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destroyed had acted wickedly, disregarded oaths and the rights of hospitality, attended to no expostulations, and in the end became necessarily punished. Jupiter sent violent torrents of rain, and the earth, according to Lucian, is said to have opened, in order to let the immense body of water run off. Deucalion, the only righteous man, entered the vessel which he had made, with his wife Pyrrha (or as Lucian describes it, with his wives), and, according to the later form of the legend, took with him the different kinds of animals in pairs; after nine days and nine nights he landed on the summit of Parnassus, which remained uncovered1; whilst the greatest part of Greece was laid under water, so that only a few men who had fled to the highest mountains escaped alive. In the limitation of this flood to Greece2, we recognize a later idea, which was introduced in order to give probability to the narrative. Originally such a limitation does not appear to have formed a part of the legend of the flood, although the Egyptians asserted3 that their country had not been disturbed by the deluge, nor can the etymological myth of creating men from stones (Ovos yóvos, Pindar1) be satis

1 Pausan. x. 6.

2 Compare Aristotel. Meteorol. i. 14.

3 Diodorus Siculus, i. 10.

4 [Pindar's description in the ninth Olympic of the creation of human beings, from stones thrown behind them by Deucalion and Pyrrha, has been thus translated: the idea of such a mode of creation evidently originated in the similarity of the words λâas, a stone, and Xaos, people.

"Man's first abode Deucalion rear'd

When from Parnassus' glittering crown,
With Pyrrha pair'd the Seer came down.
Behind them rose their unborn sons,

The new-named laity of stones.

A homogeneous mortal throng."

Odes of Pindar, translated by Abraham Moore, vol. i. p. 94.]

factorily explained if the original narrative had included the preservation of men with Deucalion.

In Plutarch' there is the mention of the dove, which Deucalion employed to find out if the rain had ceased or the heavens had become clear. The Oriental origin, and the determinate form and progressive influence of other varieties of the same legend, cannot be mistaken, although the original myth itself had been apparently of no very great antiquity, but was raised into a genuine national legend, by the adoption of the names of Epimetheus and Pandora, and by obtaining a locality which can only belong to Greece. According to Hyginus, Deucalion and Pyrrha fled to Etna and Sicily: Lucian describes the Hieropolitans as transferring to their own country the cleft of the earth which received the waters of the flood, while they represented Deucalion as building altars and a temple there in honour of the gods. The Phrygian legend is similar, though we have only faint traces of it. Annakos, the Biblical Enoch, foretells the coming flood; and coins of Apamea2 of the time of Septimius Severus (A.D. 194-211) represent a floating vessel, in which a man and his wife may be discerned; whilst upon the vessel is a bird, and another is flying towards it, holding a twig in its claw. The same couple are seen standing on the dry land, with their right hands uplifted, and upon three specimens of the coin is the name NO. This Phrygian legend must refer in some degree to a flood, and it settled the landingplace of the floating ark to be near Apamea, which bears the name of xißwтós (ark). The close coincidence with the Biblical narrative however, even in the occurrence of the name of Noah (N), excites suspicion, and seems to favour 2 In Eckhel, Doctr. Num. iii. 132, &c.

1 D. Sollert. Anim. § 13.

the presumption that this representation of the coins was derived [from the Hebrew], although the influence of the Jews and Christians at that time is not so well proved as in the case of the American legends of a flood, which clearly coincide with the Scriptural narrative'.

The Chaldæan legend of the flood is more important, and was early cited, both in confirmation of and in opposition to the Biblical narrative2; but we are only acquainted with it at second hand, and the originality of the form in which it has come down to us is little authenticated, although the national elements are not to be mistaken. Syncellus, following Alexander Polyhistor, thus relates this legend:-Kronos (so called according to the Grecian mythology) disclosed to Xisuthrus, the last of ten mythical rulers, that a flood would take place within a short time, and that it would commence on the fifteenth of the month Dæsius. Xisuthrus, at the divine command, buried the records of the primitive world in the city of the Sun, Sippara, and entered into a spacious ship, accompanied by his family and friends, taking with him also quadrupeds and birds and creeping animals, together with a store of provisions, and directing his course towards Armenia. During his voyage he repeatedly sent forth birds, to ascertain in what condition the earth was; upon their return the second time, they were found to have mud upon their feet. On being sent out a third time, the birds returned no more.

