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and a thick coverlet, spread over thc whole, lies upon the II. FUI yanshuph. (Levit. 11. 17; Dent. 14. 16: ground around it, to confine the warmth. The family Isai, 34. 11.) In the two first passages, our translators squat upon the floor, and warm themselves by extending render this “the great owl,” which is strangely placed their legs and hands into the heated air beneath it, | after “the little owl,” and among water birds. Since it is while the frame holds, as occasion requires, their lamp clearly mentioned among water-fowl, there is every reason or their food. Its economy is evidently great. So full to consider the Septuagint and Vulgate correct in assignof crevices are the houses, that an open fire-place must | ing it to the ibis. . consume a great quantity of fuel, and then almost fail of | “The common ibis,” says Sir John Gardner Wilkin. warming even the air in its immediate vicinity. The son, “mentioned by Herodotus, corresponds with the tandoor heated once, or at the most twice, in twenty | Numenius ibis, or Ibis religiosa of modern naturalists, as four hours, by a small quantity of fuel, keeps one spot Cuvier has shown; but this is not the ibis famed for its continually warm for the relief of all numb fingers and attack on the serpents, which was less common, and of frozen toes.
a black colour. Those we find embalmed are the Nume. .“ The house, apparently the best in the village, was nius. They are white, with black pinions and tail; the built throughout, floor, walls, and terrace, of mud. | body measures twelve inches, and four and a half inches Fortunately, as its owner had two wives, it had two in diameter, and the beak about half a foot. The leg, rooms. The one assigned us, being the principal family from the knee to the plant of the foot, is about four and apartment, was of course filled with every species of dirt, a-half inches, and the foot the same length; the ring, vermin, and litter; and withal, as they were in the midst from the pinion joint to the extremity of the feathers of the process of baking, the insufferable smoke of the being nearly ten inches. The Ardea ibis of Hasselquist, dried cow-dung which heated the tannoor or cylindrical which is a small heron with a straight beak, has no claim oven, detained us a long time before we could take pos to the title of ibis of the ancients. The black and the session.”
common Egyptian ibis were related to the curlews, both Jackson, in his Overland Journey from India, men having curved beaks. The Tantalus ibis of Linnæus is tions the expertness of the Arab women in baking their indefinite, from its comprehending, as Cuvier says, 'four bread:—“They have a small place built with clay, species of three different genera.' That the ibis was of between two and three feet high, having a hole at the great use in destroying locusts, serpents, scorpions, and bottom for the convenience of drawing out the ashes, other noxious creatures which infested the country, is something similar to a lime-kiln. The oven is usually readily credited, and its destruction of them led to the about fifteen inches wide at the top, and gradually respect it enjoyed; in the same manner as the stork was widening to the bottom. It is heated with wood, and honoured in Thessaly, where it was a capital offence to when sufficiently hot, and perfectly clear from the smoke, | kill one of these birds. having nothing but clear embers at the bottom, which 1.“ Bronze figures of the ibis represent it attacking continue to reflect great heat, they prepare the dough in snakes; which, if not of ancient Egyptian, but of Roman a large bowl, and mould the cakes to the desired size on time, suffice to show the general belief respecting it; and a board, or stone placed near the oven. After they Cuvier actually found the skin and scales of a snake, have kneaded the cake to a proper consistence, they pat partly digested, in the intestines of one of these mun. it a little, then toss it about with great dexterity in one mied birds. The food of the common ibis also consisted hand, till it is as thin as they choose to make it. They of beetles, and other insects; and in the body of one now then wet one side of it with water, at the same time in the possession of Sir Edwin Pearson, are several wetting the hand and arm with which they put it into | Coleopteræ, two of which have been ascertained by Mr. the oven. The side of the cake adheres fast to the side Hope to be Pimelia pilosa, and Akis reflexa of Fabricius, of the oven, till it is sufficiently baked, when, if not paid common in Egypt at the present day. proper attention to, it would fall down among the “Insects, snakes, and other reptiles, appear to have embers. If they were not exceedingly quick at this been the food of both kinds of ibis. There is no animal work, the heat of the oven would burn their arms; but of which so many mummies have been found, particuthey perform it with such dexterity that one woman will larly at Thebes, Memphis, and Hermopolis Magna. In continue keeping three or four cakes in the oven at once, the former, they are enveloped in linen bandages, and till she has done baking.” See BREAD; HEARTH. are often perfectly preserved; at Memphis they are depo:
sited in earthenware vases of conical shape, but nearly OVERSEER, 7po pakid. (Gen. 39. 4; 41. 34.) | always decomposed; and at the city of Hermes, 11 This word signifies not only an officer who had the super wooden or stone cases of an oblong form. Both kinds intendence of the household, as Joseph had in that of of ibis mentioned by Herodotus were doubtless sacred Potiphar, but also an overlooker of workmen, as those to the Egyptian Hermes. appointed by Solomon. (2Chron. 2. 18.) We read that | “The ibis is rarely found in Egypt at the present day, Pharaoh set task-masters, or overseers, over the children though said sometimes to frequent the lake Menzalen, of Israel, who made their lives bitter with hard bondage,” | and occasionally to be seen in other parts of the coun(Exod. 1. 14,) a statement fully confirmed by the monu try. Cuvier and others have made considerable rements, where the taskmasters are uniformly represented searches respecting it; and that celebrated naturalist armed with cudgels.
