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this day, travellers going from Egypt into Arabia carry | produced neither, would totally cease. In fact, the butter along with them; although, indeed, it is not very object which the statutes now considered most probably tempting to the appetite, because, in consequence of the had in view, was so completely attained that butter was heat, it generally melts in the jars by the way. In those entirely disused among the Israelites. In the whole parts of Arabia, likewise, which the Israelites traversed, Hebrew Bible, which contains so many other household and in which they might, perhaps, have thought of set terms, we do not once find the word for butter; for the tling as wandering herdsmen, scarcely any olives were term Jon hhamah, which in Deuteronomy 32. 14; produced. The oil of Palestine, on the other hand, was Judges 5. 25; Job 20. 17; 29. 6; Isaiah 7. 15, is comnot only most abundant, but also peculiarly excellent; monly so translated, does not mean butter, but thick and Hasselquist prefers it even to that of Provence. milk. It would therefore appear, that butter had been By this gift of nature, stony places and mountains, which as rarely to be seen in Palestine as it now is in Spain; and would otherwise have been barren, became not only that the people had made use of nothing but oil in their useful, but even more productive than the best fields cookery, as being more delicious. The reason why the could be made. The only part of Palestine which Strabo, Septuagint has improperly rendered it butter, was this, that much misquoted author, describes as unfruitful, is that their Greek version was made by Egyptian Jews, that about Jerusalem; and it really is so, in regard to who, from the want of oil in their new country, were the production of grain; but still the Jews say, that an accustomed to the use of butter only." acre about Jerusalem was formerly of much more value | The first fruits of the oil were offered at the Feast of than in any other part of Palestine. This I should not the Ingathering, or of Tabernacles, on the fifteenth day believe on their word, if any degree of improbability of the seventh month. (Exod. 23. 16; Numb. 18. 12.) attached to it; for Jewish accounts from hearsay and Large quantities of oil were used by the Israelites. It oral tradition have little weight with me. But as long entered largely into their diet, vegetable oils, and espeas Palestine was properly cultivated, an acre near Jeru cially olive oil, being preferred by them for many of the salem, from its produce in wine and oil, must naturally purposes in cooking to which we apply animal fats, have been more profitable, than as a corn-field. We gravies, and butter. They likewise employed it liberally need only call to mind the Mount of Olives, which lay in anointing their persons, for which purpose it was often to the east of the city. An acre planted with olives or perfumed; their kings, prophets, and high priests were vines, however rocky and arid the soil may be, will also anointed with oil of peculiar richness and sacredness. very easily be made worth ten times as much as an acre See ANOINT; ANOINTING OIL. of the richest corn-land. The account given by Abul The use of oil in the anointing of a person, signifies feda, in his description of Syria, confirms this statement; in the Scriptures the designation or inauguration of that for he says that the country about Jerusalem is one of person to some high office or dignity. This consecrathe most fertile in Palestine. Let us now represent to tion with oil not only served as a form of admission to ourselves the effects of a law which enjoined that the important functions, but was considered as adding a pastry of offerings should be baked with oil, and there sacredness to their persons, and sometimes served as a fore not with butter, and that to every meal-offering so guard against violence, in consequence of the respect much oil should be added. The priests, who, among the attached to it. “God forbid,” says David, “that I should Hebrews, were persons of distinction by birth, were stretch forth my hand against Saul, since he is the accustomed to oil-pastry; and as their entertainments anointed of Jehovah.” (1 Sam. 24. 6.) Sometimes mere were generally offering feasts, the people thus became designation without unction is implied in it, as in the acquainted with it. Now what people have once tasted ease of Cyrus, (Isai. 45. 1,) who was selected by God to as a luxury at a feast, and found savoury, or heard of as restore Judah, and for the rebuilding of the Temple of eaten by the great, they begin first to imitate sparingly, Jerusalem. Sometimes it is used of the patriarchs, and then, if they can, more and more frequently in their Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as in Psalm 105. 15, “Touch daily meals. This was an infallible means to accustom not mine anointed ones," for the word is in the plural the Israelites to oil-pastry, with which, whoever is once number; not as literally anointed, but as specially acquainted, will always prefer it to that made with favoured of God, and set apart to be the heads or progebutter. For if the oil is fresh and good it tastes much nitors of a great nation. It is more eminently used as better; to which add, that as butter is very liable to applicable to the Mediator of the New Covenant, by spoil, it then communicates to pastry a disagreeable | David, (Psalm 2. 2,) who represents Him as king of taste. The worst faults in cookery arise from bad butter. Zion; by Isaiah (61. 1,) as the proclaimer of good This is a general maxim with our German housewives, tidings; by Daniel (9. 25,) as making expiation for the particularly in Southern Germany. The natural conse- sins of the people. And this was the substance of the quences, then, of the use of oil-pastry, as now mentioned, Apostolic preaching, “ This Jesus whom I preach unto were, in the first place, that the olive-tree, which formed | you is Christ," or the anointed one. (Acts 17. 3.) Paul so principal a source of the riches of the new country of “ testified to the Jews that Jesus was Christ," or the the Israelites, came to be more carefully cultivated, and anointed, (Acts 18. 5,).....“Showing by the Scripthus its natural treasures properly improved; and in the tures that Jesus was Christ," or the anointed. (Acts next place, that the people at length lost their desire of | 18. 28.) returning back to Egypt. That in the time of Moses The "oil of gladness," (Psalm 45. 7,) denotes the they often thought of Egypt with regret, and were even unction of the Holy Spirit anciently typified by oil, by inclined to return to their ancient bondage, we know which unction Jesus was appointed to the offices of profrom his own accounts. Indeed, their penchant for this phet, priest, and king. In Zechariah 4. 14, Joshua, the their ancient country was so strong and permanent, that high-priest, and Zerubbabel, are styled the “two anointed he found it necessary to introduce into the fundamental ones," as being anointed with the Holy Spirit, and made and unalterable laws of the government as affecting the his instruments in re-establishing the church and state king, an express ordinance against all return to Egypt. of the Jews; comp. verses 6 and 12. Oil is likewise (Deut. 17. 16.) No sooner, however, would the Israelite the symbol of abundance, fertility, joy, &c. (Psalm become rightly acquainted with the chief of nature's 23. 5; 92. 10; 141. 5; Cantic. 1.3; Isai. 61. 3.) gifts to his new country, and accustomed to the use of The Psalmist says, (141. 5,) “Let the righteous smite wine and oil, than his longing after a country which me; it shall be a kindness: and let him reprore me; it

