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OLIVE-TREE-OLIVE, WILD.

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Indeed it is not improbable that the owners were well aware of the injury done to the olive-trees by beating, although they practised it, because it was the most effectual way of gathering the fruit with which they were acquainted; and might, therefore, prohibit the poor and the stranger to collect the gleanings in that manner; they were on that account reduced to the necessity of shaking the olive berries from the tree, how ineffectual soever might be the method, or remain without them. The main crop, then, seems to have been taken from the olive by beating, and the gleanings uniformly by shaking. Under this conviction, Bishop Lowth has, with great judgment, translated the sixth verse of the seventeenth chapter of Isaiah, “A gleaning shall be left in it, as in the shaking of the olive-tree.”

A plant so useful as the olive-tree is, as might be expected, the subject of frequent reference in the Scrip

tures, on account of its verdure, soundness, and the useThe Olive-Branch.

fulness of the oil it produces; it is the symbol of prospejou yy its shemen, the Agrippa Elæagnus of Linnæus, rity, plenty, and enjoyment. Thus the Psalmist, deis that species of wild olive whose branches are grafted scribing the happiness of a man blessed of God, says, into barren olive-trees, that are in a state of cultivation, | “Thy wife shall be as a fruitful vine by the sides of in order that fruitfulness may be produced.

thine house; thy children like olive-plants round about It seems that at times the olive-tree cast off its thy table.” (Psalm 128. 3.) It is likewise the symbol blossoms, and the labour of the olive failed, (Job 15. 33; of peace; thus Noah's dove (Gen. 8. 11,) had, on her Habak. 3. 17;) it has been conjectured that this was return to the ark, an olive leaf in her mouth. In enuowing to some blight, either by frost or insect; but it is merating the sources of nourishment and wealth, the said by others that it generally occurs after the trees prophet Habakkuk (3. 17) includes this among them : have been temporarily exhausted by over-production in “Though the labour of the olive should fail.” David a succession of genial seasons. A north or north-east compares himself to a green olive-tree in the house of wind frequently proves injurious to the olive-trees in God, (Psalm 52. 8;) and the prophet Hosea uses similar Greece by destroying the blossom. Dr. Chandler says, language respecting Israel : “His branches shall spread, “We ate under an olive-tree, then laden with pale and his beauty shall be as the olive-tree, and his smell yellow flowers; a strong breeze from the sea scattered as Lebanon,” (ch. 14. 6,) a simile employed also by St. the bloom and incommoded us, but the spot afforded no

| Paul in adverting to their state before their rejection, shelter more eligible.” In another place he observes, where he speaks “ of the root and fatness of the olive“The olive-groves are now, as anciently, a principal tree.” (Rom. ll. 17.) In Zechariah 4. 3,11,14, the two source of the riches of Athens. The mills for pressing olive-trees on either side of the lamp sconces, pouring and grinding the olives are in the town; the oil is de- oil into the lamps, are there explained to be the two posited in large earthen jars sunk in the ground in the anointed ones: Zerubbabel as captain of the people, and area before the houses. The crops had failed five years Jeshua as high-priest. And this signified that these successively when we arrived; the cause assigned was a two maintained the nation of the captive Jews, both Dortherly wind, called Greco-Tramontane, which de- as to their ecclesiastical and civil state; as the olivestroyed the flower. The fruit is set in about a fortnight, trees which afford oil maintain the light in the lamps, when the apprehension from this unpropitious quarter the symbols of government. Reference seems to be made ceases. The bloom in the following year was unhurt, to this in Revelations 11. 4, where the two witnesses are and we had the pleasure of leaving the Athenians happy described as “the two olive-trees, and the two candlein the prospect of a plentiful harvest.”

sticks standing before the God of the earth;" that is, the By the Jews the fruit was gathered in the first instance faithful in every age, who refuse to comply with the by shaking the tree; and in the second by beating the | general corruption, shall be constantly supported by branches. (Deut. 24. 20; Isaiah 17. 6.)

