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go every one into his own country: for her in pieces old and young; and with thee will judgment reacheth unto heaven, and is lifted I break in pieces the young man and the up even to the skies.
maid ; 10 The LORD hath brought forth our 23 I will also break in pieces with thee righteousness: come, and let us declare in the shepherd and his flock; and with thee Zion the work of the Lord our God. will I break in pieces the husbandman and
11 Make bright the arrows; gather the his yoke of oxen; and with thee will I break shields: the Lord hath raised up the spirit in pieces captains and rulers. of the kings of the Medes: for his device is 24 And I will render unto Babylon and against Babylon, to destroy it; because it to all the inhabitants of Chaldea all their is the vengeance of the Lord, the vengeance evil that they have done in Zion in your of his temple.
sight, saith the LORD. 12 Set up the standard upon the walls of 25 Behold, I am against thee, O destroyBabylon, make the watch strong, set up the ing mountain, saith the Lord, which dewatchmen, prepare the 'ambushes : for the stroyest all the earth: and I will stretch out Lord hath both devised and done that mine hand upon thee, and roll thee down which he spake against the inhabitants of from the rocks, and will make thee a burnt Babylon.
mountain. 13 O thou that dwellest upon many wa- 26 And they shall not take of thee a stone ters, abundant in treasures, thine end is for a corner, nor a stone for foundations; come, and the measure of thy covetousness. but thou shalt be 'sdesolate for ever, saith
14 The Lord of hosts hath sworn 'by the Lord. himself, saying, Surely I will fill thee with 27 Set ye up a standard in the land, blow men, as with caterpillers; and they shall the trumpet among the nations, prepare the elift up a shout against thee.
nations against her, call together against 15 'He hath made the earth by his power, her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and he hath established the world by his wis- Ashchenaz; appoint a captain against her; dom, and hath stretched out the heaven by cause the horses to come up as the rough his understanding.
caterpillers. 16 When he uttereth his voice, there is 28 Prepare against her the nations with a multitude of waters in the heavens; and the kings of the Medes, the captains thereof, he causeth the vapours to ascend from the and all the rulers thereof, and all the land ends of the earth: he maketh lightnings of his dominion. with rain, and bringeth forth the wind out 29 And the land shall tremble and sorof his treasures.
row: for every purpose of the Lord shall 17 "Every man 'is brutish by his know- be performed against Babylon, to make the ledge; every founder is confounded by the land of Babylon a desolation without an graven image: for his molten image is false inhabitant. hood, and there is no breath in them.
30 The mighty men of Babylon have for18 They are vanity, the work of errors : born to fight, they have remained in their in the time of their visitation they shall pe holds: their might hath failed; they became rish.
as women: they have burned her dwelling 19 "The portion of Jacob is not like them; places ; her bars are broken. for he is the former of all things : and Israel 31 One post shall run to meet another, is the rod of his inheritance: the Lord of and one messenger to meet another, to shew hosts is his name.
the king of Babylon that his city is taken at 20 Thou art my battle ax and weapons
one end, of war: for "with thee will I break in pieces 32 And that the passages are stopped, the nations, and with thee will I destroy and the reeds they have burned with fire, kingdoms;
and the men of war are affrighted. 21 And with thee will I break in pieces 33 For thus saith the Lord of hosts, the the horse and his rider; and with thee will God of Israel; The daughter of Babylon is I break in pieces the chariot and his rider; like a threshingfloor, "iť is time to thresh
22 With thee also will I break in pieces her: yet a little while, and the time of her man and woman; and with thee will I break i harvest shall come.
7 Heb. by his soul.
Gen. 1. 1,6. Chap. 10. 19, &c.