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shall be an excellent oil, which shall not break my head; | are spurious, and that the expressions of Chrysostom for yet my prayer also shall be in their calamities.” In do not bear the sense ascribed to them. Bellarmin, illustration of this passage, Roberts observes, “Certain abandoning that position, refers to the testimony of oils are are said to have a most salutary effect on the Innocent I., bishop of Rome, in the beginning of the head; hence in fevers, or any other complaints which fifth century; who speaks of an "unctio infirmorum,' affect the head, the medical men always recommend oil. anointing of the sick. The Greek church practises I have known people who were deranged cured in a the rite of extreme unction, corresponding in part, but very short time by nothing more than the application of not entirely, with that of Rome; grounding the usage a peculiar kind of oil to the head. There are, however, upon the authority of oral tradition. After the twelfth other kinds, which are believed (when thus applied) to century, the ceremony of extreme unction was univerproduce delirium. Thus, the reproofs of the righteous sally adopted in the Western church; and was exalted were compared to excellent oil, which produced a most! by the scholastic writers to the dignity of a sacrament. salutary effect on the head. So common is this practice Martene enumerates thirty different offices for extreme of anointing the head, that all who can afford it, do it unction; one of which he supposes to be about nine every week. But strange as it may appear, the crown of hundred years old. On the whole, it appears that the head is the place selected for chastisement. Thus extreme unction originated in the act of anointing, Ovners of slaves, or husbands, or schoolmasters, beat the which in early times was immediately connected with heads of the offenders with their knuckles. Should an absolution and the Lord's Supper. These rites were urchin come late to school, or forget his lesson, the peda often administered to dying persons; and the anointing gogue says to some of the other boys, 'Go, beat his being regarded, at first partially, but by degrees more head.' 'Begone, fellow! or I will beat thy head.' commonly, as a separate act, was at last viewed as Should a man be thus chastised by an inferior, he quotes | altogether distinct, and made a separate sacrament. the old proverb, 'If my head is to be beaten, let it be Extreme unction, in the usual acceptation of the term, done with the fingers that have rings on;' meaning a has therefore no place among Christian antiquities." . man of rank. "Yes, yes; let a holy man smite my head; and what of that? it is an excellent oil. "My master has been beating my head, but it has been good OIL-TREE, TOU ry its shemen. (1 Kings 6. 23, oil for me.'"

