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ORATORIES

ORDINATION.

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appropriated to smaller or domestic chapels; but at Levitical ceremonies which took place at the consecrafirst they were given to places of Christian worship in tion of the priests and high-priests. The terms xelpageneral. Oratory is used among the Romanists for a tovia and ordinatio, are derived from the civil customs closet or little apartment near a bed-chamber, furnished of the Greeks and Romans. The words ordinatio and with a little altar, crucifix, &c., for private devotion.” ordinare, are used in the common ecclesiastical sense of

ordination'and 'to ordain,' by Tertullian, Cyprian, Opta

tus, and Leo the Great. Jerome, in like manner, ORCHARD, D772 paridis. (Eccl. 2. 5; Cantic. explains ordinare' by 'ordines sacros et ecclesiasticos 4.13.) This is a word introduced into the later Hebrew conferre, quod faciunt episcopi.' Ordo, corresponding from the Persian, in which it denotes a royal park, to the Greek rašis, is the word commonly used by the whence the Greek TapadeLOOS, paradise; it is ren- | Latin writers of the Middle Ages. Greek writers use dered in our version in the above passages “ orchard.” | the terms a oplouos, “a setting apart,' and kaO lepwols, In the Scriptures gardens are denominated from the consecration. prevalence of certain trees or fruits, as O'IDT 07 “The first passage of the New Testament in which paridis rimmonim, the “garden of pomegranates,” (Cantic. we read of the ordination (properly so called) of mini4. 13;) 1x na gannath agos, “ the garden of nuts.” sters to any office in the church, is Acts 6. 1-7, which (Cantic. 6. 11.) See GARDEN.

contains an account of the appointment of seven deacons in the church of Jerusalem; (with which compare Mark

16. 18; Acts 8. 14,18,19,20; 9. 10-19.) And we have ORDINATION, is the act of conferring holy further accounts of the appointment and ordination of orders; of initiating a person into the Christian ministry. ecclesiastical officers in Acts 13. 1-4; 14. 23; 1 Timothy The twenty-third Article of our Church declares that, 4. 14; 5. 22; 2Timothy 1. 6. In the First Epistle to " It is not lawful for any man to take upon him the Timothy, St. Paul reminds him of the laying on of the office of public preaching, or ministering the sacraments hands of the presbytery; but in the Second Epistle, he in the congregation, before he be lawfully called and speaks of the laying on of his own (the Apostle's) hands. sent to execute the same. And those we ought to The Roman canonists maintain that two separate ordijudge lawfully called and sent, which be chosen and nations are here spoken of; the former, in which Timothy called to this work by men who have public authority was ordained priest by the presbytery, and the latter, in given unto them in the congregation, to call and send which he was made bishop by the Apostle; but many ministers into the Lord's vineyard."

Protestant interpreters suppose that St. Paul refers to The Apostolic Fathers speak constantly as if those only one ordination; and that the imposition of his own who ministered had received a regular commission to hands, and of those of the presbytery, formed a concurminister. Clement of Rome, in his first Epistle to the rent act, performed at one and the same time. Corinthians, is copious on the subject of ministers; not | “The church always regarded a formal and solemn proving anything formally about their commission, but | dedication of ministers to their office, as a useful and taking it for granted. From this epistle it may be per even necessary custom. It was a rule in the earliest ceived that the Corinthian church had ejected some days of the Church, that all things should be done ministers; for which he blames them. Polycarp speaks decently, and in order. (1Cor. 14. 40.) The ministry of the qualifications of good ministers: he mentions also of the word was deemed a sacred office, and the election Valens' having been dismissed from the Presbytery. and appointment of ministers (xeupatovia), was viewed Ignatius, writing to the Church at Ephesus, speaks of as a solemn transaction. Forms of ordination are found that church as very well governed; and says much on in the earliest liturgies of both Eastern and Western the subject of episcopal authority. To which we may churches. add, that the distinction between Clergy and Laity, | “The Church used every precaution in order that (Kanpos and Aaikoi,) was known in the time of Cle- none but fit persons should be ordained to the sacred mens Romanus, and expressed in the same words in ministry: hence there were a variety of disqualifications. which it has been expressed ever since.