10 Or, noise. 19 Or, is mure brutish than to know. 13 Chap 10. 16. 1+ Or, in thee, or, by thee. 15 Heb, everlasting desolations,
16 Or, in the time that he thresheth her.
4 Heb pure.
6 Amos 6.8.
8 Heb. utter.
5 Heb. liers in wait. 11 Chap. 10. 14.
34 Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon confounded, and all her slain shall fall in m. hath devoured me, he hath crushed me, he the midst of her.
hath made me an empty vessel, he hath 48 Then the heaven and the earth, and is swallowed me up like a dragon, he hath all that is therein, shall sing for Babylon : e filled his belly with my delicates, he hath for the spoilers shall come unto her from cast me out.
the north, saith the Lord. 35 '?The violence done to me and to my 49 **As Babylon hath cuused the slain of flesh be upon Babylon, shall the "inha Israel to fall, so at Babylon shall fall the bitant of Zion say; and my blood upon the slain of all "the earth. inhabitants of Chaldea, shall Jerusalem 50 Ye that have escaped the sword, go say.
away, stand not still: remember the LORD 36 Therefore thus saith the LORD; Be- afar off, and let Jerusalem come into your hold, I will plead thy cause, and take ven- mind. geance for thee; and I will dry up her sea, 51 We are confounded, because we have and make her springs dry.
heard reproach: shame hath covered our 37 And Babylon shall become heaps, a faces : for strangers are come into the sancde dwellingplace for dragons, an astonishment, tuaries of the Lord's house. and an hissing, without an inhabitant.
52 Wherefore, behold, the days come, 38 They shall roar together like lions : saith the Lord, that I will do judgment the one they shall "yell as lions' whelps.
upon her graven images: and through all 39 In their heat I will make their feasts, her land the wounded shall groan. and I will make them drunken, that they 53 Though Babylon should mount up to may rejoice, and sleep a perpetual sleep, heaven, and though she should fortify the and not wake, saith the LORD.
height of her strength, yet from me 'shall 40 I will bring them down like lambs to spoilers come unto her, saith the Lord. the slaughter, like rams with he goats. 54 A sound of a cry cometh from Babylon,
41 How is Sheshach taken! and how is and great destruction from the land of the the praise of the whole earth surprised ! | Chaldeans : how is Babylon become an astonishment 55 Because the LORD hath spoiled Babyamong the nations !
lon, and destroyed out of her the great 42 The sea is come up upon Babylon : voice; when her waves do roar like great she is covered with the multitude of the waters, a noise of their voice is uttered: waves thereof.
56 Because the spoiler is come upon her, 43 Her cities are a desolation, a dry land, even upon Babylon, and her mighty men and a wilderness, a land wherein no man are taken, every one of their bows is broken: dwelleth, neither doth any son of man pass for the Lord God of recompences shall thereby.
surely requite. 44 And I will punish Bel in Babylon, 57 And I will make drunk her princes, and I will bring forth out of his mouth that and her wise men, her captains, and her which he hath swallowed up: and the rulers, and her mighty men : and they shall nations shall not flow together any more sleep a perpetual sleep, and not wake, saith unto him: yea, the wall of Babylon shall the king, whose name is the LORD of fall.
hosts. 45 My people, go ye out of the midst of 58 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; "The her, and deliver ye every man his soul from broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly the fierce anger of the Lord.
25broken, and her high gates shall be burned 46 And lest your heart faint, and ye fear with fire; and the people shall labour in for the rumour that shall be heard in the vain, and the folk in the fire, and they shall land; a rumour shall both come one year,
be weary: and after that in another year shall come a
59 The word which Jeremiah the prorumour, and violence in the land, ruler phet commanded Seraiah the son of Neriah, against ruler.
the son of Maaseiah, when he went with 47. Therefore, behold, the days come, that Zedekiah the king of Judah into Babylon I will do judgment upon the graven images in the fourth year of his reign. And this of Babylon: and her whole land shall be Seraiah was a quiet prince.
17 Heb. my violence.
81 Heb. visit upon.
** Or, The walls of brvad Babylon. * 48 Or, on the behalf of. 87 Or, prince of Menucha, or, chief chamberlain.
19 Heb, inhabitress.
20 Or, shake themselves. 93 Or, the country.
• Or, inde naked.
