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divinely delivered image of his flesh, the divine bread, was filled with the Holy Ghost, together with the cup of the life-giving blood of his side. This, then, is received as the true image of the carnal dispensation of Christ, our God, as is aforesaid ; which he, the true life-giving maker of our nature, delivered with his own words.
Let us next hear the fathers of the Deutero Nicene Council commenting upon the foregoing passage :
Epiphanius the deacon reads. It is plain how every set discourse, if once it be turned aside from the truth, is carried into many and dangerous absurdities, by the consequence of error; which thing has happened to these teachers of novelty, who, when they had been turned away from the truth, on account of the making of images, have been carried into another extreme and monstrous error; for, as if from the Delphic Tripod, they have prophesied these crooked and injurious sentences. Yet they hear the proverb, “ Thou art snared with the words of thy mouth ;" for they have set forth "wood, hay, stubble," whose end is to be burned. For no one of the holy apostles who spake by the Spirit, nor of our renowned fathers, has called our unbloody sacrificewhich is made in remembrance of the passion of our Lord, and of his whole dispensation-an image of his body. For they did not receive of the Lord thus to say or confess, but they hear him saying in the gospel, “ Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of Man, and drink his blood, ye cannot enter into the kingdom of heaven;" and "he that eateth my Hesh, and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him;" and " when he had taken bread, and given thanks, he brake it, and gave it to his disciples, and said, take, eat, this is my body; and when he had took the cup he gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; this is my blood of the New Testament, which is shed for many, for the remission of sins.”
And he did not say, “ Take, eat, the image of my body.” Paul, also, the divine apostle, drawing his instruction from the divine words, said, “ I have received of the Lord that which I also delivered unto you, that in the same night in which he was betrayed,” &c.
Wherefore it is clearly shewn, that neither the Lord, nor the apostles, nor the fathers, ever called the unbloody sacrifice, which is offered by the priest, an image, but the very body and the very blood. Indeed, before the completion of the sanctification, it piously pleased some of the holy fathers to call them types; of whom is Eustathius, the firm defender of the catholic faith, and destroyer of the Arian madness; and Basil, the destroyer of the same superstition, who rightly taught the plain foundation (the good fathers must needs have their pun—the Greek for the epithet they apply to Eustathius, is Eustathes ; for the plain foundation of Basilius, Basiulian) of all truth which is under the sun. For of these, speaking by one and
the same spirit, the one, in interpreting that saying in the Proverbs of Solomon, “Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine which I have mingled,” says thus, " By the wine and the bread, he declares the types of the bodily members of Christ.” The other, drawing from the same fountain as they who are versed in the mysteries of the priesthood knew, in the prayer of the divine offering, speaketh thus—« With good courage we draw near to the holy altar, and, setting forth the types of the boly body and blood of thy Christ, we beseech and entreat thee.” And that which follows makes the intention of the father clearer, that they were called types before consecration, but after consecration, are said to be, and are, and are believed to be, properly the body and blood of Christ. But these honest men, wishing to destroy the spectacle of the venerable images, have introduced another image, which is not an image, but body and blood; but being taken in their toil and craftiness, and wounding themselves with their dishonest sophism, they have, by supposition, named this to be the divine offering; and, as this is a clear manifestation of folly, so to call the body and blood of the Lord an image partakes of the same madness, and more than madness even impiety. Then, leaving falsehoods, they touch a little upon truth, and say that it becomes a divine body. But if it be an image of the body, it cannot be the divine body itself; wherefore, they being thus carried about hither and thither, the things which they teach are altogether uncertain ; for as the eye, when it is twisted, does not see straight, so these also, being troubled and disturbed by the confusion of evil thoughts, suffer the same thing as madmen, who are always raising up one phantasy after another; at one time calling our holy sacrifice the image of the holy body of Christ, at another, by position, the body. But they suffer this, as we said before, by desiring to remove the spectacle of the representative images out of the church, and rejoicing to overthrow ecclesiastical tradition.