brings forward a curious proof of its having been do
mesticated, from the discovery of a mummied is OWL. In the Hebrew the following words occur whose left humerus had been broken and joined again. which have been rendered in our version "owl:"_012 | For, he observes, “It is probable that a wild bird 100 cos; 9WI' yanshuph; nap kippoz: and :5,5 lililh. wing had been broken would have perished before it bau
I. did cos, VUKT Kopač. (Levit. 11. 17; Deut. 14. 16; healed, from being unable to pursue its prey, or escape Psalm 102. 6,) is, except in the last passage, rendered from its enemies.'” “ little owl.” Aquila, Theodotion, and most of the III. 1192 kippos. (Isai. 34. 15.) This, according ancient versions, support this rendering. Bochart thinks the old translators, is rendered “hedge-hog."Bu it to be a kind of pelican, from cos, cup, which he refers animal is described as laying eggs and brooding to the bag in its crop; it was probably the common barn- | young, which description does not apply to the bet owl, Strix flammea.
hog. Bochart thinks it to be that species of serpen
,parim פרים ,parah פרה ,par פר those over three years
which is called in Greek akoitlas, and in Latin jaculus, which is the more remarkable, as this bird has been from its leaping or darting on its prey. But the prophet chosen in many countries as the emblem of a deity, or alludes to making a nest, and laying and hatching eggs, connected with some mysterious notion. Its constant which is a strong reason for retaining the reading of our occurrence on the monuments of Egypt, (where it stands authorized version, “the great owl.”
for the letter m, and bears the sense of 'in,' with,' and IV. 1955 lilith, (Isai. 34. 14,) rendered in our ver- for,') together with the eagle, vulture, hawk, chicken, sion, “screech-owl.” According to the Rabbins, the and swallow, led to the name "bird-writing' which has word denotes an apparition in the shape of a well-been applied to hieroglyphics by the modern Egyptians. dressed woman, which lies in wait at night, particularly There is no reason for supposing the owl to have been for children, and destroys them. Disregarding this idle an emblem of the Egyptian Minerva, as some have imafable, the word seems to denote some creature of the gined. And if it obtained any degree of respect for its night, and so far as authority goes, our translation is well utility in destroying noxious animals, the return for those supported in referring it to a species of owl. We might benefits was thought to be sufficiently repaid by the care perhaps refer it to the eagle owl, or Bubo maximus, with which it was embalmed after death. Several mumwhich is found in many parts of the world, and haunts mies of owls have been found in the Necropolis of old ruins and other places where it is not liable to inter Thebes." See IBIS. ruption. Like others of its tribe, it remains silent in its solitude during the day, but comes forth at night from OX, the male of horned cattle of the beeve its retreat, adding, by its strange appearance and dismal kind, called collectively in the Hebrewpa baker, tones, to the gloom of the scenes which it delights to separately 9758 alluph and diw shor: Those under frequent. The ground colour of its plumage is brown three years are styled nisay agloth, Dhay aglim; and mingled with yellow, diversified with wavy curves, bars, and dashes of black. Its length is about two feet; the nind paroth, and also D'72x abirim, which last, howlegs are feathered to the toes, and the iris of the eye ever, is rather an epithet of strength. These animals exhibits a bright orange colour.
