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has appeared, completing the portion which treats of Natural Theology. There is no time nor space for a complete review; but a second perusal of the first portion of the work has confirmed the reviewer in his opinion of the great value and importance of it.

There are two parts of Observations on the English Unirersities published, (Fellowes,) on which it is much to be regretted that no space for remark can be found now. But such a book must not be left unnoticed; and if it is not noticed very kindly, one can only say, that if people will make scandalous charges and absurd observations, they cannot complain of that being proved against them.


Sufferings and Persecutions of the Irish Protestants, (Nisbet,) 12m0., is a very valuable collection of documents. If a second edition is called for, the writer would do well to add yet more. An Argument, drawn from Scripture, to prove that the Ministry of the Gospel should be entirely Gratuitous, (Groombridge,) is a wise recommendation that no persons should be ministers but those who earn their own bread by some worldly trade or profession, or can live by their own means. The author, after compassing sea and earth for every argument he can muster, very wisely declares that he will answer none which are not brought from Scripture. As Scripture was not written to be filled with arguments against mad or foolish people, he is quite safe. Maynooth, in 1834. By E. F. O'Beirne, late Student there. (Dublin : Carson, &c.) The extracts from the Commissioners' Reports, which are found in this pamphlet, are curious, and give one no, favourable notion of the teaching at Maynooth ; but Mr. O'Beirne does not write in a style or temper likely to gain attention with right-minded men, nor is a student exactly qualified to sit in judgment on the abilities and learning of his teachers, or the system of discipline pursued.



MR. Goulburn said that the noble lord (Russell) had stated that this bill would be of benefit to the dissenters of England, and would relieve them from the conscientious objections which they entertained to the obligations which the law at present imposed on them with respect to marriage; and so far as the bill now before the house tended to effect that object, he (Mr. Goulburn) had no hesitation in saying that it should have his most cordial support; but, while he acknowledged that they were bound to take care of the dissenters, and to afford them all possible relief on the one hand, he thought they should be equally careful not to impose additional burdens on the members of the church of England; and if the bill was to be allowed to remain in the state in which it was at present, he should be prepared to satisfy the house that it would impose upon the members of the church of England obligations which they could not conscientiously comply with as members of that church, and from which they were now, and always had been, exempt. If he should succeed in satisfying the house upon this point, he was sure he would receive the support of gentlemen of every shade of political and religious principle in opposing the measure. He therefore proposed, in the observations he was about to make to the house, to confine himself to this question—whether the bill now before the house did not give enormous facilities for effecting clandestine marriages, and the opportunity to every man, whether a dissenter or whether a member of the church of England, to enter clandestinely into the marriage contract, a circumstance, of all others, the most essential to the peace and welfare of families. With this view of the subject, he was anxious, as far as his limited means of information would permit, to lay before the house what protection he considered the present law to afford against clandestine marriages, to see how far that protection would be effected by the bill now before the house, and to shew how utterly inadequate were the provisions of this bill, as he viewed them, to prevent clandestine marriages amongst all classes of his Majesty's subjects. By the present law there were certain protections against clandestine marriagesfor instance, those of bans and licences. The protection afforded by bans was this :- they must be published three several times in the parish in which the parties had resided for a certain period; they therefore had the fact published

- be it more or less efficiently, he would forbear at the present moment to inquire—in the presence of those who had a chance, at least, of being acquainted with the parties, or either of them, who were hereafter to enter into the matrimonial contract. The bans alone, as regarded the publishing of the intentions, in rural districts were a certain, at least a tolerable certain, protection, and in other places they were, as far as they went, also a protection, inasmuch as there might be persons, within the period of their publication, to make known the fact to parties acquainted with those who formed the subject of those bans. Another protection afforded by the present law was the necessity that it imposed of having marriage ceremony celebrated in the church of the parish, in a place accessible to all, in a place known to all, through the medium of the bans, and where every one who pleased might be present at the time of the celebration of the marriage. Another protection of the existing law was, that the marriage ceremony must be performed by or with the consent of the clergyman of the parish. His next point was, that the marriage ceremony must be celebrated between the hours of eight and twelve o'clock in the forenoon, which was also a security against clandestine marriages. Another form connected with the present law was, that the marriage must take place within three months after the publication of the bans. It was no small security either that the marriage must be celebrated in the church of the parish and by the established minister of the parish, or (with his permission) by a minister acquainted with the parties to be united, and who therefore had means of judging or ascertaining whether it was attempted to effect a clandestine marriage or not; and last of all, which he (Mr. Goulburn) thought by no means one of the weakest protections, which, in fact, he would call one of the strongest protections, against the celebration of clandestine marriages, was the obligation imposed on the parties themselves who were about to enter into the matrimonial state, of having the awful sanction of a religious ceremony performed, before the contract could be legitimately sealed. Having thus briefly enumerated the various modes of protection which he considered the existing law to afford against clandestine marriages, his next object was to see what the effect of the proposed measure would be; and the house would perhaps be not a little surprised when he informed it that by the present bill every one of these protections were shaken. The parties were not even bound to have the bans published; the celebration of the marriage was not confined to the parish in which either of the parties resided, but might be performed in any parish in England to which they thought proper to go; it was not, in fact, necessary to have it performed in a church at all, or in any recognised building, but, as he should be able to shew when they came to discuss the bill, might take place wherever those who might be supposed to be interested in any case, and who, in casc a clandestine marriage were contemplated, might be supposed to be doubly so, could not possibly anticipate or expect to be chosen for the performance of such a ceremony. The noble lord, by this bill, intended, too, to withdraw the limits of time for the celebration of the marriage contract, and allow it to take place at any hour. After this bill was passed into a law there would be nothing to prevent a member of the church of England from being married in any part of the country, by any person not being a minister of the established church, in any place not recognised as a place of religious worship, and without any kind of protection against the clandestine performance of the marriage contract. The existing protection being withdrawn, what security did this bill give ? Why, that on notice of marriage being given, a caveat might be entered by a parent or guardian without being liable to costs; but that notice must be quite ineffectual in a case where a married man should take it into his head to marry a second time, inasmuch as his first wife could not enter a caveat under this bill without being subject to the costs. The bill, then, in his (Mr. Goulburn's) opinion, was a dangerous innovation of the law, and one against which the house ought to guard. After looking at the first clause of the bill, he wished to know whether it was intended that clergymen of the established church should be prohibited from publishing bans?