Besides the observance of negative rules, or the absence The continuance of a regularly appointed clergy of disqualification, it was necessary in order to ordiamong the early Christians appears undeniably from the nation that certain positive regulations should be comRoman laws concerning them, which afford notices of plied with, or that persons to be ordained should possess their revenues, arising from various successions, contri- some real and definite qualifications. butions, &c., their peculiar punishments, and the modes | “I. They were required to be of a certain age. The of life and employments which were permitted them. rules of the early Church concerning the canonical Of all these, Bingham gives an account in the fifth, or legitimate age for ordination were undoubtedly borsixth, and seventh books of his Antiquities.

rowed from the Jewish institution; the age of twentyRiddle, in his Manual of Christian Antiquities, ob five years required for the Levites being adopted for serves, “As the office of Christian pastors and teachers deacons, and that of thirty years required for the priests, was derived, not from any of the Levitical institutions, being applied to presbyters and bishops. In the Apobut rather from the constitution of the Jewish syna- stolical Constitutions, lib. II., c. 1, the age of at least gogue, as it existed after the return from the Babylonish fifty years is required for a bishop; and we find reference captivity; so was also the method of their ordination or made to this rule by Boniface in the eighth century. It appointment to their office. It has been shown by is certain, however, that at no very late period this law Selden and Vitringa, that the presidents and readers of had grown out of date, and the term of thirty years was the synagogue were appointed to their office with the fixed as the lowest canonical age for a bishop, as well as solemn imposition of hands; and that this custom is to for a presbyter. It appears, indeed, that exceptions be traced to Exodus ch. 29; Leviticus ch. 8, and similar even to this rule were sometimes, made in favour of perpassages. In a later period of the Church, we find the sons of a lower age. Thus we are told that Gregory introduction of the customs of anointing, investing with | Thaumaturgus and his brother Athenodorus, were raised the sacred garments, and delivering the sacred vessels to the episcopal dignity while they were young men, and into the hands of the person ordained, (Exod. 29. 24; the general rule was perhaps dispensed with in the case Levit. 21. 10; Numb. 3. 3,) in accordance with the of Acholius, bishop of Antioch, Athanasius, bishop of

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Alexandriazheimis; buteral terms, in

Alexandria, Paul, bishop of Alexandria, and Remigius, | ther remark, and early ecclesiastical writers often er. bishop of Rheims; but as the youth of these persons is pressly assert that ordination is valid only when peralluded to only in general terms, it is possible that they formed by a bishop. Thus in the Homilies of Chrysosmay have attained the age of thirty years before they tom it is distinctly said that a presbyter possessed no were made bishops. Athanasius, indeed, who was power of ordaining. Epiphanius represents it as an elected to succeed Alexander, in the year 326, could error of Aërius that he desired to place bishops and hardly have been thirty years old at that time; but as presbyters on an equal footing. Ordinations by preshe was considered very young to be chosen to the epi- | byters were frequently declared invalid. The ordinascopal office, it is probable that the canonical age for a tions of Novatians, Donatists, and other reputed heretics bishop was then higher than thirty years, at least in the or schismatics, were admitted as valid, on condition that Church at Alexandria. In Justin, the lowest canonical | they were administered regularly, that is, by a bishop. age for a bishop is fixed at thirty-five years. The Roman And the only right in the matter of ordination which bishops, Siricius and Zosimus, required as the lowest age, | belonged to presbyters, was that of assisting the bishop for a deacon thirty years, for a presbyter thirty-five, and in ordaining their fellow-presbyters. Ordination was for a bishop forty-five.

administered in the church in the presence of the con. “The age at which Our blessed Lord entered upon his | gregation; any more private administration was reministry was frequently alleged as the reason for fixing garded as an abuse. thirty years as the canonical age for presbyters and . “No fixed seasons for ordination were appointed bishops. The Council of Trent fixed the age for the during the first four centuries ; the rite was performed deaconate at twenty-three; for the priesthood at twenty- at any part of the year, according to the necessities of five. Children were sometimes appointed to the office the Church. During the same period we find no certain of reader; but by the laws of Justinian none were to be rules restricting the performance of this rite to the appointed under twelve years of age. The age for sub Lord's Day; a law which afterwards prevailed. It was deacons, acolyths, and other inferior officers, was fixed, then usually administered at the time of the celebration sometimes at fourteen years, sometimes at fifteen, eigh- of the Lord's Supper; the candidate kneeling before teen, twenty, or twenty-five.