are generally smaller in Oriental countries than among Owls which form a family, styled Strigidæ, of rapacious us. Although chiefly employed in agriculture, oxen birds, are well known in almost every climate. The were not, in old times, (Gen. 24. 25; Job 1. 3,) as now, species are rather numerous, but the general character of excluded from the possessions of the nomades; herdsall is the same, and they differ principally in size. The men were, however, deemed inferior to the keepers of species found chiefly in Syria and Egypt at the present flocks. The oxen and bulls of Bashan, which were not day are the great owl, (Strix bubo,) the common barn only well fed, but strong and ferocious, are used as the owl, (Strix flammea,) and the little owl, (Strix possemia.) symbols of ferocious enemies. (Psalm 22. 12; 68. 20;
Isai. 34. 7.) Osen were not only employed in drawing carts and ploughs, (see AGRICULTURE,) but the nomades frequently made use of them for the purpose of carrying burdens, as they did camels. With the Hebrews the nostrils of unruly cattle were perforated, and a ring made of iron, or twisted cord, was thrust through, to which was fastened a rope; which impeded respiration to such a degree that the most turbulent might be easily managed. (2Kings 19. 28; Job 40. 24; Isai. 37. 29; Ezek. 19. 4.) By this ring also camels, elephants, and lions taken alive were rendered manageable. When bulls became old, their flesh was unsuitable for aliment; for which reason they were left to die a natural death, for the old age of these animals, which had been their
companions in labour, was treated by the Hebrews with The Great Owl.
kindness. Whence it is said that, in the golden age,
the slaughter of an ox will be equally criminal with the Roberts says, “ The owl is one of the most ominous slaughter of a man. (Isai. 66. 3.) birds of the East. Let him only alight upon the house of the various breeds of cattle among the Hebrews of a Hindoo, and begin his dismal screech, and all the we know little, but the varieties of the ox represented in inmates will be seized with great consternation. Some the Egyptian sculptures are three, and exhibit the prinone will instantly run out and make a noise with his cipal distinctions of short-horned, long-horned, and one areca nut-cutter, or some other instrument, to affright it | with the Indian hump. The two last do not exist now away. I recollect one of these creatures once flew into | in Egypt, but are found in Abyssinia and Upper the house of a lady when she was in the pains of partu Ethiopia. rition; the native servants became greatly alarmed, and Herodotus describes the Egyptian mode of treading ran to me lamenting the fearful omen. I had it driven out the grain by oxen, in which he is fully borne out by from the house; and notwithstanding the malignant in- | the sculptures of the tombs; and these inform us that fluence of the feathered visitor, and the qualms of the they occasionally, though rarely, employed asses for the domestics, all things went on well. On another occasion same purpose. This was also the custom of the Jews, I shot one of them which had troubled us on the roof and like the Egyptians, they suffered the ox to tread out night by night; but as he was only wounded in the | the corn unmuzzled, according to the express command wing, I took him into the house with the intention of of Moses. keeping him, but the servants were so uncomfortable, “The ox and cow,” says Sir John Gardner Wilkinson, and complained so much at having such a beast in the “ were both admitted among the sacred animals of house, that I was obliged to send him away."