Lord J. Russell.–No.

Mr. GOULBURN.-The noble lord said no. Therefore, it would appear that members of the church of England would be compelled, in addition to the publication of bans, to give notice to the registrar. Was that intended by way of relief, or as something to render this bill more acceptable to the churchman? Was it not imposing an additional burden and expense upon him? (Hear.) There were many other objections which he had to urge against this bill, but he should reserve them for a future opportunity, his present object being chiefly to shew its weakness as a law to prevent clandestine marriages. Indeed, it would give persons an opportunity to do that legally, or at least without rendering them liable to punishment, which could not now be done without a direct violation of the law. The bill even went to remove the solemn obligation of an oath, which was at present indispensable, in the case of persons marrying by licence, the party applying for the licence being compelled to swear that there was no lawful impediment to the marriage. This formed the ground of another serious objection to the measure. (Hear.)


(From the Westmoreland Gazette.) We have, in former Numbers, said, that John Bolton, Esq., of Storrs, was about to erect, at his sole expense, two separate schools in this village for boys and girls, open to the two townships of Applethwaite and Undermillbeck. Mr. Bolton, at present residing in Liverpool, could not, from age, having completed his 80th year, and the very precarious state of his health,

undertake so far a journey to preside over the ceremony, and therefore deputed his longtried and sincere friend, William Wordsworth, Esq., Rydal Mount, to represent and officiate for him ; the arrangements being under the direction of the Rev. R. P. Graves, curate, and the trustees. Mr. Wordsworth was introduced to the meeting by the Rev. R. P. Graves, as the representative of Mr. Bolton; and standing near the place where the corner stone was, he briefly addressed the assembled throng-compressing into a very narrow compass what he had intended to say, had the weather been more propitious. Mr. W. has kindly furnished us with the substance of what he wished to convey to his hearers, as follows :