Divine aid, as if a lamp were kept always burning by a Professor Paxton observes, “The custom of beating continual supply from a living olive-tree, constantly the olive with long poles, to make the fruit fall, is still feeding it with the aliment of its flame, that it may followed in some parts of Italy. This foolish method, never go out in darkness. besides hurting the plant, and spoiling many branches that would bear the year following, makes the ripe and unripe fruit fall indiscriminately, and bruises a great OLIVE, WILD, aryprelatos. (Rom. 11. 17.) deal of both kinds, by which they become rancid in the Professor Jahn says, the cotinus, KOTIVOS, and the heaps, and give an ill-flavoured oil. Such is the state oleaster, aypiedalos, are both called wild olive-trees. ment of the Abbé Fortis in his account of Dalmatia;

They are nevertheless of different kinds, though they we are not then to wonder that, in the time of Moses, are sometimes confounded by the Greeks themselves. when the art of cultivation was in so simple and unim The fruit of the cotinus is used for no other purpose proved a state, beating should have been the common than colouring; but the oleaster, jaw yy its shemen, is way of gathering olives by the owners, who were dis- | that species of wild olive used for grafting. See Oilposed to leave, we may suppose, as few as possible, and TREE. Were forbidden by their law to go over the branches a | There are in Palestine two more marked species of second time. But shaking them appears to have been oleaster, Elæagnus angustifolia and Elæagnus Oriensufficient when they had hung till they were fully ripe; talis, of which the former can exist in our open gardens, and was therefore practised by the poor, or by strangers, while the latter requires the protectio

while the latter requires the protection of a green-house. who were either not provided with such long poles as The Elæagnus Orientalis, is distinguished chiefly by the owners possessed, or did not find them necessary. | having sharp straight thorns scattered variously over its

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OLIVES, WILD-OMNIPRESENCE OF GOD.

branches, while the other is unarmed. The leaf of the footpath ascends towards St. Stephen's gate; entering Oriental species is also twice as broad as that of the other. / which I returned home by the Via Dolorosa." Schulze saw the oleaster laden with fruit, but he does not say of which species. The fruit of this tree differs much in size, according to climate and soil, from that

OLYMPAS, Oluutras, the name of one of the of the berry of the barberry to that of a plum, of which

| brethren at Rome to whom St. Paul sent his salutation. latter size were those seen by Schulze in the plain of | (Rom. 16. 15.) Jericho.

OLYMPIC GAMES. See GAMES. OLIVES, MOUNT OF. See MOUNT OF OLIVES.. OMEGA, w, is the last letter of the Greek alphaHaving already given the sketches of two modern tra- | bet; and is hence poetically put for the last: "I am vellers, Messrs. Stephens and G. Robinson, who visited

ssrs. Stephens and G. Robinson who visited | Alpha and Omega, the first and the last." (Rev. 1. 8; this celebrated mount in the course of their travels, we | 22. 13.) avail ourselves of the recent publication of Dr. Robin

OMER, Oy (Exod. 16. 16,18,22,33,36.). From son's valuable Biblical Researches in Palestine, to add

these passages, which relate to the miraculous supply of here his impressions.

manna to the Israelites in the wilderness, it appears that “The sides of the mountain are still sprinkled with

the omer was used in the measurement of dry articles. olive-trees, though not thickly, as was probably the case

It contained the portion which was assigned to each of old; and a few other trees are occasionally seen. I

individual for his daily food. It corresponded to the took the middle path, which brought me out at the

Xowvig of the Greeks, and held five pints and one-tenth. Church of the Ascension and the mosque, situated on

English corn measure. the summit. Around them are a few huts, forming a miserable village. Here one is able to look down upon

OMNIPOTENCE OF GOD. This attribute refers the city and survey at least the roofs of the houses. to his Almighty power, and is essential to his nature as The view may be said indeed to be a very full one; but | an infinite, independent, and perfect Being. The power it is not particularly interesting. It presents a dull of God may be more especially seen : (1,) In creation, mixed mass of roofs and domes; but the distance is too (Gen. 1; Rom. 1. 20;) (2,) In the preservation of his great to be able to distinguish the buildings or the topo creatures, (Heb. 1. 3; Col. 1. 16,17;) (3) In the regraphy of the city in any good degree. A more pleasing demption of the world by Our Lord Jesus Christ, (Luke view is obtained from various points lower down the 1. 35,37; Ephes. 1. 19;) (4,) In the conversion of sinside of the mountain.

