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illustrated by the practice with regard to the negro slaves in European colonies, as by any other reference. It is uncertain whether the Chaldeans had any particular ideas concerning the names they gave to their slaves and captives. It might almost seem so, as the names here mentioned nowhere occur as names of native Chaldeans: that given to Daniel, indeed, resembles that of a future king of Babylon (Belshazzar), but is a syllable longer. The Athenians were very particular that their slaves should not bear names accounted dignified or respectable. They commonly gave them short names, seldom of more than two syllables, probably that they might be the more easily and quickly pronounced when called by their masters; and hence, when a slave became free, he changed his name again, taking good care that his new name should be a long one. We see that Daniel continues to call himself by his native name: and it is probable that the Hebrew captives did not, among themselves, acknowledge the names which their masters imposed.



changed: therefore tell me the dream, and

I shall know that ye can shew me the inter1 Nebuchadnezzar, forgetting his dream, requireth

pretation thereof. it of the Chaldeans, by promises and threatenings.

10 The Chaldeans answered before the 10 They acknowledging their inability are judged to die. 14 Daniel obtaining some respite findeth king, and said, There is not a man upon the dream. 19 He blesseth God. 24 He staying the earth that can shew the king's matter: the decree is brought to the king. 31 The dream. therefore there is no king, lord, nor ruler, 36 The interpretation. 46 Daniel's advance

that asked such things at any magician, or ment.

astrologer, or Chaldean. And in the second year of the reign of 11 And it is a rare thing that the king Nebuchadnezzar Nebuchadnezzar dreamed requireth, and there is none other that can dreams, wherewith his spirit was troubled, shew it before the king, except the gods, and his sleep brake from him.

whose dwelling is not with flesh. 2 Then the king commanded to call the 12 For this cause

the king

was angry and magicians, and the astrologers, and the sor- very furious, and commanded to destroy all cerers, and the Chaldeans, for to shew the the wise men of Babylon. king his dreams. So they came and stood 13 And the decree went forth that the before the king.

wise men should be slain; and they sought 3 And the king said unto them, I have Daniel and his fellows to be slain. dreamed a dream, and my spirit was trou- 14 | Then Daniel answered with counsel bled to know the dream.

and wisdom to Arioch the ''captain of the 4 Then spake the Chaldeans to the king king's guard, which was gone forth to slay in Syriack, o king, live for ever : tell thy the wise men of Babylon : servants the dream, and we will shew the 15 He answered and said to Arioch the interpretation.

king's captain, Why is the decree so hasty 5 The king answered and said to the from the king ? Then Arioch made the thing Chaldeans, The thing is gone from me: if known to Daniel. ye will not make known unto me the dream, 16 Then Daniel went'in, and desired of with the interpretation thereof, ye shall be the king that he would give him time, and **cut in pieces, and your houses shall be that he would shew the king the interpretamade a dunghill.

tion. 6 But if ye shew the dream, and the in- 17 Then Daniel went to his house, and terpretation thereof, ye shall receive of me made the thing known to Hananiah, Mishael, gifts and rewards and great honour: there and Azariah, his companions: fore shew me the dream, and the interpreta- 18 That they would desire mercies 'of the tion thereof.

God of heaven concerning this secret; "that 7 They answered again and said, Let the Daniel and his fellows should not perish king tell his servants the dream, and we will with the rest of the wise men of Babylon. shew the interpretation of it.

19 | Then was the secret revealed unto 8 The king answered and said, I know of Daniel in a night vision. Then Daniel certainty that ye would 'gain the time, be- blessed the God of heaven. cause ye see the thing is

from me.

20 Daniel answered and said, "Blessed 9 But if ye will not make known unto me be the name of God for ever and ever : for the dream, there is but one decree for

wisdom and might are his : for ye have prepared lying and corrupt 21 And he changeth the times and the words to speak before me, till the time be seasons; he removeth kings, and setteth 1 Chap. 3. 9. * Chap. 3. 99. 3 Chald, made pieces. • Or, fee, chap. 5.17.


& Chald returned 7 Or, chief marshal. & Chald.chief of the erecutioners, or slaughterman, Chald. from before God.