The most devoted Romanist will probably admit, that if ever there was an occasion calling for, and provoking, an avowal of the doctrine of transubstantiation, it was afforded in this instance.
That the Iconodulists were hard pressed by the argument of their opponents is evident,by the desperate plunges they make;—first roundly denying that the fathers ever called the Eucharist a figure of our Lord; then recollecting that the liturgies—which were familiar to the whole church—and the writings of the fathers, in both which the elements are called types, would make this position untenable, they endeavour to avoid the force of this by saying, that that term was only applied to them before consecration : an assertion so monstrous, that the annotator in Labbe's Edition of the Councils,- who cannot be suspected of any leaning to the primitive doctrine, -of his own accord, refers to Cyril, Nazianzen, and others, who applied the term types to the elements of the Eucharist after consecration.
If the fathers of the second Nicene Council had held the doctrine of transubstantiation, as taught by Rome, what more easy--more obvious-method of refuting the argument of the Iconoclasts than by roundly asserting it? But instead of this, what is it they do? They are forced to content themselves by asserting that the consecrated elements are the body and blood of Christ, which, in a sacramental and mystical sense, none ever denied and that, therefore, they could not be figures of it (a miserable non sequitur, unless they can prove carnal and spiritual to be synonymous); and they refer, in the warmest terms of eulogy, to the writings of one of the great champions of orthodoxy upon the subject, St. Basil, part of whose expressions on the subject they cite, and refer us to the remainder for a more full development of his sound meaning.
If, then, we can ascertain the precise meaning of St. Basil, we shall be in possession of the exact sense in which the fathers of the Deutero
cene Council regarded the change in the elements in the Eucharist.
It happens, fortunately enough, that, among all the oriental liturgies, none seems to have been held in greater estimation than that of Basil, which was in use throughout the whole of the east. Copies of liturgies, bearing his name, have come down to the present time, and are found existing in Greek, in Syriac, in Coptic, and Arabic. It is not pretended that we can assert, with any confidence, that any one of these has come down to us in its original state. They all, or almost all, differ from one another; and we may safely conclude, concerning all, that they have been altered and interpreted in the different patriarchates and provinces in which they have been used. It is clear that this very circumstance tends only to make their testimony of the greater value, in ascertaining the opinion of St. Basil, in any point or points in which they all agree. They will have the force, not of one witness, but of many, and those manifestly independent. There is one point (not the only one) in which they all agree,
and in that agreement are supported virtually by all, expressly by almost all, the other oriental liturgies; and that is, in shewing, in the plainest and most unexceptionable way, that, in the opinion of St. Basil, the change which is wrought in the elements of the holy Eucharist by consecration, whereby they become the body and blood of Christ, is not in that carnal and impious sense of the church of Rome, which makes it possible for bird, beast, and reptile to bite and gnaw the Saviour of the world—for the wind to blow away the Maker of the universe, and a sick man's stomach to reject the Lord of Glory-and for that “flesh to see corruption" which the Holy Spirit has said should not; all which cases are contemplated in the Roman rubrics, but in that spiritual and sacramental sense whereby they become the means of conveying to the faithful receivers the unspeakable inward grace of which they are the appointed signs—that they are verily and indeed the Lord's body and blood, in their saving and lifegiving use; but not abstracted from their use—that, in short, the Roman doctrine of transubstantiation, as expressed in the decrees of the council of Trent, does not appear to have entered the contemplation of the holy Basil.
I have before me five copies of liturgies, bearing the name of St. Basil. I will cite the prayer of consecration as it appears in each, that the reader may be able to judge how far the foregoing assertion is warranted :
Ist. -THE COPTIC LITURGY, ASCRIBED TO ST. BASIL.
