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of Tiberius, and Galen mentions Berrhæa (Aleppo) | tion of the nut, that a male should be planted at interas being famous for this fruit in his time. Besides a vals among the female trees. At the back of a house considerable consumption of them at home, large quan- | belonging to an English gentleman at Aleppo, stood a tities are exported to Europe. The fruit loses much of very flourishing pistachio-tree, which was almost every its beauty by drying, but perhaps improves in flavour. year laden with nuts of the fairest appearance, but perThe tree, when laden with clusters of smooth ripe nuts, petually without kernels. Its solitary situation was conof a beautiful pale bluish colour, makes an elegant sidered by the gardeners as the only cause of this." appearance. The trunk, which is proportionably short, The 128 aguz, mentioned in Canticles 6. 11, rendered is about three, or three and a half feet in circumference. “nut,” by the Septuagint, Vulgate, the Hebrew interThe female tree, when not engrafted, bears a small nut preters, and also in our version, should, says Dr. Shaw, of little value. The pistachio-nuts are of various sizes; | have been specified, and called “walnuts,” which in the the kernel is alike green in all; the outer husk is of Persic are called guz, or goz; and in Syriac and Arabic, different colours, from almost entirely white to a red; djauz. In the Hebrew word, the X aleph, is formative. but these two colours are commonly blended, and the varieties are produced by engraftment. The pistachio NYMPHAS, Nuubas, (Coloss. 4. 15,) the name delights in a dry soil. As the male and female flowers of a Christian mentioned by St. Paul as having a church grow on separate trees, it is necessary, for the fecunda | in his house.
OAK. The oak (Quercus) is one of the largest | Cana to Mount Tabor, strikes into a lovely valley, and most durable of forest trees. In our version its wooded chiefly with these trees. Mount Tabor itself is name has been applied indiscriminately to various kinds entirely covered with thick woods, chiefly of oak and of trees, which Celsus, in his Hierobotanica, has been at pistachio trees. some pains to distinguish, and in which he has been Oaks are often mentioned by Burckhardt, but he does followed by most modern translators and interpreters. not distinguish the species; he, however, gives the locaThus he thinks that the terebinth-tree is indicated in all lities in which these trees engaged his notice. Thus the following passages: 58 ail, Genesis 14. 6;— he speaks of the shade afforded by the oaks of Gilead, 1789-7X ail-paran;-0958 ailim, Isaiah 1.29; 57.5; the presence of which no doubt gives to that locality the
ailon, Joshua 19. 43; 1 Kings 4. 9;—115X alon, appearance which he describes as more reminding him translated “plain,” in the following places: Genesis of Europe than anything else he had seen in Syria. 12. 6; 13. 18; 14. 13; 18. 1; Deuteronomy 11. 30; There are woods of stunted oaks on the lower slopes of Joshua 19.33; Judges 4. 11; 9. 6,37; 1 Samuel 10. 3; the mountains (Jebel Haouran) beyond the great Haou1778 alah, rendered by “oak," in Genesis 35. 4; ran plain; and even in the stony district (the inner Joshua 24. 26; Judges 6. 11,19; 1Samuel 17. 2,19; Ledja) which completes the eastward boundary of that 21. 9; 2Samuel 18. 9,10,14; 1 Kings 13. 14, 1Chroni- plain, the oak is mentioned first among the trees which cles 10. 12; Isaiah 6. 13; and translated “teil-tree,” in grow in great numbers between the rocks. Burckhardt Ezekiel 6. 13; and “elms," in Hosea 4. 13. The word passed through a thick oak forest on the way from Feheis 1998 alon, is also translated “oak," as he considers, cor to the ruins of Ammon (the capital of the Ammonites). rectly, in the following passages: Genesis 35. 8; Joshua From the dispersed notices of the same traveller, it would 19. 33; Isaiah 2. 13; 6. 13; 44. 14; Hosea 4. 13; seem that oaks of low stature are frequent in the plains Amos 2. 9; Zechariah 11. 2.
