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met 2:21. Three gi its captivity; ke

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vente consecame again the mistress of the world, by almirt + sinitial dominion, in lies of the temporal one it had city and wrich alteration did not a brile astonish mankind; but who, interact of reluiting the arrogant claims and profane preten. fions of t... i'v power, did not only tamely obey those laws of the emperor., schifet the bishop of Rome above all human jus risdiction, buty entered most heartily into all the new birtitions and duiatries of this novel tyranny. Nor was sugal bealt backward in exerting the power which he had acquired the liberality of the imperial dragon, but quickly enjoined a forts of abominations, and enforced acquiescence, on paic of a with all his profane and blasphemous pretentions. The raged, he went on in his impious career, enjoining act ce is worthip of saints and angels, but of images and relics 2015 that he was God's vicegerent and Chrif's vicar eceram that, as fuch, he had power to grant indulgences azd z TILE fins : and thus, by these, and a great many other abomime mas, he blafpheme and fcandalized the perfectices rer and laws of God; and dishonoured the memory Train dwell in heaven, as if they approved of fuch wickets priestly craft.-And not only was this cccleiate waren cried at Rome, but over diftant and numerous laluan si ti has been the slaughter which he has made amung 2016 cctpect to the divine authority. uz.. there is f 42102 rated us abominabis: riors, and relee üsnamen

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similar to his own, he shall perish, and as he hath shewed no mercy, so he snall find no mercy.

Ver. 11. And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth, and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon. And he exerciseth all * the power of the first beast before him, and caufeth the earth, and them which dwell therein, to worship the first beaft, &c. Dr. Doddridge, in his notes on this passage, observes, “ As I look upon the former to be the papal power, I am ready, with the best critics I know, to interpret this of the religious orders of the church of Rome. This beast is said to ascend from the earth, whereas the other ascended from the sea, to make the distinction between them the more remarkable: but wirat other mystery may be fuggeited, I cannot conjecture.” Dr. Goodwin understands by the forft beaft the temporal power which the Pope has received from the kings of the ten antichristian kingdoms; and by the second beast the spiritual power which the Pope and his clergy claim of binding and loofing, of pardoning fin, and of cursing men to hell. Mr. Lowman fupposes it to represent the ecclesiastical princes of Germany, who have been fuch great supporters of the power of the first beast. Most agree, 'that although he is thus represented as a distinct beast, yet he rises out of the empire of the firft, and is subordinate to him.t But inferior as I am to these learned men, I beg leave to propose a conjecture which I think has more weight than at first view we may be willing to admit.

May we not understand by this second beaft Lewis XIV. or at least that tyranny which the family of the Capets have exercised, to the great oppression of the Chriftian church; and to the destruction of mankind? Why might not Lewis XIV. or the Capets and their tyranny be the objects of John's vision, as well as Alexander or Antiochus or any other tyrant, that of Daniel's ? Read their political history and private memoirs. If pre-eminence in vice, oppression, and murder, entitle to this diftinction, who so abhorrent and vile ? Who such enemies to the truth of God, and the happiness of mankind? Their tyranny has been the

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* Rev. xiii. 12. 7.“ It muft, in all likelihood, fignify some diftin&t persecuting power, of a like nature and kind with the first, supporting and advancing his authority.." - Lowman, P. 136. where may be seen the various opinions on this subject.

scourge of France, of Europe, and the world.* What crucities did Lewis XIV. especially perpetrate towards his Protestant subjects; and what devastation and woe did he spread over Europe in his cruel wars! Examine the description. And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth, and he had two horns like a lamb, and he fpake as a dragon. John saw the other beast, the papal tyranny, (which is the usurpation of a foreigner,) advance, plunging through the waves of that fca of civil commotions, and religious contentions, which at the time of his rising agitated the Roman empire, and what was called the Christian church; but this comes up out of the earth,t it rises at homc, and from circumStances somewhat more settled, and in times not so agitated by com. motions. If this be the beast in chap. xi. 7. which was to overcome and say the witnesses, (as I am thoroughly perfuaded it is) there we have a more descriptive account of his origin.

The beeft τυhich afcendeth out of the bottomlefs pit. το θηρίον το αναβαϊνον εκ της bißvocou, not which arose or did ascend, but which is rising out of the abyss, as if he were now rising, or was just now become a perfeçt tyrant when he flew the witnesses.

The second beast is laid to come up out of the earth, but this from What our translators render the bettomless pit, ex Täs Bucsou, from

the

No country'ever had such a race of tyrants as France, and till within these few months there was not an Englishman who did not with this tyranny to be 'extirpated from the earth. The reftless and cruel ambition of the kings of -France and their court within these few years, has occafioned the Naughter of . umnumbered thousands of our friends and countrymen, and contributed towards loading us with a debt which makes all the nation groan, and the consequences of which cannot be calculated. Not the people of France, let us remember, 'but their despots, against whose oppressions they have lately risen up, have been the authors of all thefe evils. And as long as the old fyftem remained, there was no hope of remedy. How happy therefore would it have been for the surrounding nations, if the people of France had been permitted to fetile their new constitution, which „promised peace and security to all their neighbours as well as to themselves! But for the interference of foreign courts, all would now have been peace.

