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4 And Jesus answered him, saying, It is 12 And Jesus answering said unto him, It is written, That man shall not live by bread said, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. alone, but by every word of God.
13 And when the devil had ended all the 5 And the devil, taking him up into an temptation, he departed from him for a high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 14 | And Jesus returned in the power of
6 And the devil said unto him, All this the Spirit into Galilee: and there went out power will I give thee, and the glory of them : a fame of him through all the region round for that is delivered unto me; and to whom-about. soever I will I give it.
15 And he taught in their synagogues, 7 If thou therefore wilt 'worship me, all being glorified of all. shall be thine.
16 | And he came to 'Nazareth, where 8 And Jesus answered and said unto him, he had been brought up: and, as his custom Get thee behind me, Satan: for it is written, was, he went into the synagogue on the Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and sabbath day, and stood up for to read. him only shalt thou serve.
17 And there was delivered unto him the 9 And he brought him to Jerusalem, and book of the prophet Esaias. And when he set him on a pinnacle of the temple, and had opened the book, he found the place said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, where it was written, cast thyself down from hence:
18 “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, 10 For it is written, He shall give his because he hath anointed me to preach the angels charge over thee, to keep thee: Gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal
11 And in their hands they shall bear the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot the captives, and recovering of sight to the against a stone.
blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, 90r, fall down before me. Matt. 13.54.
19 To preach the acceptable year of the 33 | And in the synagogue there was a Lord.
man, which had a spirit of an unclean devil, 20 And he closed the book, and he gave and cried out with a loud voice, it again to the minister, and sat down. And 34 Saying, "Let us alone; what have we the
eyes of all them that were in the syna- to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth ? art gogue were fastened on him.
thou come to destroy us? I know thee who 21 And he began to say unto them. This thou art; the Holy One of God. day is this Scripture fulfilled in your ears. 35 And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold
22 And all bare him witness, and won- thy peace, and come out of him. And when dered at the gracious words which proceeded the devil had thrown him in the midst, he out of his mouth. And they said, Is not came out of him, and hurt him not. this Joseph's son?
36 And they were all amazed, and spake 23 And he said unto them, Ye will surely among themselves, saying, What a word is say unto me this proverb, Physician, heal this ! for with authority and power he comthyself: whatsoever we have heard done in mandeth the unclean spirits, and they come Capernaum, do also here in thy country. out. 24 And he said, Verily I say unto you,
37 And the fame of him went out into No 'prophet is accepted in his own country. every place of the country round about.
25 But I tell you of a truth, 'many wi- 38 9 "And he arose out of the synagogue, dows were in Israel in the cays of Élias, and entered into Simon's house. And Siwhen the heaven was shut up three years mon's wife's mother was taken with a great and six months, when great famine was fever; and they besought him for her. throughout all the land;
39 And he stood over her, and rebuked 26 But unto none of them was Elias sent, the fever; and it left her: and immediately save unto Sarepta, a city of Sidon, unto a she arose and ministered unto them. woman that was a widow.
40 Now when the sun was setting, all 27 'And many lepers were in Israel in they that had any sick with divers diseases the time of Eliseus the prophet; and none brought them unto him; and he laid his of them was cleansed, saving Naaman the hands on every one of them, and healed Syrian.
them. 28 And all they in the synagogue, when 41 13 And devils also came out of many, they heard these things, were filled with crying out, and saying, Thou art Christ the wrath,
Son of God. And he rebuking them suf29 And rose up, and thrust him out of the fered them not 'to speak: for they kn w city, and led him unto the brow of the hill that he was Christ. whereon their city was built, that they might 42 And when it was day, he departed and cast him down headlong.
went into a desert place: and the people 30 But he passing through the midst of sought him, and came unto him, and stayed them went his way,
him, that he should not depart from them. 31 And came down to Capernaum, a city 43 And he said unto them, I must preach of Galilee, and taught them on the sabbath the kingdom of God to other cities also: for days.
therefore am I sent. 32 And they were astonished at his doc- 44 And he preached in the synagogues trine: 'for his word was with power.