and hills near the sources of the Jordan. He likewise The Flora Palæstina gives five different species of oaks notices large oaks growing in different parts beside growing in that country: Quercus glande recondita; natural reservoirs of water fed by springs. Lord Lindsay Quercus cupula crinata; Quercus gramuntia; Quercus also informs us that these oaks are of the prickly and ilex aquifolia; Quercus coccifera. To this Lord Lindsay evergreen species. With these two kinds of trees many adds, Quercus valonidi, or Quercus ægilops.
of the hills of Bashan and Gilead are covered to their “The oaks of Bashan" are mentioned in the Scriptures very summits, and in descending to the plains, the everin terms of proverbial distinction, and we may judge of green oak is the last by which the traveller is forsaken. the high estimation in which these oaks were held, from The hills of Bashan itself are described by the same traan incidental expression of the prophet Ezekiel, who, veller as richly wooded to their summits with noble speaking of the power and wealth of ancient Tyre, says, prickly oaks, a few pine-trees towering over them; and “Of the oaks of Bashan have they made thine oars.” he adds, “I never could have thought that the shrub I (Ezek. 27. 6.)
had seen covering the hills of Hebron could have attained In the district of the country beyond Jordan, oak- such size and beauty, yet the leaf of the largest tree is trees, indeed, form a conspicuous part of the scenery of not larger than the shrubs.” the wooded hills. Among these oaks, the species The eastern slopes, even to the summits of AntiQuercus robur, which grows to so large a size in our Libanus, abound in short oak trees, of which none are own country, is not to be met with. The varieties of higher than twelve or fifteen feet. In Lebanon itself oak which grow in Palestine are much inferior in point oaks are numerous. Its eastern ascent from the valley of size, as trees of this genus find colder climates than of Baalbec, as high as Ainnetto, is covered with low oak that of Syria more congenial to their nature. The two trees, "of the round-leaved and common English species.” species which are most frequently noticed by Lord Lind- The natives, on and below this slope of the mountain, in say are the “evergreen” and “prickly” oaks. He constructing the flat roofs of their houses, lay branches of describes the hills of Southern Judæa, about Hebron, as the oak over beams of pine. On the western slopes covered to the top with the prickly oak. Striking across large oaks are found as high as the neighbourhood of the country from Samaria towards Mount Carmel, regu- Deir el Kamimer. lar English park scenery is formed by the evergreen oak; The Kermes oak, Quercus coccifera, is only mentioned which, together with the prickly oak, also covers the by Hasselquist. Crossing from Acre to Nazareth, on the hills about the southern prolongations of Carmel and the 2nd of May, he found the country beyond the plain of banks of the Kishon. The traveller journeying from Acre consisted of small hills, or rather rising grounds,
covered with plants, and fine vales between them. On 2. 23; 2Kings 6. 31; but sometimes the party swearing approaching this, he passed through “fine groves of the omitted the imprecation, as if he were afraid, and eastern oak, (Quercus coccifera,) whose fly, called ten- shuddered to utter it, although it was, from other sources. threda, had made its hard gall, in which lay its cater- | sufficiently well understood. (Gen. 14. 22.23: Riyal pillar, with others dried up, which the insect had already | 17. 18.) At other times, he merely said, “ Let God be quitted.” The insect here referred to is the kermes, one a witness;" and sometimes affirmed, saying, “ As surely of the genus coccus, which sticks to the branches of the as God liveth.” (Ruth 3. 13; 1Sam. 14. 45; 20. 3,21; tree, in the form of little red balls, the size of a pea, Jerem. 42. 5.) These remarks apply to the person who and which supplies a colouring matter formerly highly uttered the oath himself of his own accord. When an valued for purposes of dyeing, but now superseded by oath was exacted, whether by a judge or another, the the cochineal.