In Renaudot's Collection. Paris, 1716. Vol. I. p. 16. We sinners, thy unworthy servants, beseech and adore thee, O Christ, our God, by the good pleasure of thy goodness, that thy Holy Spirit may come upon us, and upon these gifts set forth, and may sanctify them, and make them the holy things of thy saints, and may make this bread the holy body of the Lord God himself, and our Saviour Jesus Christ, which is given in remission of sins, and for eternal life, to him who shall receive it. Amen.
And this cup, the precious blood of the New Testament, of thee, the Lord God himself, and our Saviour, Jesus Christ, which is given in remission of sins, and for eternal life, to them who shall receive it (him). 2nd.-THE ALEXANDRIAN LITURGY, ASCRIBED TO ST. BASIL, IN GREEK AND ARABIC.
In Renaudot's Collection. I. p. 68. We sinners, and thy unworthy servants, beseech and entreat thee, O Lord, thou lover of good men, and adore thee with the good pleasure of thy goodness, that thy Holy Spirit may come upon us, thy servants, and upon these, thy gifts, set forth, and may sanctify and make them the holy things of saints; and may make this bread to hecome the holy body of the Lord God himself, and our Saviour Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and for eternal life, to them who partake of it. Amen.
And this cup, the precious blood of the New Testament, of the Lord God himself, and our Saviour Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and for eternal life, to them who partake of it. 3rd.—THE SYRIAC LITURGY, ASCRIBED TO ST. BASIL.
(Translated by Masius.)
In Renaudot's Collection. Vol. II. 554. Wherefore, O Lord, we, thy wretched strangers, and useless servants, whom thou hast deigned to make the administrators of the mysteries and passions of thy Christ, not on account of our righteousness, for we have done no good upon earth, but by
thy mercy and gentleness, which thou hast largely poured upon us, “ with boldness now approach, that we may touch thy holy altar. And we who have set forth the type of the body and blood of thy Christ, adore and suppliantly beseech thee," * by the gentleness of thy goodness, let thy Holy Spirit come upon us, and upon these gifts, which we have set forth, and sanctify them, and make this bread the glorious body of our Lord Jesus Christ, the heavenly body, the life-giving body, the precious body, for the expiation of faults, and remission of sins, and for eternal life, to them who receive it.
And this cup, the precious blood of the Lord God Jesus Christ, who reigneth over all, the redeeming blood, the life-giving blood, the expiating blood, which is shed for the redemption and life of the world, for the expiation of faults, and remission of sins, and for eternal life, to them who receive it. Amen.
'4th.-ANOTHER COPY, PROFESSEDLY OF THE SAME LITURGY.
Referred to in Renaudot's Collection. II. 563.
5th. THE CONSTANTINOPOLITAN LITURGY, ASCRIBED TO ST. BASIL.
(This is chiefly the same as the foregoing.)
Amen. And this cup, the precious blood of the Lord and God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen.
It will be observed, that in this last liturgy the specification of the consecration, for the use of those who receive it, is wanting ; but, besides that the concurring testimony of all the other professed copies of St. Basil's liturgy to the existence of this specification affords reasonable, if not conclusive, evidence, that it is the original reading, and must formerly have stood in this version as well as the rest, the advocates for transubstantiation have little cause of triumph, for this very liturgy immediately proceeds with a prayer ill calculated to afford them satisfaction.
“ And unite us all, who partake of this one bread and cup, into the fellowship of the one Holy Spirit.”
I said before, that the sense in which the liturgies ascribed to St. Basil (however diversified in other respects) all unite in representing
The passage in inverted commas appears to be that cited by the fathers of the Deutero Nicene Council.
+ This is the same passage cited by the Deutero Nicene fathers; all it wants is, the Oappouvres. That this originally stood here may be inferred from the Syriac copy above cited, and also from this, that in the Latin version, in Goar's edition, the word “confidentes" appears.
the change effected by consecration in the Eucharistic elements (that is to say, a change for sacramental use, and not abstracted from the use, as in transubstantiation,) is confirmed virtually by all, expressly by almost all, the other oriental liturgies. The following extracts will make good the assertion :
The Liturgy ascribed to St. James. -—"Make this bread the holy body of thy Christ, and this cup the precious blood of thy Christ, that all who are partakers thereof may obtain remission of their sins." - Brett's Collection. Lond. 1720, p. 18.