ners, (Psalm 110. 3; 2Cor. 4. 7;) (5,) In the continua“From the church on the summit, only the city and tion and success of the Gospel in the world, (Matt. the western prospect are visible; the eastern view being | 13. 31,32 ;) (6,) In the final perseverance of the saints, cut off by a higher part or ridge of the hill some twenty (1Pet. 1. 5;) (7.) In the resurrection of the dead, or thirty rods farther east, with a wely or tomb of a l (1Cor. ch. 15;) (8,) In making the righteous happy for Muslim saint upon it. From this wely one obtains a ever, and in punishing the wicked. (Matt. 25. 34; commanding view of the northern end and portion of Phil. 3. 20,21.) the Dead Sea, and also of the adjacent country, including a large part of the valley of the Jordan, as well as OMNIPRESENCE OF GOD, is his ubiquity, or the naked dreary region lying between Jerusalem and his being present in every place. This attribute may Jericho, and between Bethlehem and the Dead Sea. be argued from his infinity, (Psalm 139;) his power, The course of the river Jordan could be traced by which is everywhere, (Heb. 1. 3;) his providence, (Acts. the narrow strip of verdure which clothes its banks. | 17. 27,28,) which supplies all. As he is a spirit, he is Beyond its valley, the eastern mountains stretch off so omnipresent as not to be mixed with the creature, or northward and southward in a long even ridge, appa divided, part in one place, and part in another; nor is rently unbroken. They present to the view, as here seen, he multiplied or extended, but is essentially present no single peak or separate summit, which could be taken everywhere. In the Scriptures there is nothing confor the Nebo of the Scriptures. At a considerable dis fused in the doctrine of the Divine ubiquity. God is tance north of Jericho, indeed, a loftier summit is seen, everywhere, but he is not everything. All things bare forming the highest point of the mountains of Gilead, their being in him, but he is distinct from all things; just north of Es-Salt; but this could not have been he fills the universe, but is not mingled with it. He is Nebo. The atmosphere was at the time perfectly clear, the intelligence which guides, and the power which and the waters of the Dead Sea lay bright and sparkling motions; but his personality is preserved, and he is in the sunbeams, seemingly not more than eight or ten independent of the works of his hands, however vast miles distant, though actually much further off. I un and noble. So far is his presence from being bounded fortunately neglected to look for Kerak, which would | by the universe itself, that, as we are taught in the 139th doubtless have been visible in so clear a day. When we Psalm, were it possible for us to wing our way into the sought for it in a later visit, the haziness of the atmo- | immeasurable depths and breadths of space, God would sphere prevented us from distinguishing it. Towards there surround us in as absolute a sense as that in which the W. and N.W. the view extends to the Terebinth he is said to be about our bed and our path in that part Valley so called, and the high point and mosque of of the world where his will has placed us. On this, as Neby Samwil.

on all similar subjects, the Scriptures use terms which “I returned down the mount by the more southern are taken in their common-sense acceptation among manpath; from which a branch led me across the Jewish kind; and though the vanity of the human mind discemetery, to the tombs of Absalom and Zechariah so poses many to seek a philosophy in the doctrine thus called, at the bottom of the valley, just under the S.E. announced, deeper than that which its popular terms corner of the wall of the mosque and city. Here is the convey, we are bound to conclude, if we would pay but narrowest part of the valley. Close by the tombs is a a common respect to an admitted revelation, that where well, which then had water, though it seemed not to be no manifest figure of speech occurs, the truth of the docused; and here is also another bridge of stone over the trine lies in the ordinary tenor of the terms by which it is torrent bed with a fine arch. From this point a rugged expressed. Otherwise there would be no revelation, we

being present his infieb. 1. 3;) his he is a

OMNIPRESENCE OF GOD-ON.