person who exacted it put the oath in form, and the person to whom it was put responded by saying, jog JON Amen, amen, So let it be, or gave his response in other expressions of like import, such as, “Thou hast said it.” (Numb.5. 19-22; Deut. 27. 15-26; 1 Kings 22. 16.) Sometimes the exacter of the oath merely used the following adjuration: “I adjure you by the living God to answer whether this thing be so or not:" and the person sworn accordingly made answer to the point inquired of. (Numb.5. 22; Matt. 26. 64.) It should be remarked here, though the formulary of assent on the part of the respondent to an oath was frequently, Amen, amen, yet this fornfulary did not always imply an oath, but in some instances was merely a protestation. It was also common to swear by those whose life and prosperity were dear to the party making oath. Thus, Joseph swore by the “ life of the king," (Gen. 42. 15;) and this practice pre
vailed subsequently among the Hebrews. (1Sam. 25. 26; The Kermes Oak.
2Sam. 11. 11; 14. 19; comp. Psalm 63. 11.) A person
sometimes swore by himself, and sometimes by the life Oaks and groves of oaks were esteemed proper places of the person before whom he spake, as in Judges for religious services; altars were set up under them, 6. 13,15; 1Sam. 1. 26; 1Kings 3. 17,26; 2Kings 2. 2; and they were likewise the scene of idolatrous practices. I a practice which obtains in Syria to the present day. (Ezek. 6. 13.) See GROVE Worship.
Burckhardt says, “ By your life,” is still a common oath The oak is with the prophets the symbol of men of in Syria; but the most common, says Mr. Jowett, is high rank and power: thus in Isaiah 2. 13, it is said, “On my head." In some instances, persons adjured with reference to the princes and nobles of Israel and others by the beasts of the field, (Cantic. 2. 7,) a sort of Judah, “ The day of the Lord shall be upon all the oaks oath which is also found in the writings of the Arabian of Bashan.”
As the oath was an appeal to God, (Levit. 19. 12; OATH, Yuddi shibuah. (Gen. 24. 8; 26. 3.) An Deut. 6. 13,) the taking of a false oath was deemed a oath may be defined to be a solemn invocation of a supe- heinous crime; and perjury accordingly was forbidden rior power, admitted to be acquainted with all the secrets in the words, “ Thou shalt not take the name of the of our hearts, with our inward thoughts as well as our Lord thy God in vain," that is, thou shalt not call God outward actions, to witness the truth of what we assert, to witness in pretended confirmation of a falsehood. and to inflict his vengeance upon us if we assert what (Exod. 20. 6.) is not true, or promise what we do not mean to perform. In the early periods of their history, the Jews reli“ The forms of oaths," says Paley, “like other religious giously observed an oath, (Josh. 9. 14,15;) but we find ceremonies, have in all ages been various; consisting, that, in later times, they were often accused by the prohowever, for the most part, of some bodily action, and phets of perjury. After the captivity, the Jews became of a prescribed form of words.” Among the Jews it again celebrated for the scrupulous observance of what was customary for those who appealed to the Deity in they had sworn to, but corruption soon increased among attestation of anything, to hold up their right hand them; they revived the old forms, the words without the towards heaven; by which action the party swearing or meaning, and acquired among all nations the reputation making oath signified that he appealed to God to witness of perjurers. the truth of what he averred. Thus Abram said to the In the time of Our Lord, the Jews were accustomed king of Sodom, “I have lift up my hand unto the Lord to swear by the “altar," by “Jerusalem," by “heaven," the Most High God, the possessor of heaven and earth, by the “earth,” by “themselves," by their “heads," by ..... that I will not take anything that is thine.” (Gen. the “gold of the Temple," by “sacrifices," &c. Because 14. 22,23.) Hence the expression, “To lift up the the name of God was not mentioned in these oaths, hand,” is equivalent to making oath. In this form the they considered them as imposing but small, if any obliangel of the Apocalypse is represented as taking a gation; and we accordingly find that Our Saviour takes solemn oath. (Rev. 10. 5.)