Egypt. All, however, were not equally sacred ; and it Sir John Gardner Wilkinson says, “The horned and was lawful to sacrifice the former, and to kill them for white owl are frequently represented in the sculptures; the table, provided they were free from certain marks but there is no evidence of their having been sacred, which the priests were careful to ascertain before they
permitted them to be slaughtered. When this had been ings, dancings, and rejoicings practised on the occasion done, the priest marked the animal by tying a cord of were doubtless in imitation of a ceremony they had the papyrus-stalk round its horns, fastened by a piece of witnessed in honour of Mnevis, during their sojour in clay, on which he impressed his seal. It was then pro- Egypt. nounced clean, and taken to the altar. But no man, on I “ The Indian, or bumped ox, was common in former pain of death, could sacrifice one that had not this mark. times, and is abundant in Upper Ethiopia, though no
All the clean oxen were thought to belong to Epa- | longer a native of Egypt. Like other cattle, it was used phus,' who was the same as the god Apis. Herodotus for sacrifice as for the table; and large herds were kept says that a single black hair rendered them unsuitable in the farms of the wealthy Egyptians, by whom the for this purpose; and Plutarch affirms that red oxen meat, particularly the hump on the shoulder, was doubtalone were lawful for sacrifice. But the authority of the less esteemed as a dainty. It is sometimes represented sculptures contradicts these assertions, and shows that decked with flowers and garlands on its way to the altar; oxen with black and red spots were lawful both for the but there is no appearance of its having been emblealtar and the table in every part of Egypt. The origin matic of any deity, or of having held a post among the of the worship of the bull was said to be its utility in sacred animals of the country.” agriculture, of which Clemens considers it the type, as The form of the ox entered largely into all the ancient well as the earth itself; and this was the supposed idolatrous systems. Thus Baal, or the sun, was worreason of the bull being chosen as the emblem of Osiris, shipped under the form of an animal of the ox or beere who was the abstract idea of all that was good or bene- kind; for we read of the heifer Baal in Tobit 1. 5; ficial to man.
and Moloch had the head of a calf or steer. The or “Though oxen and calves were lawful food, and adapted appears as one of the cherubic emblems in Ezekiel's for sacrifice on the altars of all the gods, cows and vision, (1. 10,) and the same seems to have been copied heifers were forbidden to be killed, being consecrated, in a perverted way among the heathen. The Gauls according to Herodotus, to Isis; or rather, as he after- worshipped a brazen bull, and the Temple of Juggernaut, wards shows, and as Strabo, in perfect accordance with in India, has in the middle of it an ox cut in one entire the sculptures, states, to Athor. This was a wise regu- stone, larger than life. The ox has always been the lation, in order to prevent too great a diminution in the symbol of agriculture; and Abarbanel says, “Therefore cattle of the country; and the probibition being ascribed Jeroboam chose the appearance of an ox from the by the priests to some mysterious reason, was naturally chariot of the cherubim, because it is the sign of abundlooked upon, in process of time, as a Divine ordinance, ance of corn and blessing of the nations." It is likewise which it would be nothing less than sacrilege to disre so represented on Greek coins; an ox with an ear of corn, gard. According to Strabo, many, both male and female, or a plough, denotes the fertility of the country. were kept in different towns in and out the Delta; but 1 In illustration of the words of Our Lord in the parable they were not worshipped as deities, like the Apis and of the great supper, (Luke 14. 19,) “And another said, Mnevis, which had the rank of gods at Memphis and I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I go to prove them, Heliopolis. Nor did they enjoy the same honours that I pray thee have me excused," Roberts obsertes, were paid to the sacred cow at Momemphis, where “This was not such a trifling affair as some have supVenus was worshipped.
posed, for it should be remembered it is with oxen only “ Mnevis, the sacred ox of Heliopolis, was honoured the Orientals perform all their agricultural labours. by the Egyptians with a reverence next to the Apis, Such a thing as a horse in a plough or cart among the whose sire some have pretended him to be. He too was natives I never saw. A bullock unaccustomed to the dedicated to Osiris, and represented of a black colour, yoke is of no use; they therefore take the greatest prelike the god himself, by whom his worship was insti caution in making such purchases, and they will never tuted; and though inferior to Apis, the respect shown close the bargain till they bave proved them in the him was universal throughout the country.”