10 Or, that they should not destroy Daniel, &c.

5 Chald. buy

11 Ps.

2, and 115. 18.

up kings: he giveth wisdom unto the wise, / breast and his arms of silver, his belly and and knowledge to them that know under his 'thighs of brass, standing :

33 His legs of iron, his feet part of iron 22 He revealeth the deep, and secret and part of clay. things : he knoweth what is in the dark- 34 Thou sawest till that a stone was cut ness, and the light dwelleth with him. out without hands, which smote the image

23 I thank thee, and praise thee, O thou upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and God of my fathers, who hast given me wis- brake them to pieces. dom and might, and hast made known unto 35 Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, me now what we desired of thee: for thou the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces hast now made known unto us the king's together, and became like the chaff of the matter.

summer threshing-floors; and the wind car24 Therefore Daniel went in unto ried them away, that no place was found for Arioch, whom the king had ordained to de- them: and the stone that smote the image stroy the wise men of Babylon : he went and became a great mountain, and filled the said thus unto him ; Destroy not the wise whole earth. men of Babylon : Bring me in before the 36 | This is the dream; and we will tell king, and I will shew unto the king the in the interpretation thereof before the king. terpretation.

37 Thou, O king, art a king of kings : 25 Then Arioch brought in Daniel before for the God of heaven hath given thee a the king in haste, and said thus unto him, kingdom, power, and strength, and glory. "I have found a man of the 'captives of

38 And wheresoever the children of men Judah, that will make known unto the king dwell, the beasts of the field and the fowls the interpretation.

of the heaven hath he given into thine hand, 26 The king answered and said to Daniel, and hath made thee ruler over them all. whose name was Belteshazzar, Art thou able Thou art this head of gold. to make known unto me the dream which 39 And after thee shall arise another I have seen, and the interpretation there- kingdom inferior to thee, and another third of ?

kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over 27 Daniel answered in the presence of all the earth. the king, and said, The secret which the 40 And the fourth kingdom shall be king hath demanded cannot the wise men, strong as iron : forasmuch as iron breaketh the astrologers, the magicians, the sooth- in pieces and subdueth all things: and as sayers, shew unto the king;

iron that breaketh all these, shall it break 28 But there is a God in heaven that re- in pieces and bruise. vealeth secrets, and maketh known to the 41 And whereas thou sawest the feet and king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the toes, part of potters' clay, and part of iron, latter days. Thy dream, and the visions of the kingdom shall be divided; but there thy head upon thy bed, are these;

shall be in it of the strength of the iron, for29 As for thee, O king, thy thoughts asmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with came into thy mind upon thy bed, what miry clay. should come to pass hereafter : and he that 42 And as the toes of the feet were part revealeth secrets maketh known to thee of iron, and part of clay, so the kingdom what shall come to pass.

shall be partly strong, and partly broken. 30 But as for me, this secret is not re- 43 And whereas thou sawest iron mixed vealed to me for any wisdom that I have with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves more than any living, but for their sakes with the seed of men: but they shall not that shall make known the interpretation to cleave "one to another, even as iron is not the king, and that thou mightest know the mixed with clay. thoughts of thy heart.

44 And in the days of these kings shall 31 ( Thou, o king, "sawest, and behold the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which a great image. This great image, whose shall never be destroyed: and the kingbrightness was excellent, stood before thee; dom shall not be left to other people, but it and the form thereof was terrible.

shall break in pieces and consume all these 32 This image's head was of fine gold, his kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever. 19 Chald that I have found. 13 Chald. children of the captivity of Judah. 21 Chald. their days. Chap. 4 3,34; and 6. 26; and 7. 14,27. Mich. 47 Luke 1. 33. ** Chald. kingdom thereus,

14 Chald. wast seeing.

14 Chald. hath made known, 18 Or, which was not in hands; as verse 45. 19 Or, brittle.

17 Or, sides.

15 Chald. came up. 20 Chald. this with this.

man, and

45 Forasmuch as thou sawest that the said, Of a truth it is, that your God is a God stone was cut out of the mountain swithout of gods, and a Lord of kings, and a revealer hands, and that it brake in pieces the iron, of secrets, seeing thou couldest reveal this the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold ; secret. the great God hath made known to the king 48 Then the king made Daniel a great what shall come to pass "hereafter: and the


many great gifts, and dream is certain, and the interpretation made him ruler over the whole province of thereof sure.

Babylon, and 26chief of the governors over 46 | Then the king Nebuchadnezzar fell all the wise men of Babylon. upon his face, and worshipped Daniel, and 49 Then Daniel requested of the king, commanded that they should offer an obla- and he set Shadrach, Meshach, and Abedtion and sweet odours unto him.

nego, over the affairs of the province of Baby47 The king answered unto Daniel, and I lon: but Daniel sat in the gate of the king. 24 Or, which was not in hand.