60 So Jeremiah wrote in a book all the nor beast, but that it shall be es desclate for evil that should come upon Babylon, even ever. all these words that are written against Ba- 63 And it shall be, when thou hast made bylon.
an end of reading this book, that thou shalt 61 And Jeremiah said to Seraiah, When bind a stone to it, and cast it into the midst thou comest to Babylon, and shalt see, and of Euphrates : shalt read all these words;
64 And thou shalt say, Thus shall Baby62 Then shalt thou say, O Lord, thou | lon sink, and shall not rise from the evil that hast spoken against this place, to cut it off, I will bring upon her : and they shall be that none shall remain in it, neither man weary. Thus far are the words of Jeremiah.
28 Heb. desolations.
BABYLON.—THE MUJELIBE, WITH AN ENCAMPMENT OF PASSING ARABS IN THB FORKGROUND.
From a Drawing made on the spot, by J. B. Fraser, Esq.
Verse 13. “ Thou that dwellest upon many waters.”—The great river Euphrates, the neighbouring lakes and marshes, with the numerous canals of communication and irrigation, give a striking propriety to this allusion to its “many waters."
25. “ Make thee a burnt mountain.”— See the conclusion of the statement concerning the Mujelibe, under Gen. xi.
30. “ The mighly men of Babylon have forborn to fight,” &c.—When the king of Babylon heard of the approach of the army of Cyrus, he marched out to meet and give him battle ; but was defeated with little difficulty, and retreated to Babylon. From that time the Babylonians " forbore to fight," and remained in their strong city during the two years in which it was besieged by the Persians. Relying upon the high and thick walls, and having stored up provisions for many years, besides what might be produced within the walls of the town itself, they seem to have waited the result with little apprehension.
** They have burned her dwelling places.”—In the short speech which Cyrus is reported by Xenophon to have addressed to his troops before they entered the bed of the Euphrates, he alludes to their principal danger, which appears to have been regarded with apprehension, of being assaulted by missiles from the house-tops as they passed through the streets. He said, that if the inhabitants retired to the house-tops, the best course would be to assail their doors by setting them on fire. He observed that the porches were very combustible, being made of palm-wood and coated with bitumen; and as the army was supplied with torches and tow in abundance, it would be easy to set the houses in flames; so that the inhabitants must either run from them or be consumed in them. This plan was probably carried into effect, and to this the prophet doubtless refers.
31. “ One post shall run to meet another ... to shew the king of Babylon that his city is taken at one end.”—“From end to end,” is Blayney's translation. The prediction clearly means that couriers should run from different parts, and so fall in with one another, all of them bringing intelligence to the king, that the city was taken at the point from which they started. This is to be explained by a reference to the vast extent of the city, which Herodotus (who was a great traveller) says exceeded that of any city he had ever seen (Clio 180). In another place (191) he states that he was informed by some of the inhabitants, that, owing to the great extent of Babylou, those who dwelt in the outskirts were taken prisoners by the Persians, before the people in the centre of the town knew that the place was taken.