the table. “II. They were obliged to undergo an examination, “Candidates for the ministry having prepared themwhich related to their faith, morals, and condition. selves by prayer and fasting, were ordained by the This examination was conducted chiefly by the bishops; bishop with prayer and imposition of hands. No menbut the concurrence of the people was requisite, in order tion of the additional ceremony of anointing is found in to the admission of a candidate. A remarkable testi | any laws or regulations of the Church anterior to the mony to the fact of its having been usual to publish the ninth century; Innocent III. and Durandus, Rationale names of candidates for holy orders, is given by the | Div. Of., are the first who treat of the usefulness, neces. Roman historian, Lampridius, in his life of Alexander sity, and mystical signification of unction at ordination. Severus. Afterwards, the examination extended to the It has been said that some traces of this custom are qualifications of the party to be ordained, in respect of found in the age of Gregory the Great ; it is certain, orthodoxy and learning. By a law of Justinian, every however, that its general adoption must be assigned to a candidate for holy orders was required to give in a testi- later period. The ceremony of delivering the sacred monial or account of his faith, in his own hand-writing, vessels, ornaments, and vestments, to the parties oras well as to take the oath against simony. And a dained, (investiture,) was not established as a whole council held in the beginning of the ninth century until the seventh century; although several particulars enacted, that every presbyter should go through a course of it may be traced to an earlier date, being mentioned of preparation or probation, previously to ordination in the records of the third and fourth centuries. The

“III. It was a rule, that no person should be appointed idea is evidently borrowed from the Levitical instituto the higher offices of the Church, without having passed tions; and it is well known that the Gregorian æra was through the inferior degrees. This rule, which at one distinguished by the assimilation of the Christian to the time furnished matter for a dispute between the Churches Jewish hierarchy. The party ordained was signed with of Rome and Constantinople, was generally observed ; | the sign of the cross; and was embraced, after his ordiexceptions to it being admitted, for the most part, only nation, by the ordaining minister and his assistants, with in extraordinary cases.

the kiss of charity.” “IV. Every one was to be ordained to some special | In the Church of England, without ordination, no charge, for the exercise of spiritual functions, in some person can receive any benefice, parsonage, vicarage, &c. specified church or place. Exceptions to this rule, as in | A person must be twenty-three years of age before he the cases of Paulinus and Jerome, were rare.

can be ordained deacon, or have any share in the minis- “V. Every spiritual person was required to remain in try; and twenty-four before he can be ordained priest, the diocese in which he was ordained. This rule related and by that means be permitted to administer the Holy especially to bishops. It was not strictly observed. Communion. The person to be ordained is to bring a

“ VI. The clerical tonsure was not made requisite testimonial of his life and doctrine to the bishop, and to until the end of the fifth century or the beginning of the give an account of his faith in Latin; and both priests sixth. In the fourth and fifth centuries we find it cen- and deacons are required to subscribe to the Thirty-nine sured as unbecoming spiritual persons, on the ground of Articles. The times of ordination are the four Sundays its being among the tokens of penance.

immediately following the Ember weeks; being the “The testimony of the ancient Church is in few second Sunday in Lent, Trinity Sunday, and the Sunpoints so clear and decided as in recording the rule that days following the first Wednesday after September 14 the bishop was regarded, ex officio, the regular minister and December 13. These are the stated times; but of ordination. At an early period, the power of ordain | ordination may take place at any other time, according ing was vested in the bishop or governing presbyter, or to the discretion of the bishop, or the circumstances of at least it was arranged that no ordination by a pres- the case. byter could be valid without episcopal concurrence and assent. The canons of councils, for the most part, attribute the power of ordaining to the bishop without fur ORGAN. See MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.

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ORION, SD kisel, (Job 9. 9; 38. 31; Amos 5. 8.) OSTRICH, 72Yu yaanah; frequently also by the The ancient translators, like our own, render this word poetical designation of 173ynn bath ha-yaanah, “the by Orion, which is a constellation in the heavens just daughter of screeching ;" Sept. otpovous; called also by before the sign Taurus; in Arabic styled “the giant.” the Greek writers otpovolo kaunios, the “camelAccording to the tradition of the Orientals, this constel bird," a name borrowed also by the Romans, Siruthio lation was Nimrod, the founder of Babylon, who was camelus, and adopted by Linnæus. By a false derivaafterwards deified. Michaëlis and others suppose that tion from 173y anah, this word has been taken to signify the ancient Hebrews were acquainted with this tra an owl ; and it has been so rendered in our version in ditional circumstance, and that 503 kisel signified “the numerous places, but in reality it refers to the ostrich. wicked one," a name applied to the deified Nimrod. It must be remembered that the owl is not a bird of the See CONSTELLATION; NIMROD.