margin, Isai. 41. 19.) Gesenius says that these words The Apostle James says, (5. 14,) “Is any sick among refer to the wild olive-tree; and our translators, though you? let him call for the elders of the church; and let they have “olive-tree” in the text of 1 Kings 6. 23, give them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name “ trees of oil” in the margin, which may be taken as of the Lord.”

showing their opinion that it is not the common olive Niebuhr states, that "In Yemen, the anointing of the that is intended. See OLIVE. body is believed to strengthen and protect it from the heat of the sun, by which the inhabitants of this province, as they wear so little clothing, are very liable to OINTMENT, np7 rokach. (Exod. 30. 25.) Persuffer. Oil, by closing up the pores of the skin, is sup- fumes are seldom, among us, made up in the form of posed to prevent that too copious transpiration which ointment, but are chiefly in that of essence, while ointenfeebles the frame; perhaps, too, these Arabians think ments are rather considered as medical preparations. a glistening skin a beauty. When the intense heat Ointments and oils were used in Eastern countries after comes in they always anoint their bodies with oil. At bathing; and as oil was the first recipient of fragrance, Suna, all the Jews, and many of the Mohammedans, probably from aromatic herbs, many kinds of unguents have their bodies anointed whenever they find them- not made of oil retained that appellation. See ALABASselves indisposed.” Burder here remarks, “This in some TER; ANOINTING. degree explains the direction of the Apostle James, the Guests at an entertainment were anciently anointed meaning of which will be, to do that solemnly for the with precious oil, or ointment. (Psalm 23. 5; 45. 7; purpose of healing, which was often done medicinally; Eccles. 9.8; Amos 6.6; Luke 7.37, 38.) Thus we find and, accordingly, we find Solomon, in many places in Mary Magdalene approaching Our Lord at an entertainbis Proverbs, speaking of administering ointment which ment, and as a mark of the highest respect and honour rejoices the heart.

she could confer, breaking an alabaster vase full of the Riddle, in his Manual of Christian Antiquities, says, richest perfume, and pouring it on his head. It is * The anointing of the sick with oil, mentioned in Mark worthy of remark, that otto of roses, which is the finest 6. 13, and in James 5. 14,15, was altogether different in perfume imported from the East at the present day, is its design from the ceremony of extreme unction, as now contained in pots or vases, with covers so firmly luted to used by the Church of Rome, which cannot be traced to the top, that it requires force and breaking to separate an earlier date than the end of the twelfth century; nor them, before the perfume can be poured out. Our Lord's is there any reason to suppose that the practice was vindication to Simon of the behaviour of this woman, intended to be continued in the Church after the cessa- presents us with a lively idea of the respect in those tion of those miraculous gifts which it accompanied. times ordinarily paid to guests on their arrival, but When the ceremony of anointing is mentioned by early which marks of friendship had, it seems, been neglected Fathers or Councils, the reference is, for the most part, by this Pharisee, at whose house Jesus Christ then was. to the offices of baptism and confirmation. Allusion is “ He turned to the woman, and said unto Simon, See indeed made by Pseudo-Dionysius to a practice of thou this woman? I entered into thine house, and thou anointing the corpse immediately before it was lowered gavest me no water for my feet, but she hath washed my into the grave; but it is obvious that this does not agree feet with her tears, and wiped them with the hairs of with the ceremony of extreme unction, in the present her head. Thou gavest me no kiss; but this woman, acceptation of the term. In asserting the antiquity of since I came in, hath not ceased to kiss my feet. Mine the modern practice, its advocates have appealed to head with oil thou didst not anoint; but this woman Jerome (Comment. in Marc 6), Augustine (De Visitat. hath anointed my feet with ointment.” To this practice Infirm. c. 4), and Chrysostom (De Sacerdot.), but it of anointing Solomon also alludes. (Prov. 27. 9.) The has been proved that the two former of these treatises priesthood in Egypt, as one of the forms of inauguration