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do not say, of the modus (for that is confessedly incom- | fore, as the heavens are higher than the earth, so, as the prehensible), but of the fact. In the case before us, the prophet has told us, are his ways above our ways, and terms presence and place are used according to common his thoughts above our thoughts. notions; and must be so taken, if the Scriptures are intelligible. Metaphysical refinements are not Scriptural doctrines, when they give to the terms chosen by the OMRI, '704 Sept. Außpı, a general of the army Holy Spirit an acceptation out of their general and pro of Elah, king of Israel, who succeeded that monarch when per use, and make them the signs of a perfectly distinct assassinated by Zimri, at the siege of Gibbethon. (1 Kings class of ideas; if, indeed, all distinctness of idea is not 16. 9-28.) He was a wicked prince, whose crimes surlost in the attempt. It is, therefore, in the popular and passed those of his predecessors. He, however, had a just, because Scriptural manner, that we are to conceive long reign, and dying at Samaria, B.C. 914, was sucof the omnipresence of God.

ceeded by his son Ahab. From the consideration of this attribute, we should learn to fear and reverence God; (Psalm 89. 7:) to derive consolation in the hour of distress; (Psalm 46.1;) ON, 118 or X Sept. HULOTONS, (Gen. 41. 45,) to be active and diligent in all holy services. (Psalm otherwise called " Beth-shemesh in the land of Egypt,” 119. 168.)

(Jerem. 43. 13,) or Heliopolis, which signifies the city

or house of the sun; was situated south of Pelusium, OMNISCIENCE OF GOD, is that perfection by and at some distance from the eastern branch of the which he knows all things, and is: (1,) Infinite, (Psalm Nile. According to Berosus this was the city of Moses, 147.5-) (2) Eternal. (Isai. 46. 10; Acts 2. 23; 15. 18; and it was to the daughter of the priest of this place Ephes. 1. 4;) (3,) Universal, extending to all persons, that Pharaoh married Joseph, on exalting him to the times, places, and things, (Psalm 50. 10-13; Heb. 4. 13;) second station in Egypt. According to Josephus it was (4.) Perfect, relating to what is past, present, and to come. given to the Israelites on their settling in Egypt, which He knows all independently, distinctly, infallibly, and is probable from the fact of its lying in or near the land perpetually. (Jerem.-10. 6,7; Rom. 11. 33.) (5,) This of Goshen. In after ages, and with the consent of knowledge is peculiar to himself, and not communicable Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, a temple was to any creature. (Job 36. 4; Mark 13. 32.) (6) This | built here for the Jews by Onias, who had been disattribute is incomprehensible to us, how God knows all possessed of his authority by Antiochus. This temple things, yet it is evident that he does; for to suppose was in great repute among the Hellenistic Jews; though otherwise is to suppose him an imperfect Being, and at there can be no doubt of the irregularity of this estavariance with the revelation he has given of himself. blishment, yet Onias justified it to the Jews by reference (Job 21. 22; 28. 24; Psalm 139. 6; 1John 3. 20.) to Isaiah 19. 18,19: the Temple at Jerusalem, however,

This attribute of God is constantly connected in Scrip- was always held in much superior estimation by the ture with his omnipresence, and forms a part of almost Jews even of Egypt, who frequently repaired thither to every description of that attribute; for as God is a spirit, worship. and therefore intelligent, if he is everywhere, if nothing | The inhabitants of this city are represented by Herocan exclude him, not even the most solid bodies, nor the dotus as the wisest of the Egyptians, and here Moses minds of intelligent beings, then, indeed, as St. Paul avers, received that education which made him "learned in all are “all things naked and open to the eyes of him with the wisdom of the Egyptians." (Acts 7. 22.) But whom we have to do.” Where he acts, he is; and where notwithstanding its being the seat of the sciences, such he is, he perceives. He understands and considers were its idolatries, that it was called by the Jews Aven, things absolutely, and as they are in their own natures, or Beth Aven,“ the house of vanity," or idolatry. (Ezek. forms, properties, differences, together with all the cir 30. 17.) It was predicted by Jeremiah (43. 13,) and by cumstances belonging to them. “Known unto him are Ezekiel (30. 17,) that this place with its temples and all his works from the beginning of the world,” rather inhabitants should be destroyed; which was probably from all eternity, known before they were made, and fulfilled by Nebuchadnezzar. known now they are made, in their actual existence. Most of the ruins of this once famed city, described

