published in the Hebrew dialect in use at from diligently collating the Septuagint version of the Jerusalem; but the Hebrew text being lost, the Greek Old Testament; the collections, also, of Raphelius, translation has the authority of the original. The Greek Palairet, Bos, Ernesti, and other writers, whose works language was at that time known to almost half the will be more particularly mentioned in the Bibliographiworld, throughout the Roman empire, and in that part cal List in the APPENDIX, will afford the Biblical student of Asia which had been formerly conquered by the every essential assistance in explaining the pure Greek Greeks. It was, therefore, the proper language for expressions of the New Testament according to the usage those books which were to be read, as far as possible, by of classic authors. It must not be overlooked, however, the whole race of mankind. It was then a kind of that there occur in the New Testament words that express universal language, just as the French is at present: it both doctrines and practices which were utterly unknown was understood and spoken by Greeks, by Romans, and to the Greeks; and also words bearing widely different by Jews. The Greek in which the New Testament is interpretations from those which are ordinarily found in written is not pure and elegant Greek, such as was Greek writers. written by Plato, Aristotle, and other eminent Grecian “In Macedonia," Professor Stuart observes, "the authors, but Greek intermixed with many peculiarities, Attic dialect received many and peculiar modifications. exclusively belonging to the East Aramæan, that is, the Moreover, the successors of Alexander in Egypt cultiHebrew or Chaldee, and the West Aramæan, or Syriac vated literature with greater ardour than any other of the tongues, which were at that time spoken in common life Grecian princes. Hence Alexandria became the place by the Jews of Palestine.
where this peculiar dialect (sometimes called MacedoWith respect to the Jews, from whom the first con- nian, and sometimes Alexandrine,) particularly developed verts to Christianity were taken, the Greek was more itself. A great number of the later Greek works prosuitable than the Latin; because it was already known ceeded from this source, and they exhibit the dialect in to them by the Greek version of the Old Testament. question. Hence St. Paul wrote his Epistle to the Romans, and “The Jews who left Palestine and settled in AlexanSt. Mark his Gospel, which was designed more imme dria during the reign of the Ptolemies learned this diadiately for the use of the Italians, not in Latin, but in lect; and when the Old Testament was translated by Greek; and this language having been already conse- them into Greek, for the use of their synagogues, the crated by the version just mentioned of the Old Testa translators exhibited a specimen of the Alexandrine ment, that is, the words and phrases of it having by Greek, modified by their own dialect, that is, by the use obtained that determinate and peculiar significa- Hebrew. For substance, this same dialect, thus modition which they were to bear in theology, the Greek fied, appears in the New Testament, and in the early
as therefore better adapted to express Divine truths Christian Fathers, yet not without many variations elearly and precisely than any other Western language. Rost, the grammarian, calls this ecclesiastical Greek; ? Since we find the Greek of the New Testament per has usually been called the Hellenistic language; but petually intermixed with Oriental idioms, it is evident might more appropriately and significantly be called from this circumstance that the writers were Jews by Hebrew Greek, which appellation would designate the birth, some of them unlearned men in humble stations, cause and manner of its modifications.” ..... who never sought to avoid the dialect they had once “The peculiarities of the New Testament diction may
NEW TESTAMENT— NICOLAITANS.
be classed under two heads, the lexical and gramma- | a small bird, with a human head and hands, holding the tical.
sign of life and a sail, the symbol of transmigration, or “(1.) The lexical relates to the choice of words; the of its flight from the body. This bird is probably the forms of them; the frequency with which they were baieth of Horapollo, which signifies life and soul; and employed; the use and different meanings assigned to from it may have been derived in later times the comthem; and the new formation of them.
plicated figures of the Abraxas.” See Gnostics. “ (2.) The grammatical peculiarities are limited mostly
I. NICANOR, a general of the army of Antiochus to the forms of nouns and verbs. Some of these in the Hebrew Greek are new, or not classically used in certain
| Epiphanes. See MACCABEES. words, or are foreign to the Attic book-language. The
II. A king of Syria. See MACCABEES. use of the dual is superseded. In a syntactical respect,
III. One of the seven deacons chosen by the prithe Hellenistic dialect has little that is peculiar. There
mitive church at Jerusalem, and ordained by the Apostles. are a few examples of verbs constructed with cases dif
(Acts 6. 5.) ferent from those that are usual in classic Greek; con NICENE CREED. See CREED. junctions that elsewhere are joined with the optative and
NICODEMUS, Nikodnuos, a Pharisee, and memsubjunctive modes, are here sometimes connected with the indicative; the optative is seldom
ber of the Jewish Sanhedrin, who came to Jesus by night.
employed in oblique speech.