The Liturgy ascribed to St. Mark.—“Making the bread the body, and the cup the blood, of the New Testament of our Lord himself; that they may be to us who partake of them the means of faith,” &c.-Ibid. pp. 37, 38.
The Liturgy ascribed to St. Chrysostom.—“Make this bread the precious body of thy Christ, and what is in the cup the precious blood of thy Christ, that it may be to those who partake of it for sobriety,' &c.— Ibid. 46.
The Ethiopian Liturgy.--" That he may make them both the body and blood of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, for ever and ever ... that all the partakers thereof may by them obtain the sanctification,” &c.— Ibid. p. 86.
The Nestorian Liturgy.-“ Make this bread and this cup the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, cleansing and sanctifying them by thine Holy Spirit, that the partaking of these holy mysteries muy be to all who receive them the means of everlasting life,” &c.— Ibid. p. 100.
The Liturgy of Surrus, Patriarch of Antioch.-" That this bread may be made the life-giving, heavenly-saving body both of our souls and bodies, even the body of our Lord ... Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and everlasting life, to all those who partake of it; and the mixture in this cup, the blood of the New Testament ... even the blood of our Lord .... for the remission of sins, and everlasting life, to all those who partake of it.”—Ibid. 106.
The Liturgy of St. Gregory." And make this bread thy Holy Body, O Lord God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ, which is given for the remission of sins, and for eternal life, to them who communicate of it ; and, again, this cup, the precious blood of thy New Testament, O Lord God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ, which is given for the remission of sins, and for eternal life, to them who communicate of it."- - Renandot, I. 3.
Liturgy of St. Cyril.-—"That be may make this bread the body of Christ, and this cup also the precious blood of the New Testament, of the same Jesus Christ, the Lord, God, Saviour, and King of us all, that they may be to all of us, who shall partake of them, useful to obtain faith without disputing,” &c.Ibid. 48, 49.
The Syriack Liturgy, ascribed to Pope Xystus. And make this bread the body of Christ our God; and make this cup the blood of Christ our God, that they may make us, who shall communicate in them, partakers of heavenly pleasure,” &c.Renandot, II. 136, 137.
The Syriack Liturgy, ascribed to St. Peter.—"May make this bread the salutary body . of our Lord God and Saviour, Jesus Christ, for the expiation of offences, &c. to them who shall partake of it. Amen. And in like manner, this cup, the heavenly drink, the salutary blood, &c. of Jesus Christ, for the remission of the things which they have foolishly done, and the relaxation of sins to the partakers." Ibid. 148.
Another Syriack Liturgy, ascribed to St. Peter.—"May make this bread the body of Christ our God, and this cup the blood of Christ our God, that they may be to them who communicate for the cleansing of body and soul.”—Ibid. 156, 157.
The Syriack Liturgy, ascribed to St. John the Evangelist.—“May make this bread the body of Christ our God, and this cup the blood of Christ our God, that they may sanctify the bodies and souls of those who shall communicate in them.”-Ibid. 165–167.
The Syriack Liturgy, ascribed to the Twelve Apostles.-“ May make this bread the body of Christ our God, and the mixture in the cup the blood of Christ our God, that these sacraments may be to us holy and vivifying," &c.-Ibid. 172.
The Syriack Liturgy, ascribed to St. Clement of Rome.—“May make this bread the vivifying body . of the Lord God himself, and our Saviour Jesus Christ, for the propitiation of offences, remission of sins, and eternal life, of the partakers. In like manner, the mixture in the cup, the purifying blood of ...... Jesus Christ,