“Standing here as Mr. Bolton's substitute, at his own request, an honour of which I am truly sensible, it gives me peculiar pleasure to see, in spite of this stormy weather, so numerous a company of his friends and neighbours upon this occasion. How happy would it have made him to have been eyewitness of an assemblage which may fairly be regarded as a proof of the interest felt in his benevolent undertaking, and an earnest that the good work will not be done in vain. Sure I am, also, that there is no one present who does not deeply regret the cause why that excellent man cannot appear among us. The public spirit of Mr. Bolton has ever been remarkable both for its comprehensiveness and the judicious way in which it has been exerted. Many years ago, when we were threatened with foreign invasion, he equipped and headed a body of volunteers, for the defence of our country. Not long since, the inhabitants of Ulverston (his native place, I believe,) were indebted to him for a large contribution towards erecting a church in that town. His recent munificent donations to the public charities of Liverpool are well known; and I only echo the sentiments of this meeting, when I say that every one would have rejoiced to see a gentleman, (who has completed his 80th year,) taking the lead in this day's proceedings, for which there would have been no call but for his desire permanently to benefit a district in which he has so long been a resident proprietor. It may be gathered from old documents, that upwards of two hundred years ago this place was provided with a school, which, early in the reign of Charles II., was endowed by the liberality of certain persons of the neighbourhood. The building, originally small and low, has long been in a state which rendered the erection of a new one very desirable; this Mr. Bolton has undertaken to do at his sole expense. The structure, which is to supersede the old school-house, will have two apartments, airy, spacious and lofty, one for boys, the other for girls, in which they will be instructed by respective teachers, and not crowded together, as in the old school-room, under one and the same person ; each room will be capable of containing at least one hundred children. Within the enclosure there will be spacious and separate play-grounds for the boys and girls, with distinct covered sheds to play in in wet weather. There will also be a libraryroom for the school, and to contain books for the benefit of the neighbourhood; and, in short, every arrangement that could be desired. It may be added, that the building, from the elegance of its architecture, and its elevated conspicuous situation, will prove a striking ornament to the beautiful country in the midst of which it will stand. Such being the advantages proposed, allow me to express a hope that they will be turned to the best possible account. The privilege of the school being free, will not, I trust, tempt parents to withdraw their children from punctual attendance upon slight and trivial occasions; and they will take care, as far as depends upon themselves, that the wishes of the present benefactor may be met, and his intentions fulfilled. Those wishes and intentions I will take upon me to say, are consonant to what has been expressed in the original trust-deed of the pious and sensible men already spoken of, who in that instrument declare that they have provided a fund towards the finding and maintenance of an able schoolmaster, and repairing the school-house, from time to time, for ever; for teaching and instructing of youth within the said hamlets, in grammar, writing, reading, and other good learning and discipline meet and convenient for them; for the honour of God, for the better advancement and preferment of the said youth, and to the perpetual and thankful remembrance of the founders and authors of so good a work. The effect of this beautiful summary upon your minds will not, I hope, be weakened, if I make a brief comment upon the several clauses of it, which will comprise nearly the whole of what I feel prompted to say upon this occasion. I will take the liberty, however, of inverting the order in which the purposes of these good men are mentioned, beginning at what they end with— The perpetual and thankful remembrance of the founders and authors of so good a work.' Do not let it be supposed that your forefathers, when they looked onwards to this issue, did so from vanity and love of applause, uniting with local attachment; they wished their good works to be remembered principally because they were conscious that such remembrance would be beneficial to the hearts of those whom they desired to serve, and would effectually promote the particular good they had in view. Let me add for them, what their modesty and humility would have prevented their insisting upon, that such tribute of grateful recollection was, and is still, their due ; for if gratitude be not the most perfect shape of justice, it is assuredly her most beautiful crown-a halo and glory with which she delights to have her brows encircled. So much of this gratitude as those good men hoped for, I may bespeak for your neighbour, who is now animated by the same spirit, and treading in their steps. The second point to which I shall advert is, that where it is said that such and such things shall be taught for the better advancement and preferment of the said youth.' This purpose is as honourable as it is natural, and recals to remembrance the time when the northern counties had, in this particular, great advantages over the rest of England. By the zealous care of many pious and good men, among whom I cannot but name (from his connection with this neighbourhood, and the benefits he conferred upon it) Archbishop Sandys, free schools were founded in these parts of the kingdom in much greater numbers than elsewhere. The learned professions derived many ornaments from this source; but a more remarkable consequence was that till within the last forty years or so, merchants' counting-houses, and offices, in the lower departments of which a certain degree of scholastic attainment was requisite, were supplied in a great measure from Cumberland and Westmoreland. Numerous and large fortunes were the result of the skill, industry, and integrity, which the young men, thus instructed, carried with them to the metropolis. That superiority no longer exists; not so much, I trust, from a slackening on the part of the teachers, or an indisposition of the inhabitants to profit by their free schools, but because the kingdom at large has become sensible of the advantages of school instruction; and we of the north consequently have competitors from every quarter. Let not this discourage, but rather stimulate us to more strenuous endeavours, so that if we do not keep a-head of the rest of our countrymen, we may at least take care not to be left behind in the race of honourable ambition. But after all, worldly advancement and preferment neither are, nor ought to be, the main end of instruction, either in schools or elsewhere, and particularly in those which are in rural places, and scantily endowed. It is in the order of Providence, as we are all aware, that most men must end their temporal course pretty much as they begin it; nor will the thoughtful repine at this dispensation. In lands where nature in the many is not trampled upon by injustice, feelingly may the peasant say to the courtier

The sun that bids your diamond blaze

To deck our lily deigns. Contentment, according to the common adage, is better than riches, and why is it better? Not merely because there can be no happiness without it, but for the sake, also, of its moral dignity. Mankind, we know, are placed on earth to have their hearts and understandings exercised and improved, some in one sphere and some in another, to undergo various trials, and to perform divers duties; that duty which, in the world's estimation, may seem the least, often being the most important in the eyes of our heavenly Father. Well and wisely has it been said, in words which I need not scruple to quote here, where extreme poverty and abject niisery are unknown

God doth not need
Either man's work or his own gifts; who best
Bear his mild yoke, they serve him best; his state
Is kingly; thousands at his bidding speed
And post o'er land and ocean without rest;

They also serve who only stand and wait.' Thus am I naturally led to the third and last point in the declaration of the ancient trust-deed, which I mean to touch upon :-"Youth shull be instructed in

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