occasion to inveigh, in decided terms, against such arts Among the early Hebrews, the oath of fidelity was of deception. (Matt. 5. 33-37; 23. 16-22.) It is against taken by the servant's putting his hand under the thigh oaths of this kind, and these alone, not against an oath of his lord, as Eliezer did to Abraham, (Gen. 24. 2;) uttered in sincerity, that he expresses His displeasure whence, with no great deviation, is perhaps derived the and prohibits them. This is clear, since He himself conform of doing homage at this day, by putting the hands sented to take upon him the solemnity of an oath, between the knees, and within the hands of the liege (Matt. 26. 64;) and since St. Paul himself, in more than lord. Sometimes an oath was accompanied with an one instance, utters an adjuration. (Comp. Rom. 9. 1; imprecation, as in Ruth 1. 17; 2Samuel 3. 9,36; 1 Kings 2 Cor. 1. 23.) On this subject Michaëlis remarks,
“ With respect to oaths, there came a doctrine into vogue altar and what is upon it; an oath no less solemn and among the Jews, in the time of Christ, which made such binding, than that most awful oath which is taken amid a nice distinction between what was and what was not | a sacrifice, by passing between the dismembered pieces an oath, that illiterate people were really incapable of of the victim. A most rational exposition; without comprehending it, or indeed forming any idea of it; which we can never, in any compact, be sure of underand thus a Jew had it in his power to be guilty of the standing our neighbour's words; not even though he grossest treachery to his neighbour, even when the latter name the name of God in his oath, and swear without thought he had heard him swear by all that was sacred. any mental reservation whatever; for the syllables perWho could suppose that a Jew did not speak seriously haps might still be susceptible of another signification.” when he swore by the Temple ? Yet by this doctrine Roberts says, “ People in England would be astonished such an oath was a mere nothing, because the stones of and appalled at the frequency and nature of the oaths the Temple were not consecrated. I do not mean to of the heathen. A man's assertion or affirmation, in describe this morality by passages from the Rabbins, common conversation, is seldom believed. Thus men both because sufficient collections of these have already may be heard in the streets, in the fields, or bazaars, been made by others, and because they are not only too and children in the schools or the play grounds, say, extensive, but also too modern for my purpose, as I have 'Swear you will do this; now take an oath you have principally to do with it as it stood in the time of Christ. not done it. Then they swear by the temple or its I rather choose to take what the Jewish moralists of his lamp, by their parents or children, and appeal to their day taught from his own mouth, and to accompany their deities for a confirmation of the assertion." doctrine with his refutation. The reader who wishes to see passages from the Rabbins may either consult learned
OBADIAH, 1792y Sept. Obadias, one of the commentators on Matthew 5. 33-37; 23. 16-22; or peruse what Wetstein has collected from them, in whose
minor prophets, concerning whom we have no positive
information either as to who he was, or when he proNew Testament he will find a pretty copious collection of such passages.
phesied. Jerome, with the Jews, is of opinion that he “Christ himself then, in Matthew 23. 16-22, mentions
was the same person who was governor of Ahab's house,
and who hid and fed one hundred prophets whom Jesome specimens of their doctrine which he finds it
zebel would have destroyed. Others think that he was necessary to controvert. The Pharisees whom he cen
the Obadiah whom Josiah constituted overseer of the sured were accustomed to say, 'If a man swear by the
works of the Temple, mentioned in 2Chronicles 34. 12. Temple he is not bound by that oath; but if he swear
Dupin refers him to the time of Ahaz, in whose reign by the gold of the Temple he is bound. This was a
the Edomites, in conjunction with the Israelites, made very paradoxical distinction; and no one who heard
war against the tribe of Judah; because his prophecy is their oaths could possibly divine it, unless he happened
almost wholly directed against the Edomites or Iduto be initiated into the whole villany of the business.