desert, but rather resides where habitations are not far

off, and that it is not the companion of serpents; ORPHAN. The ordinary acceptation of the word

whereas in several of these passages the yaanah is assoorphans is well known to be that of “children deprived

ciated with deserts, a dry, extensive, thirsty desert, and of their parents;" but the Greek word opgavaus, ren

with serpents. The yaanah is mentioned as an unclean dered “comfortless' in our translation of John 14. 18,

bird, (Levit. 11. 16; Deut. 14. 15;) as an inhabitant implies the case of those who have lost some dear pro

of the wilderness, (Isai. 13. 21; 34. 13; 43. 20; Lam. tecting friend, some patron, though not strictly a father,

4. 3,) according to the last passage, cruel to its young; and in this sense it is employed figuratively of disciples

and in Job 30. 29; Micah 1. 8, allusion is made to its without a master.

lamentable howling. All these particulars correspond

with the habits of the ostrich. Shaw says, “During the OSPREY, Jly asniyah. (Levit. 11. 13; Deut. lonesome part of the night they often make a doleful 14. 12.) This, which is one of the unclean birds, the and hideous noise. I have often heard them groan as if Septuagint and Jerome render the osprey, or sea-eagle. they were in the greatest agonies.” Some think the black eagle to be here intended, but In Job 39. 13, the word 'n rinonim occurs, which the probabilities are equally in favour of our authorized is probably a poetical expression for ostriches. The version.

name, Gesenius says, comes either from the buzzing The osprey, or fish-hawk, Pandion haliæëlus, is a noise of the wings, or from the cry of the female ostrich. native of both continents; it measures in length three The ostrich is by far the largest among the winged feet and a half, but its expanded wings do not reach tribes, and seems to be the connecting link between the above seven feet. Its bill is large, much hooked, and quadruped and the fowl. She is not to be classed with of a bluish colour; a row of strong bristly feathers hangs down from its under bill next to its throat, whence it has been termed the bearded eagle. The top of the head and back part of the neck are dark-brown inclining to black; the feathers on the back are variegated by a lighter brown, with dark edges; the breast is white with irregular spots of brown; the tail-feathers are darkbrown, the outer edges of the exterior feathers whitish; the quill-feathers and thighs are dusky; the legs and feet yellow, the claws, which are large, and form a complete semi-circle, are of a shining black, and have one singularity in their conformation, the outer toe being capable of turning easily backward, which enables the animal to hold its prey more firmly. The osprey subsists entirely upon fish, which it seizes by darting down with incredible velocity upon them ; its usual haunts are by the sea-shore; and it also frequents the borders of large lakes or rivers. Its nest is built on the ground

The Ostrich. among reeds, and the female lays three or four white the former, because she is furnished with a kind of wings, eggs, which are rather smaller than a hen's.

which if they cannot raise her from the ground, greatly accelerate her flight; not with the latter, for the feathers

which grow out of her small wings are all unwoven and OSSIFRAGE, 072 peres. (Levit. 11. 13; Deut. decomposed, and their beards consist of long hairs de. 14. 12.) This is a bird of the eagle species, which was | tached from one another, and do not form a compact forbidden to the Israelites to be used as food. The Tar- | body to strike the air with advantage; which is the gum of Onkelos, and the Septuagint and Vulgate ver principal office for which the feathers of the wing are sions, render it “ vulture," and many modern versions | intended. Those of the tail have also the same strucconcur in this reading. Others think the word denotes ture, and consequently cannot oppose to the air a suitthe black eagle ; and some the falcon. It is most pro able resistance. They can neither expand nor close as bable, however, that it is the great sea-eagle, which as it circumstances require, nor take different inclinations ; differs in its colours during the several stages of its and what is not a little remarkable, all the feathers growth, has obtained three distinct systematic names, | which cover the body exhibit the same conformation. Falco oss ifragus, Falco albicilla, Falco albicandus. | The ostrich has not, like most other birds, feathers of When it has attained its fifth year, it puts on its last suit, various kinds, some soft and downy, which are next the which is a dusky-brown, intermixed with gray, with a skin ; and others of a more firm and compact nature, white tail. It is about the size of the golden eagle, and which cover the former; and others still longer and inhabits the cliffs along the sea-shore. It is found in of greater strength, and on which the movements of the northern parts of Europe and in Asia.