field. Nor will the good man trust to his own judgment; “ In the coronation ceremony at Thebes, he appears he will have his neighbours and friends to assist him. to be introduced under the name of the white The animals will be tried in ploughing softly, deeply, bull,” which is specified by the same character used to strongly, and they will be put on all the required paces, denote silver, or, as the Egyptians called it in their and then sent home. When he who wishes to purchase monumental inscriptions, white gold. If this really is fully satisfied, he will fix a day for settling the amount represents the Mnevis, Plutarch and Porphyry are mis- and for fetching the animals away.". taken in stating its colour to be black; and from what' In Jeremiah 31. 18, it is said, “I was chastised as a the latter says of the hair growing the wrong way, it bullock unaccustomed to the yoke." Campbell, in his seems that he had in view the Basis, or black bull of Travels in Africa, observes, “I had frequent opportuHermonthis. Ammianus, Porphyry, and Ælian suppose nities of witnessing the conduct of oxen when for the that Mnevis was sacred to the sun, as Apis to the moon. first time put into the yoke to assist in dragging the Macrobius states that Mnevis, Apis, and Basis, were all wagons. On observing an ox that had been in poke consecrated to the sun, and Plutarch considers Mnevis beginning to get weak, or his hoofs to be worn down to to be sacred to Osiris. Strabo merely says, 'In the Helio the quick, by treading on the sharp gravel, a fresh os politan præfecture is the city of the Sun, raised on a lofty was put into the yoke in his place. When the selection mound, having a temple dedicated to that deity, and the | fell on an ox I had received as a present from some bull Mnevis, which is kept in a certain inclosure, and | African king, of course one completely unaccustomed to looked upon by the Heliopolites as a god, like the Apis | the yoke, such generally made a strenuous struggle for in Memphis. The bull of Heliopolis appears to have liberty, repeatedly breaking the yoke, and attempang been called, in the hieroglyphic legends, Mne. It had a make its escape. At other times such bullocks lay down globe and feathers on its head; but though found on the / upon their sides or back, and remained so in denance monuments of Upper Egypt, it is evident that it did not the Hottentots, though two or three of them would enjoy the same honours as Apis beyond the precincts of lashing them with their ponderous whips. Sometimes, its own city.
from pity to the animal, I would interfere, and beg them “ It was from this, and not the Apis, that the Israelites to be less cruel. 'Cruel!' they would say, 'it is mere); borrowed their notions of the golden calf; and the offer for if we do not conquer him now, he will require to be
50 beaten all his life. Some oxen would seem con- that the word refers to the oryx, a species of antelope, vinced of the folly of opposing the will of the Hotten- which inhabits the solitudes of Africa, on the confines of tots by the end of the first day; some about the middle Egypt. According to the authorities quoted by Bochart, of the second; while some would continue the struggle it seems to have been properly an Egyptian animal, and to the third; after which they would go on as willingly familiarly known to the inhabitants of that country. and quietly as any of their neighbour oxen. They The chase of the oryx is frequently represented in the seemed convinced that their resisting was fruitless as Egyptian sculptures. They were sometimes hunted with kicking against the pricks or sharp-pointed iron, which dogs by huntsmen furnished with bows, and sometimes they could not injure, but that every kick they gave only they were caught with the noose or lasso. injured themselves.”
Sir John Gardner Wilkinson says, “Among the In England, the ox is not used so generally as it for- Egyptians the oryx was the only one of the antelope merly was in agricultural work. The principle of speed tribe chosen as an emblem; but it was not sacred; and has pervaded and governs every department of animal the same city on whose monuments it was represented labour. A modern writer on cattle thus speaks of the in sacred subjects, was in the habit of killing it for the system of ox-labour in Devonshire; and every one who table. The head of this animal formed the prow of the is acquainted with the northern part of that county will mysterious boat of Pthah-Sokari-Osiris, who was worrecognise the accuracy of that description. “A man shipped with peculiar honours at Memphis, and who and a boy attend each team; the boy chants that which held a conspicuous place among the contemplar gods of can scarcely be regarded as any distinct tune, but which all the temples of Upper and Lower Egypt. This did is a very pleasing succession of sounds, resembling the not, however, prevent their sacrificing the oryx to the counter-tenor in the service of the cathedral. He sings gods, or slaughtering it for their own use; large herds away with unwearied lungs, as he trudges along almost of them being kept by the wealthy Egyptians for this from morning to night; while every now and then the purpose; and the sculptures of Memphis and its vicinity ploughman, as he directs the movements of the team, abound, no less than those of the Thebaïd, with proofs puts in his lower notes, but in perfect concord. When of this fact. But a particular one may have been set the traveller stops in one of the Devonshire valleys, and apart and consecrated to the Deity, being distinguished hears this simple music from the drivers of the ploughs, by certain marks which the priests fancied they could on the slope of the hill on either side, he experiences a discern, as in the case of oxen exempted from sacrifice. pleasure which this operation of husbandry could scarcely And if the law permitted the oryx to be killed without be supposed capable of affording. This chanting is said the mark of the pontiff's seal, (which was indispensable to animate the oxen somewhat in the same way as the for oxen previous to their being taken to the altar,) the musical bells which are so prevalent in the same county. privilege of exemption might be secured to a single Certainly, the animals move along with an agility that animal, when kept apart within the inaccessible precincts would scarcely be expected from cattle; and the team of a temple. In the zodiacs, the oryx was chosen to may be watched a long while without one harsh word represent the sign Capricornus. M. Champollion conbeing heard, or the goad or the whip applied."