36. “ I will dry up her sea.”—The Euphrates must be meant by “the sea,” that title being frequently applied in Seridture to large rivers, such as the Nile and Euphrates. We are doubtless to understand this as one of several allusione to the remarkable stratagem by which the city was at last taken by the Persians, after they had vainly wasted two years in the siege. To understand this, however, it should be premised that the Euphrates ran through the middle of the city, and that not only was the city walled all round towards the open country, but also along each side of the river. Cyrus was informed that a great annual festival was to be kept in the town, when the inhabitants were accustomed to spend the night in all manner of debauchery and drunkenness (see verses 39, 57, and ch. l. 24), and he thought this a favourable opportunity to surprise them. He therefore made a distribution of the whole army, placing one part above the city where the river entered, and another below, where it came forth; giving directions that, as soon as the river should appear fordable, they were to enter its bed at both ends. Towards evening he opened the great dam of the trenches communicating with the lake, by which means the stream was diverted from its proper course, and the channel soon became fordable. The Persians then entered by the bed of the river, the water being little more than knee-deep, and took the city by surprise. This is the account of Herodotus (Clio 191): that of Xenophon (Cyrop. vii. 5) is somewhat different, but agrees in every essential point. Herodotus adds, that if the Babylonians had been before apprised of the intention of Cyrus, or if they had learned at the moment what he was doing, they might not only have saved themselves, but might have made the stratagem of the Persians recoil upon their own heads; for had they closed the gates towards the river, and ascended the walls which ran along it, the besiegers would have been taken as in a net. But the Persians came upon them quite unexpectedly, and from a quarter whence no danger was apprehended. All this was as the prophets had foretold long before Cyrus was born. They had said that the city should be taken tinexpectedly, on a night of festivity; that the inhabitants should be then drunk or asleep (verse 57); that the gates should not be shut (Isa. xlv. I); and that at the same time the stream of the great river should be exhausted How convincing is all this! Many other most exact agreements might be pointed out; but as our limits do not permit this, we may recommend it to our readers, as a most interesting study, to compare the details of the prophecies concerning the taking of Babylon with the narratives of the event which are given by Xenophon and Herodotus.
39. “ Drunken," &c.—We have just explained that there was a festival on the night when the city was taken. The speech of Cyrus shows that his anticipations corresponded with the prophetic predictions. He reminded his soldiers that the people against whom they now acted were the same whom they had formerly defeated, when they were sober, armed, and in battle array ; and how much more easy a victory might now be expected, at a time when many of them were asleep, many drunk, and all in confusion.
42. * The sra is come," &c.-We are again to understand the Euphrates. This is true now, as we have shown in the note on Isa. xiv. 23. In connection with this subject, our present representation of the Birs Nemroud will be considered of peculiar interest, as it shows how the river comes up on Babylon, and overflows it so extensively as to form large pools of water" even around that distant heap of ruin.
6 And in the fourth month, in the ninth i Zedekiah rebelleth. 4 Jerusalem is besieged and day of the month, the famine was sore in taken. 8 Zedekiah's sons killed, and his own eyes
the city, so that there was no bread for the put out.
12 Nebuzar-adan burneth and spoileth people of the land. the city. 24 He carrieth away the captives. 32 7 Then the city was broken up, and all Evil merodach advanceth Jehoiuchin.
the men of war fled, and went forth out of Zedekiah was 'one and twenty years old the city by night by the way of the gate when "he began to reign, and he reigned between the two walls, which was by the eleven years in Jerusalem. And his mo king's garden; (now the Chaldeans were by ther's name was Hamutal the daughter of the city round about:) and they went by the Jeremiah of Libnah.
way of the plain. 2 And he did that which was evil in the 8. But the army of the Chaldeans pureyes of the LORD, according to all that Je. sued after the king, and overtook Zedekiah hoiakim had done.
in the plains of Jericho; and all his army 3 For through the anger of the Lord it was scattered from him. came to pass in Jerusalemn and Judah, till he 9 Then they took the king, and carried had cast them out from his presence, that Ze- him up unto the king of Babylon to Riblah dekiah rebelled against the king of Babylon. in the land of Hamath; where he gave judg.
4 And it came to pass in the 'ninth ment upon him. year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the
10 And the king of Babylon slew the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadrez- sons of Zedekiah before his eyes: he slew zar king of Babylon came, he and all his also all the princes of Judah in Riblah. army, against Jerusalem, and pitched against 11 Then he put out the eyes of Zedeit, and built forts against it round about. kiah; and the king of Babylon bound him
5 So the city was besieged unto the ele- in 'chains, and carried him to Babylon, and venth year of king Zedekiah.
put him in prison till the day of his death. 12 Kings 24. 18. 2 Heb. reigned. 82 Kings 35. 1. Chap. 39. 1. * Heb. blinded. > Or, setters. 6 Heb. house of the wards, VOL. III.