25 Chald. after this. 26 Chap 4. 9. Verse 2. The magicians, and the astrologers, and the sorcerers, and the Chaldeans.”—It is no use to distinguish these various professors of what seems to have formed the boasted learning and science of the Babylonians, and which appears to have consisted in the neglect of really practicable and useful knowledge, for the vain pursuit, and not very humble profession, of that which must ever be unattainable to man, and which would be useless and mischievous could it be attained. The present was made the handmaid of the future: and the abilities which might have profited for the existing time were exhausted in the attempt to unveil the secrets of the time to come. Their boasted cultivation of astronomy was merely an accident resulting from the attempt to read the future in the stars. Astronomy, as it evær has been in the East, was attended to so far, and no farther, than the vain science of astrology made it necessary. The best account we possess of the learning and science of the Chaldeans is that given by Diodorus Siculus (b. i. ch. 3); and although he speaks of it with respect, it is easy enough, from his account, to see its false foundations and delusive character. He mentions the Chaldeans, as so called by the Babylonians themselves, and intimates the distinction by describing them as "the more ancient Babylonians.” They seein, in fact, to have formed the learned caste, vecapying the same station as the priests did in Egypt. They spent all their time in the study of “philosophy," and were especially famous in the art of astrology. They were greatly given to divination, and the foretelling of future events, and employed themselves, either by purifications. sacrifices, or enchantments, in averting evils and in procuring good fortune and success. They were also skilful in the art of divination by the flying of birds, and in the interpretation of dreams and prodigies : and the presages which they derived from the exact and diligent inspection of the entrails of sacrifices, were received as oracles by the people. Diodorus makes some approving observations on their method of study, stating that their knowledge and science were traditionally transmitted from father to son, thus proceeding on long established rules: and he then proceeds to inform us, that the Chaldeans held the world to be eternal, that it had no certain beginning and should have no end. But they all agreed that all things were ordered, and the beautiful fabric of the universe supported by a divine providence; and that the motions of the heavens were not performed by chance, or of their own accord, but by the determinate will and appointment of the gods. Therefore, from long observation of the stars, and an exact knowledge of the motions and influences of every one of them (in which they excelled all other nations), they professed to foretell things that should come to pass. The five planets, the Sun. Mars, Venus, Mercury, and Jupiter, they called “Interpreters," as being principally concerned in making known to man the will of the gods. Future events they held to be foreshown by their rising, their setting, and their colour, presaging hurricanes, tempestuous rains, droughts, the appearance of comets, eclipses, earthquakes, and all other circumstances which were thought to bode good or evil not only to nations in general, but to kings and private persons in particular. The planets also, in their courses through the twelve signs, into which the Chaldeans divided the visible heavens, were held, as by more modern astrologers, to have a great influence, either good or bad, on men's nativities, so that, from a consideration of their several natures, and respective positions, it might be foreknown what should befal people in after life. The following is remarkable:-“ As they foretold things to come to other kings formerly, so they did to Alexander who conquered Darius, and to his successors Antigonus and Seleucus Nicator; and accordingly things fell out as they declared. They also tell private men their fortunes, so certainly, that those who have found the thing true by experience, have esteemed it a miracle, and beyond the art of man to perform.” After giving some account of their asirunomical system, Diodorus adds :-“This we may justly and truly say, that the Chaldeans excel all men in astrology, having studied it more than any other art or science. But the number of years during which the Chaideans allege that their predecessors have been devoted to this study, is incredible: for when Alexander was in Asia, they reckoned up four hundred and seventy thousand years since they first began to observe the motions of the stars.” Cicero also ridicules this pretension. The Chaldeans did, certainly, make and record astronomical observations from very ancient times, since Calisthenes, the philosopher who accompanied Alexander, found at Babylon such observations, extending backwards for 1903 years ; and the above preposterous statement will be within this account, if we understand that the number (as corrected) of 473,040 years was, as Dr. Hales concludes, produced by the multiplication of two factorsthe square of the Chaldean Saros (a period of lunar inequalities), 18 X 18=32+, and the Nabonassarean or Sothiacal period of 1460 years. Whether the statement of the result as "years," arose from a misconception of their stateinent, or from an intention to deceive, is not very clear ; but it does appear that the later Chaldeans were in the habit of turning days into years, to give to themselves an antiquity somewhat more commensurate than the truth could be to their belief that the world had no beginning.

Such were the principles and practices of the men who now appeared before Nebuchadnezzar, and over whom Daniel was ultimately appointed to preside.