the bird depend. All her feathers are of one kind, all of them bearded with detached hairs, or filaments, without consistence and reciprocal adherence; they

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are therefore of no utility in flying, or in directing tunity, rush in upon her at full speed, leading her al wars the fight. Besides the peculiar structure of her as much as possible against the wind, and kill her with wings, she is pressed down to the earth by her enor- their clubs, to prevent her blood from spoiling the beaumous size. Buffon calculates the weight of a living tiful whiteness of her feathers. ostrich in middling condition at about eighty pounds; 1 The ostrich still inhabits the great Syrian desert, and it would require an immense power in the wings to especially the plains extending from the Haouran raise and support in the air so ponderous a mass. Thus, | towards the Jebel Shammar and Nejid. Some are found by her excessive weight, and the loose texture of her in the Haouran; and a few are taken within two days feathers, she is condemned, like a quadruped, to run journey of Damascus. The bird breeds in the middle upon the surface of the earth. But although incapable of the winter, and lays from twelve to twenty-one eggs of raising herself from the ground, she is admirably The nest is generally made at the foot of some isolated fitted for running. The greater part of her body is hill. The eggs are placed close together in a circle, covered with hair, rather than feathers; her head and half buried in sand, to protect them from rain, and a her sides have little or no hair; and her legs, which are narrow trench is dug round, whereby the water runs off. very thick and muscular, and in which her principal At ten or twelve feet from this circle, the female places force resides, are in like manner almost naked; her two or three eggs, which she does not hatch, but leares large sinewy and plump feet, which have only two toes, for the young ones to feed upon immediately after they resemble considerably the feet of a camel; her wings, are hatched. The parent birds sit on the eggs in tura; armed with spikes like those of a porcupine, are rather and while one is so employed, the other stands keeping a kind of arms than wings, which are given her for watch on the summit of the adjacent hill, which circumdefence. These characteristic features serve to illustrate stance enables the Arabs to kill them, and to take their the description which Jehovah himself has condescended eggs. This is effected by stratagem; for the hunting of to give of this animal in the Book of Job. (ch. 39. 13-18.) | the ostrich is not practised in the Syrian or Northern It begins with this interrogation: “ Gavest thou wings Arabian deserts. The Arabs reckon the eggs delicious and feathers unto the ostrich?" Dr. Shaw translates it, food, and sell them for about a shilling each. Ostrich“The wing of the ostrich is expanded; the very feather feathers are sold at Aleppo and Damascus, principally at and plumage of the stork.” The same writer says, the latter city. The Shererat Arabs often sell the whole " When the ostrich is full grown, the neck, particularly skin with the feathers on it, producing at Damascus of the male, which before was almost naked, is now very about ten Spanish dollars. The skin itself is thrown beautifully covered with red feathers. The plumage, away as useless. The people of Aleppo sometimes bring likewise, upon the shoulders, the back, and some parts home ostriches which they had killed at the distance of of the wings, from being hitherto of a dark-grayish two or three days' journey eastward. colour, becomes now as black as jet, while some of the In Job 39. 16 it is said, “She is hardened against her feathers retain an exquisite whiteness. They are, as young ones, as though they were not hers; her labour is described in the 13th verse, the very feathers and plu- in vain without fear." The following extract, from mage of the stork; that is, they consist of such black Vaillant's Travels in Africa, may serve to illustrate and white feathers as the stork is known to have. But this passage: the belly, the thighs, and the breast do not partake of “In the course of the day, I amused myself by firing this covering, being usually naked; and when touched, my piece to start game. A female ostrich rose from her are of the same warmth as the flesh of quadrupeds.” nest, which was the largest I had seen, containing thirty