siders it the representative of Seth ; and Horapollo gives It is singular that a similar practice obtained among it an unamiable character as the emblem of impurity. the ancient Egyptians, and we have given, under the It was even thought 'to foreknow the rising of the word LANGUAGE, a specimen of a labour song from moon, and to be indignant at her presence. Pliny is Champollion, used by the drivers of oxen in treading out disposed to give it credit for better behaviour towards the corn.
the dog-star, which, when rising, it looked upon with
the appearance of adoration. But the naturalist was OX, WILD. The word inn tio, in Deuteronomy misinformed respecting the growth of its hair in imita14. 5, or sin toi, as in Isaiah 51. 20, is in our version tion of the bull Basis. rendered respectively “wild ox," and "wild bull;” but “Such are the fables of old writers; and, judging it more probably refers to an animal of the deer kind. from the important post it held in the boat of Sokari, I The Septuagint, with Aquila, Symmachus, and Theo- am disposed to consider it the emblem of a good rather dotion, read opus; the Vulgate oryx; and the Targums than of an evil deity, contrary to the opinion of the give bos sylvestris. It is therefore extremely probable I learned Champollion."
PADAN ARAM. See MESOPOTAMIA.
| came to Jezreel, is in the Hebrew painted her eyes.' The same is again mentioned in Jeremiah 4. 30, and
Ezekiel 23. 40; and the lengthened form of the ancient eight hundred and twelve men belonging to this place, Egyptian ere, represented in the paintings, was probably supposed to be a city near the spot where Ehud routed produced, as Mr. Lane supposes, by this means. Mothe Moabites, returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon; dern travellers frequently refer to this practice, which and two hundred more with Ezra. (Ezra 2. 6; 8. 4.)
still obtains in various parts of the East. Waring, in Pahath-Moab was also the name of a man, for it his Tour to Sheeraz, remarks, “This is a custom in appears that one of that name sealed Nehemiah's cove- | Asiatic countries to the present day. The Persians nant of reformation. (Nehem. 10. 14.)
differ as much from us in their notions of beauty as they
do in those of taste. A large, soft, and languishing PAINT. We have already under the word EYE black eye with them constitutes the perfection of beauty. explained that the passage in 2Kings 9. 30, in reference It is chiefly on this account that the women use the to Jezebel, rendered in our version “painted her face," powder of antimony, which, although it adds to the should rather be given," she adjusted or set off her eyes vivacity of the eye, throws a kind of voluptuous languor with the powder of lead ore."
over it.” Sir John Gardner Wilkinson observes, “Mr. Lane is Dr. Edward Daniel Clarke, when in Syria, says, “We perfectly correct in stating that the expression 'painted took some coffee in the house of the consul, where we her face,' which Jezebel is said to have done, when Jehu were introduced to the ladies of his family. We were
amused by seeing his wife, a very beautiful woman, sit- notions of a female toilette, have rendered painting the ting crosslegged by us upon the divan of his apartment, face.'” and smoking tobacco with a pipe six feet in length; her | Roberts likewise observes on Jeremiah 4. 30. « This eyelashes, as well as all those of the other women, were is a minute description of an Eastern courtesan. In tinged with a black powder, made of the sulphuret of Ezekiel 23. 40, similar language is used. The females antimony, and having by no means a cleanly appearance, alluded to adorn themselves with their ornaments, which although considered as essential an addition to the deco- are described in the third chapter of Isaiah ; and having ration of a woman of rank in Syria, as her ear-rings, or bathed, they rub their bodies with saffron to make them. the golden cinctures of her ancles. Dark streaks were selves fair; and then put on their crimson robes. One also pencilled from the corners of her eyes along the kind of paint with which they tinge their eyelids is temples. This curious practice instantly brought to our made of a nut called kaduki, which is first burned to a recollection certain passages of Scripture, wherein men- | powder, then mixed with castor oil; after which it is set tion is made of a custom among Oriental women of on fire, and that which drops from it is the paint referred 'putting the eyes in painting,' and which our English to. Another kind is made of the juice of limes, indica translators of the Bible, unable to reconcile with their and saffron.” See EYE.