In Psalm 94, the knowledge of God is argued from by Strabo, are buried in the accumulation of the soil; the communication of it to men: “Understand, ye | but that which marks its site, and is, perhaps, the most brutish among the people; and, ye fools, when will ye be ancient work at this time existing in a perfect state, is a wise? He that planted the ear, shall he not hear? He column of red granite, seventy feet high, and covered with that formed the eye, shall he not see? He that chas | hieroglyphics. A modern writer on the monumental tiseth the heathen, shall not he correct? He that history of Egypt remarks, “At the present day, the only teacheth man knowledge, shall not he know?” This mark that points out, amid the sands of the desert, the argument is as easy as it is conclusive, obliging all who site of Heliopolis, is a magnificent obelisk, upright, and acknowledge a First Cause, to admit his perfect intelli- in its place, and having on each face the same hierogence, or to take refuge in Atheism itself. For if God glyphic inscription, engraved most beautifully, which gives wisdom to the wise, and knowledge to men of includes the name of Osortasen. It reads, 'Horus the understanding, if he communicates this perfection to life-giver, the king of an obedient people, (sun offered his creatures, the inference must be that he is possessed to the world,) lord of Upper and Lower Egypt, the lifeof it in a much more eminent degree than they: that his giving son of the sun Osortasen, beloved of the spirits knowledge is deep and intricate, reaching to the very of Poone, the hawk of gold, the life-giver, the great god, essence of things, theirs but slight and superficial; his | (sun offered to the world,) the celebrator of the festivals, clear and distinct, theirs confused and dark; his certain giving eternal life. and infallible, theirs doubtful and liable to mistake; his “Modern writers, who support the barbarous and easy and permanent, theirs obtained with much pains, destructive character of the invasion of shepherds, admit and soon lost again by the defects of memory or age; the remaining of this obelisk in its place to be a very his universal and extending to all objects, theirs short singular circumstance, and endeavour to explain it by and narrow, reaching only to some few things, while the supposition that it had been thrown down by the those which are wanting cannot be numbered; and there shepherds, and erected soon after their expulsion by

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practice con- / whichose enemics who form acceptable, but as the

Matariyeh, on the site of On, or Heliopolis. their conquerors. They refer to the two obelisks called | priests from indulging in the use of wine; and we find Cleopatra's Needles, which are now at Alexandria, but abundant proofs, from the sculptures in other places, are found from their inscription to have been originally of its having been offered to the sun. erected in some other city, in proof of the existence of “Plutarch continues to observe, that even the kings such a practice. This, however, really proves nothing. themselves, being of the order of priests, have their wine Had the obelisk at Heliopolis been thrown down, and given them according to a certain measure prescribed in afterwards re-erected by any successor of Osortasen, the sacred books, as we are told by Hecatæus; and it is whether Pharaoh or Ptolemy, he would certainly either only since the reign of Psammeticus, that this indulhave recorded the deed in an inscription upon the obe gence has been granted them; for before that time they lisk, or he would have erased the name of Osortasen drank no wine at all; and if they made use of it in their and substituted his own in its place. All the monu- libations to the gods, it was not because they looked ments of Egypt bear testimony to the universality of upon it as in its own nature acceptable, but as the blood this practice of adding or substituting the name of the of those enemies who formerly fought against them, restorer for that of the founder; and the practice con- which being mixed with the earth produced the vine; tinued as long as the hieroglyphics remained in use. So and hence they think that drinking wine in quantities that the absence of all hieroglyphic records of their makes men mad, being filled with the blood of their own removal from the obelisks of Alexandria, plainly limits ancestors. These things are related by Eudoxus, in the the time of it to a very late period, when Heliopolis had second book of his Tour, as he bad them from the priests been long deserted.