The ostrich, though she inhabits the sandy deserts, two eggs; twelve more being distributed at some distance where she is exposed to few interruptions, is extremely in a little cavity by itself. I could not conceive that one vigilant and shy. She betakes herself to fight on the female could cover so many; they were of an unequal first alarm, and traverses the waste with so great agility size, and on examination I found that nine of them were and swiftness, that the Arab is never able to overtake much less than the rest. This peculiarity interested me, her, even when he is mounted on his fleetest horse. and I ordered the oxen to be unyoked at about a quarter The fact is thus stated in the Book of Job: “What of a league distance from the nest. I then concealed time she lifteth up herself on high she scorneth the horse myself in a thicket, from whence I could overlook the and his rider.” She affords him only an opportunity of place, and yet remain within gun-shot. I had not admiring at a distance the extraordinary agility and watched long before the female returned and sat on the stateliness of her movements, the richness of her plumage, eggs. During the rest of the day, which I passed in the and the great propriety of ascribing to her “an expanded thicket, three more came to the same nest, covering it quivering wing;" the wings, by their continual though alternately; each continued sitting for the space of a unwearied vibrations, serving her at once for sails and quarter of an hour, and then gave place to another, who, oars, while her feet, no less assisting in conveying her out while waiting, sat close by the side of her it was to sucof sight, are equally insensible of fatigue. A traveller ceed, a circumstance that made me conjecture that in states that “She sets off at a hard gallop; but after cold or rainy nights they sit by pairs, or perhaps more. being excited a little, she expands her wings, as if to | The sun was almost down; the male bird approached; catch the wind, and abandons herself to a speed so great these equally with the female assist in hatching the that she seems not to touch the ground.”

eggs. I instantly shot him; but the report of my gun “When the Arab rouses an ostrich,” says Buffon, scared the others, who, in their flight, broke several of “he follows her at a distance, without pressing her too them. I now drew nearer, and saw with regret that the hard, but sufficiently to prevent her from taking food, young ostriches were just ready to quit the shells, being yet not to determine her to escape by a prompt Alight. perfectly covered with down. This peculiarity of female It is the more easy to follow her in this manner, because ostriches assisting each other for the incubation of the she does not proceed in a straight line, and because she same nest, is, I think, calculated to awaken the attention describes almost always in her course a circle more or of the naturalists; and not being a general rule, prores less extended.” The Arabs then have it in their power that circumstances sometimes determine the actions of to direct their pursuit in a concentric interior circle, and these creatures, regulate their customs, and strengthen consequently straighter. When they have thus fatigued their natural instinct, by giving them a knowledge not and starved her for a day or two, they take their oppor- / generally bestowed.

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6 An ostrich starting before me at the distance of 7. 8, “ Ephraim is a cake not turned.” The coal-baked wenty paces, I thought it might be sitting, and has- cakes, called in Hebrew nigy ugoth, were prepared in ened to the spot from whence she rose, where I found this manner. (Gen. 18. 6; 19. 3; 1 Kings 19. 6.) leven eggs quite warm, and four others at a distance of These cakes were generally prepared on journeys and in wo or three feet from the nest. I called to my compa- haste. ions, who broke one of the warm eggs, in which was a II. The second sort of oven was an excavation in the oung ostrich perfectly formed. I thought these quite earth, two and a-half feet in diameter, but of different poiled, but found my people entertained a very different depths from five to six feet, as we may suppose from pinion of the matter, every one being eager to come in those which still exist in Persia. This sort of oven or his share. Amiroo, in the mean time, caught up the occurs under the word '7'kiraim, and in Leviticus our outward ones, assuring me that I should find them 11. 35 is mentioned in connexion with the word 7:30 xcellent. In the sequel, I learned from this African, tannoor. The bottom is paved with stones; when the hat the ostrich ever places near her nest a certain num- oven is sufficiently warmed, the fire is taken away, the Jer of eggs, proportioned to those she intends to sit on; cakes are placed upon the warm stones, and the mouth bese remaining separate and uncovered continue good a of the oven is shut. Gesenius says the word kiraim ong while, being designed by the provident mother for probably refers to bricks, as it occurs in the dual form. the first nourishment of her young."