Painting. From the Egyptian Monuments. PAINTING. This art appears to have made some has been altogether derived. It was not to excite the progress in the more advanced periods of the Jewish imagination, but to inform the understanding; not to polity. In Ezekiel 23. 14,15, mention is made of " men give pleasure, but to convey facts, that painting and pourtrayed upon the wall, the images of the Chaldeans sculpture were employed in Egypt. According to Clepourtrayed with vermilion, girded with girdles upon ment of Alexandria, an Egyptian temple was wypauxa, their loins, exceeding in dyed attire upon their heads, all |'a writing ;' it addressed itself to the mind in the same of them princes to look to." Jeremiah also mentions manner as a book. And to proceed with the metaphor, apartments which were painted with vermilion. (ch. the groups of figures which covered it with their hiero22. 14.) But as all pictures and images were forbidden glyphic explanations, were the several chapters, or seeby the Mosaic law, (Levit. 26. 1; Numb. 33. 52,) it is tions, of which the book was composed. So that it was most probable that these pictures were copied by the designed to be a written record of the historical facts Jews from some of their heathen neighbours after they which led to its erection, and of the mythic fables in had been corrupted by their intercourse with them. conformity to which it was dedicated. · Among the Egyptians, from the employment of hiero- “ The paintings in the tombs have also the same glyphics, it is supposed that the art of the painter was design. They represent supposed facts; the events of generally associated with that of the scribe. Writing the life of the deceased, or the adventures of his soul or painting materials were usually carried in a box, sus- after death. Clearness of idea, therefore, not pictorial pended from the side by a thong; and it is not unusual effect, was the primary object of art in Egypt. The to see an artist or scribe with his brush stuck behind his state of the arts of design among the Egyptians was ear, as in the engraving, like the pen of a clerk in a entirely modified by this circumstance. Their artists counting-house. From the representation given of two made their imitations of nature sufficiently close to corartists engaged on a painting, it will be observed that vey the intended idea with clearness and precision; and though the easel stands upright, they had no contrivance when that was attained, they had no motive for attempt to support or steady the hand; hence the Egyptian ing any further improvement. It is the different degrees painters appear to have been very careful in tracing of accuracy which different objects require, in order tout their outlines with chalk, which they effaced if any im- the picture may convey a clear and unequivocal idea to perfection were discovered. It is evident that the manu- | the mind, that doubtless has produced the singular facture of images and painted toys was carried to a | unevenness (so to speak) which characterizes the remanis remarkable extent, as well as the decoration of mummy- of Egyptian art. For example: but little pains is gezea cases.
rally taken with the human figure; its details are given There is a portrait in the British Museum of a Græco- | imperfectly and incorrectly; and for an obvious reasota Egyptian female, with necklace, ear-rings, and hair-pin, A very rude sketch will suffice to convey the idea, found in a mummy-case, which is supposed to be one of that mistake shall be impossible ; and that was generan? the oldest specimens of the art in existence. It is an all the artist wanted. But in the same column, or gros article of exceeding interest, viewing it as a faithful re- with these ill-drawn figures, the birds are often eraih semblance of one of the people of this country at an with a fidelity and spirit which can only be attained in a early period. It is painted on a plank of cedar wood; careful study of nature, and which could hardly o the colours are all vegetable, and fixed by a strong passed even by modern artists; and the reason is ty gluten.
obvious. All this accuracy is required in order The author of The Antiquitics of Egypt, in reference clear specification of the bird intended. to Scripture Illustration, observes, “The purpose of the moreover are not wanting of Egyptian statues ; Egyptians in their use of the art of design was very the details of the human form are more different to that of the Greeks, from whom modern art! attended to; and the Egyptians evidently es
are more carefully 28 evidently excelled in