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OINTMENT-OLD TESTAMENT.

or admission into the sacred office, were anointed with tied on the crown of the head, shining and smooth like oil, and we find from the monuments, that the oil was | polished ebony. The Psalmist, therefore, rejoicing in not simply rubbed on the head, but that it was poured God as his protector, says, “Thou anointest my head profusely over the entire person. David thus alludes to | with oil.' (Psalm 23. 5.) It is an act of great respect to this form of consecration: “Behold, how good and how pour perfumed oil on the head of a distinguished guest; pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity! It hence the woman in the Gospel manifested her respect is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran for the Saviour by pouring (precious ointment' on his down upon the beard, even Aaron's beard'; that went head." See Oil. down to the skirts of his garments; as the dew of Hermon, and as the dew that descended upon the mountains OLD AGE. This is promised as a blessing by of Zion: for there the Lord commanded the blessing, God to those who maintain obedience to his commands. even life for evermore.” (Psalm 133.)

The greatest respect was paid among the ancients geneSir John Gardner Wilkinson says, “The ointment of rally to old age, as we learn from various allusions in the ancient Egyptians was sweet-scented, and unlike the the Book of Job, Proverbs, &c. It was thought a great Lacedæmonians, who banished those who sold perfumed | blessing to “come to the grave in a full age, like as a ointments from their country, the Egyptians were parti shock of corn cometh in his season;” (Job 5. 26;) and cularly partial to this species of luxury. It was con Roberts says, “Great is the desire of the men of the tained sometimes in alabaster, (vide Luke 7. 37; Matt. East to see a good old age. Thus the beggars, when 26. 7,) sometimes in an elegant porcelain vase; and so relieved, often bless you and say, 'Ah! my lord, may strong was the odour, and so perfectly were the different you live a thousand years.' 'Live, live, till the shakings component substances amalgamated, that it has been of age.” known to retain its scent for several hundred years.” In the Egyptian room of the British Museum may be OLD TESTAMENT. The books which the Jerrs seen numerous specimens of vases. The smaller and have long venerated as Divine are usually called “The more elegant are supposed to have held unguents, per Old Testament,” in order to distinguish them from those fumes, &c.; the larger and coarser, domestic objects, as | sacred books which contain the doctrines, precepts, and wine, eatables, &c. The materials of which they are promises of the Christian religion, and which are distinfabricated are chiefly basalt, serpentine, arragonite, or guished by the appellation of the “ The New Testament.” Oriental alabaster, various kinds of clays baked, a tho The appellation of “Testament” is derived from 2Coroughly vitrefied brilliant porcelain, and glazed terra rinthians 3. 6,14; in which the words ý lalaia Aiacotta.