These are still used by the Bedouins, upon which they Barrow likewise states, “ Among the very few poly place their pots over the fire, and which form their gamous birds that are found in a state of nature, the hearth. ostrich is one. The male, distinguished by its glossy III. A moveable oven, called 72n tannoor, which black feathers from the dusky gray of the female, is gene- was besmeared within and without with clay, being conrally seen with two or three, and frequently as many as structed of brick. A fire was kindled within it, and the five, of the latter. These females lay their eggs in one dough was placed upon the side, where it baked, and nest, to the number of ten or twelve each, which they was called ADD JORD maaphih tannoor. (Levit. 2. 4.) batch altogether, the male taking his turn of sitting on Gesenius says, “ It frequently consists among the Orienthem among the rest. Between sixty and seventy eggs tals only of a large conical pot, which is first heated and have been found in one nest; and if incubation has then cakes are placed on its sides. The Keßavos of begun, a few are most commonly lying round the sides the Greeks appears to have been of a similar construcof the hole, having been thrown out by the birds on tion.finding the nest to contain more than it could conveni- IV. A plate of iron placed upon three stones; the fire ently hold.” This fact was known to the ancients, as was kindled beneath it, and the raw cakes placed on the Ælian says of the female ostrich, “She separates the upper surface. The cake baked in this way is perhaps unproductive eggs, and sits only on the good ones, from the nano machbath mentioned in Leviticus 2. 5,7. which the brood is produced: and the others she uses Not only leavened and unleavened cakes were baked in for food for her young."

these ovens, but other kinds were also thus prepared. Sir John Gardner Wilkinson tells us that “Ostrich- Smith and Dwight, in their researches in Armenia, eggs were highly prized by the Egyptians, and were part thus describe the tannoor of the present day: “What of the tribute paid to them by foreigners whose countries attracted our attention most this stormy day, was the it inhabited; and it is possible that they were considered, apparatus for warming us. It was the species of oven as at the present day, the emblems of some Divine attri- called tannoor, common throughout Armenia, and also bute, and suspended in their temples, as they still are in in Syria, but converted here for purposes of warmth into the churches of the Copts."

what is called a tandoor. A cylindrical hole is sunk about three feet in the ground in some part of the room,

with a flue entering it at the bottom to convey a current OTHNIEL, 5Xny Sept. Tolovind, was the son of air to the fire which heats it. For the emission of of Kenaz, the brother of Caleb, of the tribe of Judah, smoke no other provision is made than the open skylight (Josh. 15. 17; Judges 3. 9) who gave him ; Judges 3. 9,), who gave him his in the terrace. When used for baking bread, the dough,

his l in the ter daughter Achsah in marriage on his taking Debir, other-| being flattened to the thickness of a common pasteboard, wise called Kirjath-Sepher, from the Canaanites. After

perhaps a foot and a-half long by a foot broad, is stuck the Israelites had been oppressed for eight years by l to its smooth sides by means of a cushion, upon which Chushan-rishathaim, king of Mesopotamia, Othniel was it is first spread. It indicates, by cleaving off, when it excited to levy an army against him. He overcame the

is done, and being then packed down in the family chest, Mesopotamians, and delivered his countrymen, who

it lasts at least a month in winter, and ten days in the acknowledged him as regent or judge. During the forty

summer. Such is the only bread known in the villages years of his administration, the Israelites remained faithful to their God and King, and consequently pro

of Armenia; and even the cities of Erivan and Tabriz

offer no other variety than a species perhaps only twice spered. (Judges 3. 8-11.)

as thick, and so long that it might almost be sold by the OUCHES, nisvo mishbatsoth. (Exod. 28.

yard. To bake it, the bottom of a large oven is covered 11,14,25.) This word refers to the setting of jewels,

with pebbles, (except one corner, where a fire is kept and implies the sockets for fastening the precious stones

constantly burning,) and upon them, when heated, the in the shoulder-pieces of the high-priest's ephod.

sheets of dough are spread. The convenience of such thin bread, where knives and forks are not used, and

spoons are rare, is, that a piece of it doubled enables you OVEN. Of ovens, or places for baking, there to take hold of a mouthful of meat more delicately than appear to have been among the Hebrews four kinds. with your bare fingers; or, when properly folded, helps

I. The mere sand, heated by a fire, which was sub you to convey a spoonful safely to your mouth, to be sequently removed. The raw cakes were placed upon eaten with the spoon itself. When needed for purposes It; in a short time they were turned, and afterwards, to of warmth, the tannoor is easily transformed into a tancomplete the process, were covered with warm ashes and door. A round stone is laid upon the mouth of the coals. Unless they were turned, they were not properly | oven, when well heated, to stop the draught; a square baked, which serves to explain the passage in Hosea frame, about a foot in height, is then placed above it;

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