,5. “ The dream, with the interpretation thereof."-Dr. Hales observes on this :-“The king's requisition to the wise men of Babylon, to tell him his dream, in the first instance, before they attempted to interpret it, though as they alleged, in excuse for not doing so, unusual and impossible for mere mortals, was yet founded on profound policy. He justly considered their telling the dream itself, as a sure test of the truth of the interpretation afterwards, and which it was not unreasonable to require of them even upon their own principles ; because the same divine power which could com

municate to them the interpretation, as they professed, could also communicate to them the dream itself. He did not forget the dream, as generally imagined, from the expression the thing is gone from me,' and which may rather be rendered, with the Septuagint and Arabic, 'the decree is gone forth from me,' and shall not be reversed; or with the Syriac Fersion, 'the decree which I have pronounced is certan,' or unalterable ; namely, for putting them all to death, it they could not tell the dream. And this surely was a more consistent reason, why the wise men wished to gain time, or suspend the execution of it (verse 8); and why Daniel, who was involved in their danger, complained, “why is the decree so hosty from the king?'” · Analysis,' ii. 456.

31. “ A great image.'—In ancient coins and medals, nothing is more common than to see cities and nations represented by human figures, male or female. According to the ideas which suggested such symbols, a vast image in the human figure was, therefore, a very fit emblem of sovereign power and dominion, while the materials of which it was composed did must significantly typify the character of the various empires, the succession of which was foreshown by this vi-ion. This last idea. of expressing the condition of things by metallic symbols, was prevalent before the time of Daniel. Hesiod, who lived about two centuries before Daniel, characterises the succession of ages (four) by the very same metals—the ages of gold, silver, brass, and iron.

The vision which follows is so clear-as explained by Daniel, and with the illustration derived from his own future visions—that it has been explained with little difference of opinion in essential points, except in that portion which is still consideed to remain to be fulfilled. Daniel himself declares the head of gold to represent the Babylonian empire ; and the other parts, downward, the great empires which should successively arise. The breast and arms of silver, must therefore denote the empire of the Persians: the belly and thighs of brass, the empire of Alexander and his successors : the third kingdom of iron, which broke in pieces and subdued all things, must mean that of the Romans; and the toes, partly iron and partly clay, cannot but denote the several kingdoms, some strong and some weak, which arose upon the ruin of their magnificent empire. The last empire, typified by the stone cut out without hands from the mountain, and breaking in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold — subduing all kingdoms and erduri.ig for ever – is liy the Jews referred to the kingdom of their still expected Messiah. Christians also apply it to the kingdom of Christ, but under various modifications of explanation and hypothesis, which it is not our object to fu luw; there can, however, be no question that this part of the vision can refer to nothing else than to our Saviour's dominion upon earth, whatever form or character that dominion may be considered to bear.

had set up:


down and worship the golden image that

Nebuchadnezzar the king hath set up: | Nebuchadnezzar dedicateth a golden image in

6 And whoso falleth not down and worDura. 8 Shudrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego are accused for not worshipping the image. 13

shippeth shall the same hour be cast into They, being threatened, make a good confession. the midst of a burning fiery furnace. 19 God delivereth them out of the furnace. 26 7 Therefore at that time, when all the Nebuchadnezzar, seeing the miracle, blesseth God.

people heard the sound of the cornet, fute, NEBUCHADNEZzAr the king made an image harp, sackbut, psaltery, and all kinds of muof gold, whose height was threescore cubits, sick, all the people, the nations, and the and the breadth thereof six cubits: he set it languages, fell down and worshipped the up in the plain of Dura, in the province of golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king Babylon.

2 Then Nebuchadnezzar the king sent to 8 Wherefore at that time certain gather together the princes, the governors, Chaldeans came near, and accused the and the captains, the judges, the treasurers, Jews. the counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the 9 They spake and said to the king Neburulers of the provinces, to come to the dedi- chadnezzar, o king, live for ever. cation of the image which Nebuchadnezzar 10 Thou, O king, hast made a decree, the king had set up.

that every man that shall hear the sound of 3 Then the princes, the governors, and the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and captains, the judges, the treasurers, the dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, shall fall counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of down and worship the golden image: the provinces, were gathered together unto 11 And whoso falleth not down and worthe dedication of the image that Nebuchad: shippeth, that he should be cast into the nezzar the king had set up; and they stood midst of a burning fiery furnace. before the image that Nebuchadnezzar had 12 There are certain Jews whom thou

hast set over the affairs of the province of 4 Then an herald cried 'aloud, To you ’it Babylon, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abedis commanded, 0 people, nations, and lan- nego; these men, O king, 'have not regarded guages,

thee: they serve not thy gods, nor worship 5 That at what time ye hear the sound of the golden image which thou hast set up. the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, 13 9 Then Nebuchadnezzar in his rage dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, ye fall and fury commanded to bring Shadrach, Chald. with might

• Or, singing.
* Chald. symphony. > Chald. have sel no regard upon thee.