(John 3. 1,4,9.) At first he concealed his belief in the “Any nation which continues the use of its own lan
Divine character of Jesus, but afterwards avowed himself
a believer, when he came with Joseph of Arimathea to guage, and also learns to speak a foreign one, will intermix that foreign one with many idioms of its own.
pay the last duties to the body of Our Lord. (John
| 19. 39-42.) Such was the case, as has already been hinted, with the Jews at Alexandria and in Palestine. The general tone of style in the writings of these Hebrews, naturally
NICOLAS, a proselyte of Antioch, who was chosen inclined to the Hebrew. Many turns of expression
one of the seven deacons of the primitive church. (Acts would be merely Hebrew, translated by the correspond
6.5.) He was among the most zealous and holy of the ing Greek words; which were perfectly intelligible to a
first Christians. His memory, however, has been tarJew, but scarcely at all so to a native Greek. In a
nished in the Church by a blemish as being the suplexical respect, also, the native language of a Jew would
posed founder of a sect called the Nicolaitans, which polhave much influence. He would naturally extend the
luted the churches of Asia, particularly that of Pergamos,
and whom the Evangelist reproves. The Fathers, howmeaning of a Greek word, that in a single respect corresponded well to one meaning of a Hebrew word, so as
ever, are greatly divided as to this; some charging him to make its significations correspond in all respects with
with founding the sect, and some affirming that his sole those of the Hebrew one. In some cases the difficulty
offence was first putting away his wife, and then taking of fully expressing the Hebrew in Greek words already
her again; while others think that Nicolas the Deacon extant, would lead him to coin new ones, which might
was in no manner connected with the Nicolaitans. better correspond with his own vernacular language. In NICOLAITANS, a sect mentioned in Revelation a word, the manner of thinking and feeling, which was 2. 6,15, who held that the Divine nature of Christ depeculiar to the Hebrew, would still remain when he scended upon him at his baptism, and redescended at his spake or wrote Greek. His style, then, would consist crucifixion. Another Nicolas than the one mentioned in of Hebrew thoughts clothed in Greek costume. But as Acts 6.5 has been conjectured to have been the founder the native language of Greece was not, and from the of this sect. A better opinion, however, seems to be, nature of the case could not be, so formed as to convey that the appellation given in the Revelation is not a all the conceptions and feelings of Hebrews, no way could proper name, but symbolical; and that it refers to the be devised of conveying them in Greek, except by some same persons who are mentioned in Revelation 2. 14 modifications of this language, that is, either by assign as holding the doctrine of Balaam, since the Greek name ing a new sense to words already extant, or by coining Nikolaos corresponds to the Hebrew DysBalaam, new ones. The Hellenists, therefore, have done no more the two words being formed from y52 to swallow, in general, than the nature of the case compelled them destroy, and Nikaw, to conquer, and by am, or laos, to do, in order to express their ideas in Greek. What the people. The allusion would therefore be to false they have thus done, constitutes the Hebraism of the and seducing teachers like Balaam. The Nicolaitans are Hellenistic dialect.” See BIBLE; EPISTLES; INSPIRATION; conjectured to be alluded to in 2Peter 2, and in Jude GOSPEL; SCRIPTURE.
7-19. This sect, it appears, was guilty of such flagi
tious acts as to exceed in turpitude any other. They NIBHAZ, ind) (2Kings 17. 31,) the name of an held that pleasure was the end and true blessedness of idol of the Avites, which the Hebrew commentators de man, and they indulged their appetites by eating, without rive from na nabach, “to bark,” and they assert that scruple, of all meats offered to idols. They imagined a this idol was made in the form of a dog. See ANUBIS. number of deities, to whom they gave extraordinary
Sir John Gardner Wilkinson says that “the jackal- sounding names, calculated to strike their hearers with headed god Anubis was one of the principal deities of | awe, such as Barbelo, Juldabaoth, Caulauchauch, and Amenti. He was son of Osiris by Isis. The office of Meitram, and every variety of the sect had a different Anubis was to superintend the passage of the souls from tribe of deities; these names are met with on many of this life to a future state, in which he answered to the the amulets which have been since dug up. The NicoMercury of the Greeks in his capacity of Psychopompos, | laitans were afterwards distinguished by other appellaor ó usher of the souls.' He presided over tombs, and at tions. They were called Philionites, Stratonici, and the final judgment he weighed the good actions of the Levitici, according to the variety and shades of opinions deceased in the scales of truth, and was thence styled which prevailed among them; but they were all recog
director of the weight. He is frequently introduced in nised by those who were not of their sects by the conthe sculptures, standing over a bier on which a corpse is temptuous term of BopBopitai, or muddy, a reproach deposited. He seems to superintend the departure of derived from the turpitude of their practices in celebratthe soul from its earthly envelope, which is indicated by ing their unhallowed rites.