Onkn, and ý Kaivn AlaOnkn, are by the old Latin Sir John Gardner Wilkinson, in another place, ob translators rendered Antiquum Testamentum and Novum serves, “Many vegetable productions were encouraged Testamentum, Old and New Testament, instead of in Egypt for the sake of their oil, for making ointments, | antiquum fædus and novum fædus, the old and new or for medicinal purposes.” Speaking of some ointment covenant; for although the Greek word Alaônky signipreserved in a vase at Alnwick castle, he remarks, “I fies both Testament and covenant, yet it uniformly corhave lately received some observations upon it by Dr. responds with the Hebrew word nberith, which Ure, who says, 'In consistence, this unguent is inter signifies “a covenant.” The term “old covenant," mediate between tallow and hog's lard. It has an however, used by St. Paul in 2Corinthians 3. 14, does orange-yellow colour. Its specific gravity is 0.991; and not denote the entire collection of writings which we this density would seem to indicate the presence of rosin. term the Bible, but those ancient institutions, promises, It gives a greasy stain on paper, not removable by heat. threatenings, and, in short, the whole of the Mosaic It is soluble in hot oil of turpentine, and in hot alcohol, dispensation, related in the Pentateuch, and in the but it precipitates from the latter in the cold. From writings of the Prophets; and which, in process of time, these results I am of opinion, that it is of the nature of were, by a metonymy, transferred to the books thema fixed fat, which may have been flavoured with an selves. Thus we find mention made of the book of the essence or volatile oil; but it does not belong to the class covenant, in Exodus 24. 7, and in the apocryphal book of stearopteries, like otto of rose, or the precious Oriental of Maccabees, (1 Macc. 1. 57;) and after the example perfumes.

of the Apostle, the same mode of designating the sacred “Previous to the mummy being lowered into the pit writings obtained among the first Christians, from whom of the tomb, it was anointed, oil or ointment being it has been transmitted to modern times. poured over its head. Sometimes several priests at Some infidel writers, unable to resist the testimony tended. One carried a napkin over his shoulder, to be which the books of the Old Testament afford to the used after the anointing of the mummy; another brought truth of Christianity, have resorted to the shallow artifice a papyrus-roll, containing a prayer, or the usual ritual of denouncing them as forgeries; which gives rise to the deposited in the tombs with the dead."

inquiry, By whom could they possibly have been forged? Ointments were in great esteem and constant use That the Christians have not forged them is obvious among the ancients, as the means of cleanliness, and to enough, as there is indisputable evidence that they were give a grateful odour these ointments were mixed up | in existence long before the Christian æra; and as regards with the richest perfumes. At their festivals, especially the Jews, the answer is equally satisfactory. Were & among the rich, they used them for the refreshment of person brought before a court of justice on a suspicion their guests, and to render the entertainment more of forgery, and yet no presumptive or positive evidence acceptable and delightful. In Hindostan, it is said, I of his guilt could be produced, it would be allowed by when a person of rank and opulence receives a guest, all that he ought to be acquitted; and what shadow of whom he wishes to distinguish by particular marks of evidence has infidel ingenuity ever brought to light on regard, he pours upon his hands and arms, in the pre this point? All the probabilities of the case point the sence of the whole company, a delightful odoriferous other way. If a Jew had forged any book of the Old perfume. Roberts likewise says, “ On all joyful occa Testament, he must have been impelled to so bold and sions, the people of the East anoint the head with oil. dangerous an enterprise by some very powerful motive. Hence at their marriages, and the festive times, the young It could not be national pride, for there is scarcely one of and old may be seen with their long black tresses neatly these books which does not severely censure the national OLD TESTAMENT

OLIVE-TREE.

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manners; it could not be the love of fame, for that pas- | to comprehend the Hebrew original without the assistsion would have taught him to flatter and extol the ance of a Chaldee paraphrase; and it was necessary to national character; the love of wealth could not pro- undertake a Greek translation, becaus duce such a forgery, for no wealth was to be gained alone was known to the Jews of Alexandria. It necesby it.

sarily follows, therefore, that every book which is written But beside all this, the authors of most of these books in pure Hebrew, was composed either before or about and the periods in which they lived are well known, the time of the Babylonish captivity. This being adand as regards those which labour under any degree of mitted, we may advance a step further, and contend uncertainty, we have the clearest evidence that not one that the period which elapsed between the composition of them was written later than the fifth century before of the most ancient and the most modern book of the the Christian æra.