Then Xisuthrus left the ship,

1 Compare Clavigero, Geschichte von Mexico (History of Mexico) in Rosenmüller, p. 33, &c.; Von Bohlen Alt. Ind. (Ancient India), i. 217; Pustkuchen, Urgeschichte (Primæval History), i. 272, &c.

2 Compare Josephus, Ant. i. 3, 6; c. Ap. i. 19; Euseb. Pr. Ev. ix. 11, 12; Cyril. c. Julian. i. 14.

3 Chronogr. p. 30.

with his wife, his daughter, and the pilot; but they were suddenly carried up to the abodes of the gods1, as a reward for their piety, and Xisuthrus was only able from the etherial regions to send his orders to those who remained behind, that they should return to Babylon and restore to mankind the treasures buried at Sippara. The vessel is said to have remained for a long time on the Cordyæan mountains of Armenia, ἐν τοῖς Κορδυαίων ὄρεσι τῆς ̓Αρμενίας, and to have furnished a material for amulets of marvellous powers. Lastly, those who had remained with the ship returned to Babylon. The whole of this account belongs originally to Babylonish soil; the individuals who are saved come from Babylon, and return thither; Xisuthrus is a genuine Babylonish person, and the deeper signification of the meaning [of his name] proves the peculiar form in which this legend of the Flood was handed down.

In Hindostan an account of a flood is also given. Brahma appears to the pious Menu (Satya, i. e. the Just,) in the form of a fish on the banks of the river Wîrinî, and at his request is carried by the pious man into the Ganges, where he increases in size continually, and is ultimately transferred into the ocean. Brahma next informs Menu of the coming flood, and enjoins him to build a large ship, and to take with him into it all kinds of seed, together with the seven Rischis, or holy sages. The flood begins, and the whole earth is covered with water. Brahma himself appears in the form of a horned fish, draws the ship for many years, and finally the vessel lands on the highest summit of the Himalayas. There, at the command of God, the ship is made fast, and, in commemoration of 1 Compare Enoch, chap. v.

the event, the summit is named Naubandhana, that is, Ship's-binding. Through the grace of God, Menu, after the flood, creates again the human race in a supernatural manner, [by means of severe penance,] and on account of their descent from Menu men are called Manudsha, that is, Menu-born. Such is the tenour of the Indian legend, as it has been given to the western world by Bopp' in its pure Brahminic form taken from the Mahâbhârata. It had been previously only known in a form which, from the influence of Mahometan and Christian narrators, was more similar to the Bible, but less like the original Hindoo account.

The same fundamental ideas are contained in all these legendary narratives of the flood; in every instance the legend is transplanted by the people who relate it to their own country; Himâlaya, Ararat and Parnassus occupy the same place in one set of myths, as Meru, Albordj and Olympus do in the others; and the Hebrew legend alone removes it entirely from Canaanitish soil, because the Israelites constantly retained the conviction that they had

1 Diluvium: Berlin, 1829.

2 [In Milman's English translation of this Hindoo legend of the Deluge, the expanse of waters during the flood, and the mooring of the vessel at its conclusion to the mountain, are thus described :—

"Earth was seen no more, no region, nor the intermediate space;
All around a waste of water,-water all, and air and sky.
In the whole world of creation, princely son of Bharata!
None was seen but those seven Sages, Manu only and the fish.
Years on years, and still unwearied drew that fish the bark along,
Till at length it came, where lifted Himavan its loftiest peak.
There at length it came, and smiling thus the fish addressed the sage:

To the peak of Himalaya bind thou now the stately ship.'
At the fish's mandate quickly, to the peak of Himavan
Bound the sage his bark, and ever to this day that loftiest peak
Bears the name of Naubandhana, from the binding of the bark."
Milman's Poetical Works, vol. iii. p. 297.

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