# Perhaps by the first beast's coming up out of the sea, nothing more may be intended than that foreign jurifdi&tion which the papacy was to exercise ; and by the second beast's coming up out of the earth, that his tyranny was to be domeftic, and exercised rather over his own country than foreign nations. This agrees perfectly with the difference between the papal usurpations and the tyranny of Lewis XIV.

the abyss, or pit, bog, or whirlpool, of infinite depth. And from what a bog of vice, treachery, and cruelty on the one hand, and of superstition, servility, and baseness on the other, did the French tyranny arise! Or, if you please, from a whirlpool which draws into its vortex, and swallows up every thing, the most precious to man.

Historians have represented Lewis XIV. as raising the French monarchy to the pinnacle of its glory. And if pride and ambition, persecution and bloodshed constitute fupreme glory, he did so. But, the wisdom of the world is foolishness with God. O the folly and cruelty of men! They create devourers, as if for the pleasure of witnefling and celebrating their exploits of blood; and even think it impiety to complain when their own turn arrives to be devoured!

How perfectly do these two descriptions of the second beaft agree! The angel describes him as ascending out of the abyss; John sees him rising out of the earth. And what sort of a spot may we fuppose the theatre of his rifing to be? The choiceft spot which nature can furnish ?-- Rather, where Behemoth * makes his bed, in the coverts of the reeds and fens, from whence he drags his filthy limbs to the mountains of slaughter, where all the beasts of the field play.

And he had two horns like a lamb. Here we may observe, that the Bourbons, formerly kings of Navarre only, on the extinction of the family of Valois, in 1589, which reigned over France, were become possessed of both kingdoms; and Henry IV. grandfather of Lewis XIV.in whom the kingdoms were united, took the titles of King of France and Navarre. These were his two horns like a lamb.

And he spake as a dragon. His profession of that religion which teaches to be meek and harmless, presents an appearance of innocence, but when he opens his mouth, the accents are those of a dragon, which bespcak him formed for mischief, and not for the benefit of mankind. All this agrees exactly with the French tyTanny, and particularly with Lewis XIV. who was at once a superstitious devotee and a cruel despot; who, though styled the Most Christian King, practised the enormities of the dragon, who made war with them who kept the commandmenes of God, and

had

Job. xl. 21.

had the testimony of Jesus. Witness the persecutions with which he harrassed the Protestants, and his attempts to extirpate the Reformed by the revocation of the Edict of Nants; a persecutio17 more cruel than any since the days of persecution commenced. See Claude's Complaints of the Proteftants. The Edićt of Nants, issued in 1598, granted to the Protestants the free exercise of their religion; many churches in every part of France, and judges of their own persuasion ; a free access to all places of honor and dig nity, an hundred places as pledges of their future security, and funds to maintain both their ministers and garrisons. But no sooner was Lewis XIV. arrived to years than be formed the resolution of destroying the Protestants. Did we not know him to have been a beast, we could hardly give credit to the report of the motive which pushed this resolution into practice. “ Soon after he came to the crown,” says Mr. Claude, page 43.

66 there arose in the kingdom a civil war, which proved fo sharp and desperate, as brought the state within a hair's breath of utter ruin. Those of the reformed religion still kept their loyalty fo 'inviolable, and accompanied it with such a zeal, and with a fervor so extraordinary, and so successful, that the king found himself obliged to give public marks of it by a declaration made at St. Germains in the year 1652. Then, as well at court as in the armies, each strove to proclaim loudest the merits of the Reformed.” But, can you believe that there is so much depravity in human nature ? Their enemies faid, " If on this occafion this party could preserve the state, this fhews likewise that they could have overthrown it; this party must therefore by all means be crushed.” Lewis, and the abettors of his tyranny, instantly set about it. " A thousand dreadful blows," says Mr. Saurin, were struck at our afflicted churches, before that which destroyed them: for our enemies, if I may use fuch an expression, not content with seeing our ruin, endeavoured to taste it.” As soon as the kingdom was settled in peace they fell upon them, and persecuted them in every imaginable way. They were excluded from the king's household, -- from all employ. ments of honour and profit,mall the courts of justice, erected by virtue of the Edi&t of Nants, were abolished, so that in all trials their enemies only were their judges, and in all the courts of justice the cry was, “ I plead against a heretick+; I have to do with a

man

f Claude's Comp. &c. p. 51.

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