themselves. The assertion, however, respecting the pro“This consideration suggests the probability that the hibition of wine, previous to the time of Psam meticus, obelisk at Heliopolis is now standing in the place in is erroneous, as kings and priests were permitted its use which it had been at first erected, contributing some at the earliest periods, as the sculptures abundantly degree of support, at any rate, to the plain tenor of the prove, as well as the Scriptural account of Pharaoh's inspired account of the sojourn of Joseph in Egypt. butler. (Gen. 40. 11.) The Pharaoh then reigning was a shepherd king, but he “It was of Heliopolis, or On, that Potipherah (Gen. had adopted the manners and customs of Egypt; and 41. 45,) was a priest, whose daughter Asenath was given instead of the savage devastator and oppressor described in marriage to Joseph, and the name of that person, by the Egyptian priests, he was the benefactor of the yn 'uid is evidently compounded of Phrê or Phrah, country over which he ruled.”

the sun,' and answers to the Egyptian Pet-phrê, or “Heliopolis," says Sir John Gardner Wilkinson," the Heliodotus, which in hieroglyphics would be thus On of Scripture, a small but celebrated city of Lower written:Egypt, was the place where the worship of Re was peculiarly adopted. Plutarch says, 'Those who minister to the god of Heliopolis never carry wine into the temple, looking upon it as indecent to drink it during the day, when under the immediate inspection of their

Name of Pot-pherah, Pet-phre, or Pet-re. lord and king. The priests of the other deities are not altogether so scrupulous on this point; making use of it, “The priests of the sun of Heliopolis, like those though sparingly, unless at some of their more solemn of Thebes and Memphis, were celebrated for their learnpurifications, when they wholly abstain from it. Indeed, ing; and it was to this city that Plato, Eudoxus, and they give themselves up wholly to study and meditation, other Greek sages repaired, in order to study the hearing and teaching those truths which regard the wisdom of the Egyptians;' and Pythagoras, according to Divine nature. This, however, does not appear to refer Plutarch, was the disciple of Oinuphis, the Heliopolite.' to the ordinary libations made to the sun, which were Astronomy and all branches of science were studied at doubtless of wine; as the usual drink-offerings presented Heliopolis; and the priests of the sun enjoyed the to the gods; but to a regulation which prevented the greatest reputation for learning. Their city, though

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small, was the university of Egypt; and near it was an ONESIPHORUS, Ovno igopos, one of the primiobservatory, which Strabo attributes to Eudoxus, but tive Christians, of whom honourable mention is made by which we may conclude, with great reason, belonged of St. Paul in 2Timothy 1. 16 and 4. 19. He appears to old to the city, whither he had gone from Greece to have been a citizen of Ephesus, and member of the study the secrets of the Egyptian wisdom.

church there; for St. Paul tells Timothy that “ he knew “ In the time of the geographer, the reputation of this in how many things he had ministered to him at Epheseat of learning had already declined; the spacious sus.” (2Tim. 1. 18.) Onesiphorus came to Rome in mansions in which the priests lived were pointed out to the year of Christ 65, when St. Paul was a second time him as objects of bygone days; and the inhabitants imprisoned for the faith, at a moment, too, when almost spoke of the former sojourn of learned men among them. all the rest of his friends had forsaken him and fled. The colleges, as well as the doctrines they taught, no What became of him is unknown. longer existed in Heliopolis; nor was any one shown to him who occupied himself in the pursuits of former

ONION, Sya belsel. (Numb. 11. 5.) This word times. Alexandria was the seat of learning at that

occurs in the Scripture in the plural form only, Obra period: philosophy seemed to have sought an abode and

betsalim; Sept. ta kpojuva. Hasselquist thinks that patronage near the court; even its obelisks were removed

the Allium cepa, called by the Arabs basal, is one of the with its learning from Heliopolis; and all that could

species of onions for which the Israelites longed. He give it splendour or celebrity was taken to the new city.”