mæans. Grotius, Huet, Dr. Lightfoot, and other comOne would naturally entertain the very same idea con
mentators, however, make him to be contemporary with cerning it, namely, that 'the temple which consecrates
Hosea, Joel, and Amos, agreeably to the rule of the the gold is of greater account, and belongs more imme
Jewish writers, that where the time of the prophet is diately to God, than the gold;' but the foundation of the refined distinction made by the Pharisees was, that
not expressed, his predictions are to be placed in the
same chronological order as the prophecy immediately the gold was sanctified but not the materials of the edi
preceding. Archbishop Newcome supposes, with some fice. Again the Pharisees said, “If a man swear by the altar, it is no oath; but if he swear by the offering, he
probability, that Obadiah prophesied between the taking is bound; because, forsooth, the offering was consecrated,
of Jerusalem (587 B.C.) and the devastation of Idumæa
by Nebuchadnezzar, which took place a few years after; but the stones of the altar were nothing more than com
consequently, that he was partly contemporary with mon stones. But to this doctrine, Jesus, with equal
Jeremiah. As the latter has many expressions similar reason, makes the following objection: that 'the altar
to others in Obadiah, it is a question which of the two which sanctifies the offering is greater than the offering;'
has borrowed from the other. There are various opiand he founds it on this unanswerable argument: “If I
nions on this subject, and there is not much preponderappear to swear, and use the language of an oath, my
ance of evidence on either side; except that, as Jeremiah words, though perhaps otherwise equivocal, must be un
has used the writings of other prophets in his predicderstood in the sense which they generally have in oaths. Thus if I merely mention heaven, that word may have
tions against foreign nations, this fact renders it the various meanings; it may mean heaven in the physical
more probable that he had read Obadiah than the sense of the term, that is, either the blue atmosphere which
reverse. The following is a table of the parallel paswe beheld, or that unknown matter which fills the remote
sages: regions of space above us, and which the ancients called
Obadiah, verse 1, compared with Jeremialı 49. 14 ether; but neither of these is God. When however I
» 3,4 , swear by heaven, every one understands me as regarding heaven in its relation towards God as his dwellingplace, or as his throne; and thinks if I forbear pronouncing the name of God, merely from reverential awe, and | The Book of Obadiah, which consists of a single that in naming the throne of God, I include the idea of chapter, is written with great beauty and elegance, and Him who sitteth upon it; so that if my words are to be contains predictions of the utter destruction of the explained honestly and grammatically, I have really | Edomites, and of the future restoration and prosperity sworn by God. In like manner, if a man swear by the of the Jews. Temple, that is not swearing by the stones or other materials of which the Temple is composed, but by the 1 OBAL, Saiy (Gen. 10. 28 ;) the name of one of God who dwelleth in the Temple: and thus also, he the sons of Joktan, from whom, according to Bochart, who swears by the altar, is not to understand the bare sprang an Arabian people of whom little is known. stones, as such, but as they form an altar, and have | Gesenius says, “The Samaritan text and Chronicles offerings made upon them; so that he swears by the 1. 22, have 2'y Ebal, perhaps the same as in Genesis
glorife: (1.) From this. 6.) (2.) Becam 119. 3; identice, whò marcher
OBALOG. 36. 23, which is called a district of Idumæa according to OBOTH, niax (Numb. 33. 43,) one of the staa different genealogical view. Both names (Gen. 10. 28 tions where the Israelites encamped in the wilderness. and 36. 23,) might be compared with Toßalitis in Jose From Mount Hor they proceeded round Mount Seir, phus, a country of Arabia, which was inhabited by the and pitched in Zalmonah, thence in Punon, and thence Edomites and Amalekites, and Gebalene, the country in Oboth. Between Mount Hor, and the last of these about Petra, but the comparison is very uncertain.” places, fiery serpents were sent to them as a punishment OBED-EDOM, the son of Jeduthun, a Levite, in
of their impenitence and murmurings. Moses, however, whose house the ark of the Lord abode, and brought a
in answer to his prayers, was commanded to make a blessing with it. (1 Chron. 16. 38.) In 2Samuel 6. 10,
serpent of brass, and erect it on a pole, by looking
steadfastly at which, those who had been bitten were he is called the Gittite, probably because he was of Gath
miraculously healed. From Oboth they proceeded to Rimmon, a city of the Levites in the territory of the tribe of Dan. (Josh. 21. 24,25.)
