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Episcopalian side, Dr. Fruen, Archbishop of York; Dr. Shelden, Bishop of London ; Dr. Cosin, Bishop of Durham ; Dr. Warner, Bishop of Rochester ; Dr. King, Bishop of Winchester; Dr. Henchman, Bishop of Sarum; Dr. Morley, Bishop of Worcester ; Dr. Sanderson, Bishop of Lincoln ; Dr. Laney, Bishop of Peterborough ; Dr. Walton, Bishop of Chester ; Dr. Stern, Bishop of Carlisle ; Dr. Ganden, Bishop of Exeter ; with their coadjutors, Drs. Earles, Heylin, Hackett, Barwick, Gunning, Pearson, Pierce, Sparrow, and Mr. Thorndike. On the Presbyterian side were Dr. Reynolds, Bishop of Norwich; Drs. Tuckney,. Conant, Spurstow, Wallis, and Canton; Messrs. Calamy, Baxter, Jackson, Case, Clark, and Newcomen, with their coadjutors, Drs. Horton, Jacomb, Lightfoot, Collins, Woodbridge ; Messrs. Bates, Rawlinson, Cooper, and Drake. Many things are left out (which will be seen by a reference to the first book of Edward VI.), in consideration of the tender consciences of those of the divines assembled, who had adopted the views of Calvin and the Genevan Reformers, while many are placed there by the act of the various governments of the day, and are not binding on Churchmen, never having been sanctioned by Convocation, and are not to be found in the sealed copy in the Tower. On the accession of Queen Mary, A. D. 1553 to 1558, the liturgy of King Edward was suppressed, and the one in use during the first part of Henry the Eighth's reign restored : at her death, however, after a conference held between some Romanist and Reformed divines, the Prayer Book (with some slight alterations), as at present used, was restored, on the Feast of St. John the Baptist, June 24, 1559.

In A. D. 1660, the order of the Lessons throughout the year was revised, under the superintendence of Archbishop Parker, Bishop Grindall, and Drs. Bell and Haddon; and how beautifully they have apportioned them to the whole service of the Church, is evident from a very slight glance. On the 14th of January, 1603, at the Hampton Court Conference, an explanation was agreed to, as were the Thanksgivings for Rain, Fair Weather, Plenty, Peace, and Victory, while to the Catechism were added the questions and answers relating to the Sacraments ; so that it appears those stumbling-blocks to the modern Puritans, of Regeneration by Water and the Real Presence in the blessed Eucharist, were not slighted by the earlier Puritans. On November 24th, 1644, the Directory for the Public Worship of God throughout England was established by Act of Parliament, and all previous acts for its establishment repealed; a few weeks after this (June 10, 1645), Archbishop Laud was murdered and Episcopacy abolished : not satisfied with the murder of this devoted bishop, they went on, and it is not to be wondered at that the saintly Charles was soon beheaded, which took place on the 30th January, 1649; and now all was riot and disorder in both Church and State. Soon after the restoration of Charles II., A. D. 1660, the Prayer Book was agreed on by both houses of Convocation ; the civil sanction of Parliament was given to it, which act received the royal assent on May 16,


That the two bishops, Cranmer and Ridley, were strictly our Reformers there is no doubt, and nobly have they done their work, expunging dogmas that had grown upon the Church, yet doing away with nothing Catholic or essential. Calvin, a turbulent and factious man, living abroad and disliking everything ancient because Rome had abused it, wrote to offer his services; but they knew the man too well, and wisely refused to accept them. Well had it been for another portion of the kingdom had their Reformer followed the advice of Ridley, who, speaking from his prison, says,

Why will they not follow that which the ancient writers do more allow ? from whom to dissent without warrant from God's word,

I cannot think very godly wisdom.”—Knox, Rem., vol. i.


138. That the British Liturgy was probably the Gallican, we infer from the fact of there being only two Liturgies in the Western Church, the Roman and Gallican; and that the British bishops derived their orders from their neighbours. There were (according to the Venerable Bede) English bishops present at the councils of Arles, Sardica, and Ariminum in the fourth century.

In the sixth and seventh centuries the British Churches submitted to Saxon Episcopal authority. St. Austin brought with him the Sacramentary of Gregory, which in

proof time came to be generally used, though each bishop had a distinct power in matters of ceremonial and service; hence arose the different uses of York, Sarum, and other cathedrals, they all differing very slightly and in no case essentially: yet all these being revised in the sixteenth century, together with


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