| infers this from the quantities still used in Egypt, and Professor Robinson, who visited the spot in 1838,

their goodness. “Whoever," he says, “has tasted says, “ We rode out to the site of ancient Heliopolis,

onions in Egypt, must allow that none can be had better about two hours N.N.E. from Cairo. The way thither

in any part of the universe. Here they are sweet ; in passes along the edge of the desert; which is continu

other countries they are nauseous and strong. Here ally making its encroachments so soon as there ceases to

they are soft; whereas in the northern and other parts, be a supply of water for the surface of the ground. The

they are hard, and their coats so compact that they are water of the Nile soaks through the earth for some dis

difficult of digestion. Hence they cannot, in any place, tance under this sandy tract; and is everywhere found

be eaten with less prejudice and more satisfaction than on digging wells eighteen or twenty feet deep. Such

in Egypt. They eat them roasted, cut into four pieces, wells are very frequent in parts which the inundation

with some bits of roasted meat, which the Turks in does not reach. The water is raised from them by | Egypt call kobab, and with this dish they are so de wheels turned by oxen, and applied to the irrigation of lighted that I have heard them wish they might enjoy it the fields. Wherever this takes place, the desert is

in Paradise. They likewise make soup of them in quickly converted into a fruitful field. In passing to

Egypt, cutting the onions in small pieces; this I think Heliopolis, we saw several such fields in the different

one of the best dishes I ever ate.” In warm countries stages of being reclaimed from the desert; some just

the onion often constitutes a staple article of diet. The laid out, others already fertile. In returning by another

sun has the same mellowing effect upon it as upon the tray, more eastward, we passed a succession of beautiful

cucumber, so that its savour is milder than when grown plantations, wholly dependent on this mode of irriga

in this country, and its use far less likely to affect the tion. The site of Heliopolis is marked by low mounds,

stomach with any disagreeable consequences. Most of inclosing a space about three-quarters of a mile in length,

the people of Western Asia are remarkably fond of by half a mile in breadth ; which was once occupied onions. All the more useful and common species of partly by houses, and partly by the celebrated Temple of

allium grow in Palestine. The paintings of ancient the Sun. This area is now a ploughed field, a garden

Egypt confirm the Scriptural account of the extensive of herbs; and the solitary obelisk which still rises in the

| use of the edible species of allium in that country, and midst is the sole remnant of the former splendours of it is probab

it is probable that the Jews, in their own land, consumed the place. The city suffered greatly from the invasion of

them largely. Cambyses; and, in Strabo's time, it was a mass of

Pliny says the Allium sativum and the Allium cepa splendid ruins. In the days of Edrîsi and Abdallatif, were

| were "both ranked by the Egyptians among gods, in

bot the place bore the name of 'Ain Shems; and in the

taking an oath;" and Juvenal derides them for their neighbouring village Matariyeh, is still shown an ancient

veneration of these garden-born deities. Plutarch says, well bearing the same name. Near by it is a very old

being held in abhorrence, the priests abstained from sycamore, its trunk straggling and gnarled, under which

them as unlawful food; “the reason of which was," legendary tradition relates that the Holy Family once

observes Sir John Gardner Wilkinson, “ probably derested.”

rived from a sanatory precaution, as in the case of ONAN, yaix (Gen. 38. 4,) the son of Judah, and

beans and other kinds of pulse. But there is no direct grandson of the patriarch Jacob. He was given in mar

evidence from the monuments of their having been riage to Tamar, after the death of his brother Ur, but

sacred ; and they were admitted as common offerings on was destroyed by the Lord for the criminal manner in every altar. Onions and other vegetables were not forwhich he evaded compliance with the law of the Levi

bidden to the generality of the people, to whom they rate. See LEVIRATE.

were a principal article of food; for whatever religious

feeling prohibited their use on certain occasions, this was ONESIMUS, Ovno iuos, the name of a slave of

confined to the initiated, who were required to keep Philemon, converted under the preaching of the Apostle

le themselves more especially pure for the service of the Paul. (Colos. 4. 9; Philem. 10.) Having fled from his master, he was sent back by the Apostle, who, on that occasion, wrote his admirable Epistlerto Philemon. This

ONKELOS, TARGUM OF. See TarguMS letter had all the success he could desire. Philemon not • only received Onesimus as a faithful servant, but rather ONYCHA, OSTIR shicheleth. This is one of the

as a brother and a friend. A little time after he sent ingredients of the holy perfume, mentioned in Exodus him back to Rome to St. Paul that he might continue to 30. 34. Its true nature is doubtful. Gesenius says, be serviceable to him in prison. Onesimus is said to “according to most versions, Hebrew interpreters and bave died a martyr.

Talmudists, ovve, that is, unguis odoratus, the well

gods."

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