| Old Testament was very considerable; or, in other The Old Testament, according to our Bibles, comprises words, that the most ancient books of the Old Testament thirty-nine books, namely: the Pentateuch, or Five were written a length of ages prior to the Babylonish Books of Moses, the Books of Joshua, Judges, Ruth, captivity. No language continues during many centutwo Books of Samuel, two Books of Kings, two Books ries in the same state of cultivation, and the Hebrew, of Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Job, Psalms, like other tongues, passed through the several stages of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Solomon, the Pro- infancy, youth, manhood, and old age. If therefore, on phecies of Isaiah, Jeremiah, with his Lamentations, comparison, the several parts of the Hebrew Bible are Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, found to differ, not only in regard to style, but also in Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah Haggai, Zecha- regard to character and cultivation of language; if one riah, and Malachi. But, among the ancient Jews, they discovers the golden, another the silver, a third the formed only twenty-two books, according to the letters | brazen, a fourth the iron age, we bave strong internal of their alphabet, which were twenty-two in number; marks of their having been composed at different and reckoning Judges and Ruth, Ezra and Nehemiah, Jere- distant periods. No classical scholar, independently of miah and his Lamentations, and the twelve minor pro- the Grecian history, would believe that the poems phets, respectively as one Book. It is unnecessary here aseribed to Homer were written in the age of Demosto enter upon any inquiry respecting the authors of thenes, the orations of Demosthenes in the time of these books, as that will be found under the several Origen, or the commentaries of Origen in the days of names as they occur in the alphabetical series.

Lascaris and Chrysoloras. For the very same reason it The uniform belief of all Christians, from the com is certain that the five books, wbich are ascribed to mencement of Christianity to the present time, has been Moses, were not written in the time of David, the Psalms that the books above enumerated constituted the whole of David in the age of Isaiah, nor the prophecies of of the Old Testament; and the catalogues of them, Isaiah in the time of Malachi. But it appears from which were formed by the author of the Synopsis attri what has been said above, in regard to the extinction of buted to Athanasius, by Epiphanius, and Jerome, (towards the Hebrew language, that the Book of Malachi could the close of the fourth century,) by Origen, (in the middle | not have been written much later than the Babylonish of the third century,) and Mileto, bishop of Sardis, (to captivity; before that period, therefore, were written the wards the close of the second century,) all agree with prophecies of Isaiah, still earlier the Psalms of David, the above enumeration. To these may be added, the tes- and much earlier than these the books which are ascribed timonies of the Greek translators of the Old Testament, to Moses." Aquila, Theodotion, and Symmachus, who lived towards | We have every possible evidence, says the same the close of the second century, and that of the Peschito learned writer, that “the genuine text of the Pentaor old Syriac version, executed very early in the second, teuch proceeded from the hands of Moses; and the if not at the close of the first century of the Christian various charges that have been brought against it amount æra. Here the Jewish testimonies join ours. We need to nothing more than this, that it has not descended to not enter here into any details concerning the several the present age without some few alterations; a circumTargums, or Chaldee Paraphrases, on various parts of stance at which we ought not to be surprised, when we the Old Testament, which were compiled between the reflect on the many thousands of transcripts that have third and ninth centuries of the Christian æra, nor the been made from it in the course of three thousand Jerusalem and Babylonish Talmuds or Commentaries years." The authority of the Pentateuch being estaupon the Mishna, as they will be found discussed under blished, that of the other books of the Old Testament the respective names.

follows as a matter of course: so great is their mutual Two hundred and eighty-two years before the Chris- and immediate dependence upon each other. See tian æra, the Greek version of the Old Testament, BIBLE; CANON; PENTATEUCH. usually called the Septuagint was executed at Alexandria, the books of which are the same as in our Bible: whence it is evident that we still have those identical OLIVE-TREE, 99 zaith, (Judges 9. 9;) elata. books, which the most ancient Jews attested to be (Matt. 21. 1; Rom. 11. 17,24.) The olive-tree, Olea genuine,-a benefit this, which has not happened to any | Europea, a very common tree in the countries around ancient profane books whatever; indeed, as no authentic the Mediterranean, rarely attains any great size, but books of a more ancient date, except those of the Old two or three stems frequently rise from the same root, Testament, are extant, it is impossible to ascend higher from twenty to thirty feet high, putting out branches in search of testimony. See SEPTUAGINT.