and encamped in Ije-abarim, in the wilderness of Moah,
toward the sun-rising. (Numb. 33. 44.) OBEDIENCE, consists in the performance of the commands of a superior. Obedience to God may be
OFFERING. See SACRIFICE. considered, (1.) As virtual, which consists in a belief of
OFFICES OF CHRIST. These are generally conthe Gospel, of the holiness and equity of its precepts,
sidered as threefold. Thus He is (1.) A prophet to enand the truth of its promises, and a true repentance of all
lighten, warn, and instruct, (John 6. 14;) (2.) A priest our sins. (2.) Actual obedience, which is the practice
to sympathize, intercede, and make atonement for his and exercise of the several graces and duties of Christi
people, (Isai. ch. 53; Heb. ch. 7;) and (3.) A king to anity. (3.) Perfect obedience, which is the exact con
reign, rule over, protect, deliver, and bless them. (Psalm formity of our hearts and lives to the law of God, with
2. 6.) See Jesus Christ; MEDIATOR ; MESSIAU. out the least imperfection. This last is peculiar to a glorified state. The obligation we are under to obedience arises, (1.) From the relation we stand in to God as OG, JY (Deut. 3. 1; 4. 47; 31. 4,) the king of creatures. (Psalm 95. 6.) (2.) From the law He hath Bashan, was of the race of the old Rephaim. He is revealed to us in his word. (Psalm 119. 3; 2Peter described by Josephus as the friend and ally of Sihon, 1.5-7.) (3.) From the blessings of his providence, who marching to the assistance of the latter, and finding which we are constantly receiving. (Acts 14. 17.) he was already defeated and slain, determined to avenge (4.) From the love and goodness of God in the great him, and expel the intruders; but in attempting to exework of redemption. (1Cor. 6. 20.)
cute this intention, he was himself slain in battle, and OBEISANCE, MW shachah. In 1 Kings 1. 16,
all his army destroyed. when Bathsheba presented herself to David, it is said,
To afford some idea of the bulk and stature of Og, the “And Bathsheba bowed and did obeisance unto the
sacred historian informs us that his bedstead was of iron, king; and the king said, What wouldest thou?"
and measured four yards and a half long by two yards
wide. “ Nine cubits was the length thereof, and four In India, " When a husband goes on a journey, or
cubits the breadth of it, after the cubit of a man." when he returns," Roberts says, “ his wife on seeing
(Deut. 3. 11.) him puts her hands together, and presents them to him as an act of obeisance. When she has an important
Roberts here observes, " This is a very curious account
of a giant king: his bedstead was made of iron, and we request to make, she does the same thing; and it is surprising to see the weakness of him who pretends to be
are able to ascertain its exact length, nine cubits, that is, the stronger vessel, for, under such circumstances, she
after the cubit of a man. This alludes to the Eastern will gain almost anything she wants. Hence the force
mode of measuring from the tip of the middle finger to of their popular proverb: “The woman who regularly
the elbow, which will be found to be in general eighteen
inches. Thus his bedstead was thirteen feet six inches makes obeisance to her husband, can make it rain whenever she pleases. When Bathsheba made her obeisance
in length, and six feet in breadth. The hawkers of cloth to the king, he asked, “What wouldest thou?' but the
in India very seldom carry with them a yard wand; they Hebrew has this, 'What to thee? This accords with
simply measure from the elbow to the tip of the middle the idiom of the Tamul language. Thus it will be
finger, counting two lengths of that for a yard." asked of a person who stands with his hands presented
In reference to Og's bedstead, Maimonides observes to a great man, “To thee what?" If speaking of a third
that we are to understand the bedstead to have been person, “To him what? or, literally, Him to what?!”
one-third longer than the man for whose use it was desSee Forms OF ADDRESS AND SALUTATION.