12 Now in the fifth month, in the tenth 23 And there were ninety and six pomeday of the month, which was the nineteenth granates on a side; and all the pomegrayear of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, nates upon the network were an hundred came Nebuzar-adan, *'captain of the guard, round about. which 'served the king of Babylon, into Je- 24 | And the captain of the guard took rusalem,
Seraiah the chief priest, and Zephaniah the 13 And burned the house of the LORD, second priest, and the three keepers of the and the king's house; and all the houses of 'door. Jerusalem, and all the houses of the great 25 He took also out of the city an eunuch, men, burned he with fire:
which had the charge of the men of war; 14 And all the army of the Chaldeans, and seven men of them that were near the that were with the captain of the guard, king's person, which were found in the city; brake down all the walls of Jerusalem round and the principal scribe of the host, who about.
mustered the people of the land; and three15 Then Nebuzar-adan the captain of score men of the people of the land, that the guard carried away captive certain of were found in the midst of the city. the poor of the people, and the residue of 26 So Nebuzar-adan the captain of the the people that remained in the city, and guard took them, and brought them to the those that fell away, that fell to the king of king of Babylon to Riblah. Babylon, and the rest of the multitude. 27 And the king of Babylon smote them,
16 But Nebuzar-adan the captain of the and put them to death in Riblah in the guard left certain of the poor of the land land of Hamath. Thus Judah was carried for vinedressers and for husbandmen. away captive out of his own land.
17 Also the 'pillars of brass that were in 28 This is the people whom Nebuchadthe house of the LORD, and the bases, and rezzar carried away captive: in the seventh the brasen sea that was in the house of the year three thousand Jews and three and LORD, the Chaldeans brake, and carried all twenty: the brass of them to Babylon.
29 In the eighteenth year of Nebuchad18 The caldrons also, and the ''shovels, rezzar he carried away captive from Jerusaand the snuffers, and the bowls, and the lem eight hundred thirty and two persons : spoons, and all the vessels of brass where- 30 In the three and twentieth year of with they ministered, took they away. Nebuchadrezzar Nebuzar-adan the captain
19 And the basons, and the firepans, of the guard carried away captive of the and the bowls, and the caldrons, and the Jews seven hundred forty and five persons : candlesticks, and the spoons, and the cups; all the persons were four thousand and six that which was of gold in gold, and that hundred. which was of silver in silver, took the cap- 31 | And it came to pass in the seven tain of the guard away.
and thirtieth year of the captivity of Je20 The two pillars, one sea, and twelve hoiachin king of Judah, in the twelfth brasen bulls that were under the bases, month, in the five and twentieth day of the which king Solomon had made in the house month, that Evil-merodach king of Babylon of the LORD: "'the brass of all these vessels in the first year of his reign lifted up the was without weight.
head of Jehoiachin king of Judah, and 21 And concerning the ''pillars, the height brought him forth out of prison, of one pillar was eighteen cubits; and a 32 And spake kindly unto him, and set 1ofillet of twelve cubits did compass it; and his throne above the throne of the kings the thickness thereof was four fingers: it that were with him in Babylon, was hollow.
33 And changed his prison garments : 22 And a chapiter of brass was upon it; and he did continually eat bread before him and the height of one chapiter was five cu- all the days of his life. bits, with network and pomegranates upon 34 And for his diet, there was a continual the chapiters round about, all of brass. Î'he diet given him of the king of Babylon, second pillar also and the pomegranates every day a portion until the day of his were like unto these.
death, all the days of his life. 7 Or, chief marshall. 8 Heb. chief of the executioners, or slaughtermen. And so vers. 14, &c.
10 Chap 21. 19. 15 1 Kings 7. 15. 2 Kings 23. 17. : Chron. 3. 15.
18 Heb. saw the face of the king. 19 Or, scribe of the captain of the host, 20 Heb. souls, 21 Heb. good ilungs with him, 2 Heb. the matter of the day in his day.
11 Or,instruments to remove the ashes. 12 Or, basins.
16 Heb. thread.
9 Heb. stood before. 13 Or, censets.
14 Heb, their brass. 17 Heb, threshold.