almost their whole length covered with a gray bark. With reference to the genuineness and authenticity of Tournefort mentions eighteen kinds of olives; but in the the Old Testament, and the language in which it is Scripture we only read of the cultivated and wild olive. written, Bishop Marsh observes, “It is an undeniable The cultivated olive is of a moderate height, and thrives fact, that the Hebrew ceased to be the living language | best in a sunny and warm soil. Its trunk is knotty, its of the Jews soon after the Babylonish captivity, and that wood is solid, and yellowish; its leaves are oblong, and the Jewish productions after that period were, in general, almost like those of the willow, of a dark green colour either Chaldee or Greek. The Jews of Palestine, some on the upper side, and a whitish below. In the month ages before the appearance of Our Saviour, were unable of June it puts forth white flowers, growing in bunches,

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each of one piece, and widening toward the top, and of the earth was announced to Noah through the same dividing into four parts. To this flower succeeds the token. fruit, which is oblong and plump. It is first green, then. In the Scriptures we read of "olive yards” as very pale, and, when quite ripe, becomes black. Within it is common possessions. (1Sam. 8. 14.) The more exteninclosed a hard stone, filled with oblong seeds. This sive plantations seem to have been “in the low plains," tree grows in all parts of Palestine, on both sides of the (1Chron. 27. 28;) but olives were likewise grown on Jordan, in Galilee, in Samaria, in Judæa, and all along the hills, as the mere name, the Mount of Olives, near the coast. The notices of travellers give to the olive- Jerusalem, would indicate. They were also grown on tree the same prominence in Palestine which is given Mount Carmel. It was from the trees that grew on to it by the Scriptures. The references to vines, fig- Mount Olivet that the Israelites obtained the olire trees, mulberries, and oaks, rank next in frequency; the branches, which, with those of other trees, they employed references to none of these are more than half as numer- at the Feast of Tabernacles. (Nehem. 8. 15.) ous as those to the olive-tree. Olives and figs are with Professor Robinson, in his Biblical Researches, states great frequency mentioned together. Olive-trees are that on going from Jerusalem to Gaza, not far beyond now, as anciently, abundant and fruitful; and the culture the village of Beit-Hunem, “We came upon the inof them continues to form a particular object of atten- mense olive-groyes which stretch far to the north of tion. The expression, “Oil out of the flinty rock," Gaza. At four o'clock we fell into the Yafa road, at (Deut. 32. 13,) plainly denotes that this most valuable the line of hills which bounds the plain on the west tree grew not only in rich land, but that even the tops towards the coast. The road here crosses these bills at of the rocks would afford them sufficient support, from a low spot or gap, and continues along their western which they should extract abundance of oil. Accord side, on a course south-west, having on the right a tract ingly we are informed that although the immediate of drifts, and hills of white sand, extending to the sea, vicinity of Jerusalem is rugged and unpromising, yet here an hour distant. These sands seem only to need even there the olive and vine might thrive under proper water in order to become fertile; even now they are culture.

studded with trees and bushes like hedges, apparently “The olive-tree,” Mr. Robinson observes, “flourishes from the effect of the rains alone. For the whole distwo hundred years before it begins to decay; and even tance from the gap of the hills to Gaza, the road passes while it is living young trees spring up around it which through a vast grove of olive-trees, not only very numeroccupy its place when dead.” After the devastation of ous, but also large and productive. Many of them are a country by hostile invasion, and the consequent neglect upon the sands. It is said to be the largest olive-grove of its culture, no plantation requires a longer period to in Palestine. We saw but a single one more extensive, restore its previously flourishing condition than the olive and that was near Beirût.” grove; and this tree may, therefore, have been appro- There appears to have been figures of olive-trees 1. priately selected as the representative of peace. There the Temple, (Zech. 4. 3;) and the door-posts, as well is, however, reason to suppose that its emblematic cha- | as the images of the cherubim, were made of olive racter did not originate in Greece; but that it dated wood. We learn from Romans 11. 17,24, that one from a far more remote period, when the habitable state trees were grafted. Professor Jahn says the oleaster,

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