tined. This proportion brings down his stature to little
more than nine feet. The correctness of this estimate OBLATION, 19 minchah, (Levit. 2. 4,7;) an is supported by the fact that this was also just the staoffering, sacrifice. The Jewish oblations will be found ture of Goliath, another giant, whose height was sir noticed under SACRIFICE.
cubits (nine feet) and a span, a stature that no one will “In the primitive Church, at the administration of call incredible or unlikely who calls to mind the numerthe Lord's Supper communicants were required to bring ous and well-authenticated instances that might be procertain oblations, mpoo popal, or presents, dwpa, of duced of such stature in comparatively modern times. bread and wine. These were sometimes presented by See GIANTS. persons who did not communicate. The bread and wine | The Uny eres, or bedstead, here referred to, does not were enveloped in a white linen cloth called · fago;' the appear to mean one of those divans or sofas which are wine being contained in a vessel called 'ama'or amula.' placed along the sides of Oriental sitting-rooms, but After the deacon had said, 'Let us pray,' the communi more properly what we should understand by the term. cants carried their offerings towards the altar, which Bedsteads, it appears, were used in ancient Egypt, and were usually taken by a deacon, and, having been deli are still common there as well as in Arabia and other vered or presented to the bishop, were laid upon the | countries where the palm grows. They are made entirely altar, or upon a separate table provided for their recep from the mid-rib of the palm-frond, and from the nature tion. This custom of offering oblation ceased generally of its construction, Og's bedstead seems to have been during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.” Riddle. : | something of the kind.
Og is the hero of numerous monstrous tales which of war, to the end that they may not deal with me as have their origin in the fertile fancy of the Rabbins, one they have dealt with Sihon. Whereupon he went and or two specimens of which we subjoin.
plucked up a hill of six miles extent, and set the same The statement in the Scriptures that he was the last upon his head, that he might cast it upon them. But of the race of the Rephaim, they have interpreted to presently God caused insects to come upon the hill, and mean that he was the sole survivor of the antediluvian they ate a hole therein just over the head of Og, so that giants; or, in other words, that he alone survived the his head became inclosed therein. And when he atDeluge, and lived down to the time of Moses; others, tempted to cast the hill from him, he could not do it; however, allege that Sihon, king of the Amorites, whom for his grinders and other teeth grew out, (and were they believe to have been Og's brother, and a giant like fastened in the sides of the hollow which inclosed his him, was also saved. The following is the way in which head,) and his mouth moved this way and that. Then Og was preserved. “The old giants calculated that went Moses, (being himself ten ells high,) took an axe they could easily prevent the threatened Deluge by set- ten ells in length, and jumped ten ells high, and struck ting their feet upon the 'fountains of the great deep,' to him on the ancle, so that he fell down and died.” prevent the bursting forth of the waters from below, and, at the same time, laying their outspread hands upon 'the windows of heaven' to prevent the fall of OIL, 1oWi shemen. (Gen. 28. 18; Job 24. 11.) waters from above. But when the time arrived, their The mention of oil in the above passages of the early opposition was easily overcome by the first burst of water Scriptures proves that the cultivation of the olive-tree is being made so hot that they were compelled to with- of very ancient date, and from other passages we learn draw their hands from the windows of heaven,' and that it formed an important feature of the agriculture of their feet from the fountain of the great deep.' Og, Palestine. The oil extracted from the olive by a press, however, had the luck to discover that the water was enabled the Jews to carry on an extensive commerce cool all around the ark, and he therefore remained close with the Tyrians, (Ezek. 27. 17, comp. with 1 Kings to it all the time the waters covered the face of the 5. 11,) and they also sent presents of oil to the kings earth. This he could easily do as the waters did not of Egypt. (Hosea 12. 1.) The berries of the olive-tree reach above his ancles; but sometimes he rode upon the were sometimes plucked, or carefully shaken off, by top of the ark, or sometimes sat upon the beam under the hand before they were ripe, (Isai. 17. 6; 24. 13; the ladder. As for his food he managed to ingratiate | Deut. 24. 20;) and if, while they were yet green, instead himself with the people in the ark, and swore that, if of being cast into the press, they were only beaten and assisted, he would be Noah's servant all his days; where- squeezed, they yielded the best kind of oil, termed upon Noah made a hole in the side of the ark, through “pure oil olive beaten.” (Exod. 27. 20.) There were which he handed him out his daily food. But we should presses of a peculiar make for pressing oil, called have an inadequate notion of Noah's benevolence were 10 na gath shemen, in which the oil was trodden out by we not informed that Og required for his daily support the feet. (Micah 6. 15.) The first expression of the oil a thousand oxen, the same number of different kinds of was better than the second, and the second than the game, and a thousand measures of water."