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set up:


* Chald, they command.


2 F


O king:

Meshach, and Abed-nego. Then they

23 And these three men, Shadrach, Mebrought these men before the king.

shach, and Abed-nego, fell down bound 14 Nebuchadnezzar spake and said unto into the midst of the burning fiery furthem, Is it true, O Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, do not ye serve my gods, nor

24 Then Nebuchadnezzar the king was worship the golden image which I have set astonied, and rose up in haste, and spake, up?

and said unto his counsellors, Did not we 15 Now if ye be ready that at what time cast three men bound into the midst of the ye hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, fire? They answered and said unto the king, sackbut, psaltery, and dulcimer, and all kinds True, O king. of musick, ye fall down and worship the 25 He answered and said, Lo, I see four image which I have made; well: but if ye men loose, walking in the midst of the fire, worship not, ye shall be cast the same hour and they have no hurt; and the form of into the midst of a burning fiery furnace; the fourth is like the Son of God. and who is that God that shall deliver


26 | Then Nebuchadnezzar came near out of my hands?

to the mouth of the burning fiery furnace, 16 Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed nego, and spake, and said, Shadrach, Meshach, answered and said to the king, O Nebuchad- and Abed-nego, ye servants of the most nezzar, we are not careful to answer thee in high God, come forth, and come hither. this matter.

Then Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, 17 If it be so, our God whom we serve is came forth of the midst of the fire. able to deliver us from the burning fiery fur- 27 And the princes, governors, and capnace, and he will deliver us out of thine hand, tains, and the king's counsellors, being ga

thered together, saw these men, upon whose 18 But if not, be it known unto thee, O bodies the fire had no power, nor was an king, that we will not serve thy gods, nor hair of their head singed, neither were their worship the golden image which thou hast coats changed, nor the smell of fire had

passed on them. 199 Then was Nebuchadnezzar "full of 28 Then Nebuchadnezzar spake, and said, fury, and the form of his visage was changed Blessed be the God of Shadrach, Meshach, against Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego: and Abed-nego, who hath sent his angel, therefore he spake, and commanded that they and delivered his servants that trusted in should heat the furnace one seven times him, and have changed the king's word, and more than it was wont to be heated. yielded their bodies, that they might not

20 And he commanded the most mighty serve nor worship any god, except their own men that were in his


to bind Shadrach, God. Meshach, and Abed-nego, and to cast them 29 Therefore I make a decree, That into the burning fiery furnace.

every people, nation, and language, which 21 Then these men were bound in their speak any thing amiss against the God of 'coats, their hosen, and their hats, and their Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, shall other garments, and were cast into the midst be 18 1'cut in pieces, and their houses shall of the burning fiery furnace.

be made a dunghill: because there is no 22 Therefore because the king's "com- other God that can deliver after this mandment was urgent, and the furnace ex- sort. ceeding hot, the flame of the fire slew those 30 Then the king promoted Shadrach, men that took up Shadrach, Meshach, and / Meshach, and Abed-nego, in the province

set up:


of Babylon. "Or, of purpose, as Exod. 21. 13. 7 Chalil. filled. & Chald. mighly of strength.

18 Chap 2. 5. 19 Chald. made pieces. 20 Chald. made to prosper. Verse 1. " An image of gold.'-- Dr. Hales suggests that this image of gold may have been made and erected by the haughty and arrogant conqueror in opposition to his dream, and the foregoing interpretation thereof. “The whole imnge, and not the head only, was made of gold, to denote the continuance of his empire, and it was consecrated to his tutelary god Bel, or Belus (verse 14; ch. iv. 18), whose power he now considered superior to that of the God of the Jews, revoking his former confession.”. Some think that the image was intended as a statue of Nabopolassar, the father of Nebuchadnezzar, and whom he proposed to rank among the gods; and others imagine that the image represented Nebuchadnezzar himself, who intended to be adored under this form. But the opinion that it was consecrated to the great Babylonian god Bel, or Baal, is the most probable and best supported. The dimensions given, sixty cubits high by six in breadth, would be quite disproportionate if understood of the figure alone, and we are therefore

16'Or, spark.

Or, mantles. 20 Or, turbans. 11 Chald. word. 15 Chald. door 16 Chald. a decree is made by me.

14 Chald. there is no hurt in thein.

13 Or, gorernors.

17 Chald. error.

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