third. Ripe olives yielded oil of a less valuable kind. After this there is a lapse of about a thousand years | The best sort of oil was mixed with spices, and used for in the history of Og. He then makes his appearance ointment; the inferior sort was used with food, or burnt as being in the service of Nimrod, who gave him as a | in lamps, and also medicinally employed. (Luke 10. 34.) present to Abraham, after the patriarch had been de- In sacrifices the use of oil was commanded. (Levit. livered from the fiery furnace. As Abraham's servant, | 2. 1,5,7,15; 6. 15.) Og was circumcised; and although not without his In Leviticus 7. 12, we read, “If he offer it for a. faults, he rendered very valuable services to his master; thanksgiving, then he shall offer with the sacrifice of and since he could not, for these services, be recompensed thanksgiving, unleavened cakes mingled with oil, and in the world to come, he received his reward in this, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and cakes mingled became king of Bashan. Several particulars are told of with oil, of fine flour fried.” Michaëlis remarks on this him while with Abraham, such as “The soles of his feet passage, “With the exception of two rare cases, oil was were forty miles long; and he hid Abraham in the hol- | ordered to accompany every meal-offering, in order to its low of his hand. One time he trembled so exceedingly being therewith prepared, and baked into cakes. With at a rebuke from Abraham, that he shook a tooth out of this law, in so far as it is perhaps typical, and regards a his head. Abraham made himself a bedstead from this holy ceremony, I have here nothing to do, because I contooth, and ever after lay and slept thereon." Authori sider it merely with respect to its political influence in ties, however, somewhat differ on this point, some the state, and that, among a people brought out of Egypt alleging that he made an easy chair out of Og's tooth, into Palestine, and still always hankering after Egypt, and used that chair alone for his seat as long as he after was important. It imperceptibly attached them to their wards lived. This may give some idea of Og's size; but new country, and served to render even the idea of a in the treatise called Nidda, the following passage future residence in Egypt irksome, while it also imperoccurs : “We learn that Abba Shaul, or if thou wilt, ceptibly gave them an inclination to cultivate the oliveRabbi Jochanan, hath said, 'I have been a grave digger; tree, for which nature seems to have pre-eminently and it did once happen to me that I pursued a roe, adapted Palestine. In the greatest part of Egypt, which at last fled into a shin-bone. I ran after it into according to Strabo, no olive-trees were cultivated. It the bone, and followed it for three miles; but I could was only in the Heracleotic canton that they came to not overtake it, neither could I see the end of the bone. such perfection as that oil could be made from them. Whereupon I returned, and was told that this was the In the gardens around Alexandria, (which, however, did shin-bone of Og, king of Bashan.'”
not exist in the time of the ancient kings, that part of The particulars of the death of Og are thus given in the country being an uncultivated waste till the reign of the Chaldee paraphrase of Rabbi Jonathan: “And it | Alexander the Great,) there were olive-trees, but no oil came to pass that the wicked Og saw the camp of the was made. The consequence of this want of oil was, Israelites, which extended six miles in length. Then he (as it still is,) that in Egypt they made use of butter, as said, “I will create among this people all the distraction we do, and also of honey, in their pastry; and even at