9 Matt. 7. 29. 10 Mark 1. 23. 1* Or, to say that they knew him to be Christ.
il Or, Away.
verse 16." He went into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood up for to read.” &c. It may occur to some readers to ask, how it was that Jesus, although not of the tribe of Levi, was allowed to read and expound the Scripture in the synagogues? There was an officer of the synagogue, whose duty it was to superintend its services, to offer up the public prayers, and to preach when there was no one else to perform that office. It was not his proper duty to read the Scriptures; but the members of the synagogue being for the most part known to him, he called out those whom he knew to be properly qualified, and desired them to read. He called seven persons in succession-first a priest, then a Levite, and then five Israelites of any tribe or station. And the readings for the day being subdivided into seven sections, one was read by each person. Those who wished to read might offer themselves without being called ; but they could not read till the presidiug officer had signified his approbation. As Jesus was a member of the synagogue at Nazareth, he was perhaps called out to read on this occasion, or he may possibly have offered himself without being asked. Permission to read or preach was, in general, readily granted to qualified persons, and particularly to prophets, workers of miracles, and to such as appeared in the character of heads or leading persons of new sects probably that the audience might be fairly informed of their principles, and not condemn them unheard and unknown. İn the present case, the townspeople of Jesus had heard of his miracles at Capernaum, which might make them partcularly anxious to hear what he would say, and explains the fixed attention with which they prepared to listen to him. The Scripture was read standing-the readed might not even lean: but an exception was made for the vook of Esther, the reader of which might sit if he pleased.
17. “ There was delivered unto him the book of the prophet Esaias.”—Why this book in particular? Because there was an appointed portion of the Law, and another from the Prophets or other sacred writings, for every sabbath of the year; and it appears that the readings could be from no other portion than those thus settled. Originally the Law only was read, its five books being divided into as many sections (called Paraschioth) as there were sabbaths in the year. But the reading of the Law having been forbidden by Antiochus Epiphanes (163 B.c.), the Jews selected from the prophets and other sacred books, an equal number of sections which they read on the sabbaths instead of the former, and which were called Haphtoroth. When they afterwards recovered their liberty, they resumed the reading of the Law; but instead of discontinuing the sections from the Prophets and the Hagiographa, they thenceforth read them as an additional service. Both services were read in the original Hebrew, and were interpreted to the people by a proper officer in the language which had become vernacular. The reader spoke in a very low tone to the interpreter, who stood by his side and pronounced aloud in Chaldee that which had thus been communicated to himn. The ensuing discourse or exposition, if there were any, was of course delivered in the vernacular tongue. The Law was read first, and with much more strict adherence to rule and regularity, than was required in the reading of the prophets, in which considerable latitude was allowed to the reader, provided he confined himself to the portion allotted to the day. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that our Lord read from the lesson of the day, under the arrangement stated in the preceding note. The roll delivered to Jesus probably contained only the book of Isaiah, which he may be supposed to have unrolled till he came to the section for the day. On this subject there does not seem to have been any certain rule: sometimes the Law, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa, formed three separate rolls or volumes, while at others one large book, or several small ones put together, formed a distinct roll.
20. “ The minister.”—This minister or servant of the synagogue, appears to be the same whom the Jewish writers call the Chazan (1177). The duties are not clearly defined: but he appears to have been an inferior officer, who had no duties of reading or instruction to perform, but who attended to what may be called the keeping of the synagogue. One of his functions was to take charge of the sacred books—to produce them from the chest, deliver them to the reader, and to receive them back again.
“ Sat down."— It was the custom in the synagogues, for a person who undertook to expound or teach, to sit down when he had finished reading, and commence his address to the congregation. Indeed it was customary for all teachers, in all places, to deliver their instructions in a sitting posture.
31. “ Capernaum.”—This town, so honoured by becoming the temporary residence of our Lord after his expulsion from Nazareth, is not mentioned in the Old Testament, and was therefore probably one of those built by the Jews subsequent to their return from Babylon. Its destruction was foretold by Jesus (x. 15); and this has been so thoroughly fulfilled, that even its site cannot now with any certainty be determined. It was certainly situated near the lake of Tiberias, and probably, as Reland and others conjecture, on its north-western shore. On this part of the coast, at a place called Tel-hoom (Telhoue of Pococke, and Tal-hhewm of Buckingham), occur some considerable ruins, which are supposed by Burckhardt and Buckingham to mark the site of Capernaum; for which the evidence, certainly not conclusive, appears to be, that Capernaum is probably to be sought in this quarter, and that the termination of its name (Capharnaoom) has some resemblance to that of Tel-hoom.
These ruins extend considerably along the northern end of the lake, more than ten miles N.N.E. of Tiberias, near a rivulet called El Eshe. Though now only a station of Bedouins, there are evident marks that the place was once a considerable settlement, as ruined buildings, hewn stones, broken pottery, &c. are scattered around, in all directions, over a wide extent of ground. Among these, the foundations of a large and magnificent edifice are still to be traced, although there remains not sufficient of the building itself to decide whether it was a temple or a palace. There are about twenty pedestals of columns within the area of this edifice, besides many others overturned and removed. All the capitals are of the Corinthian order and of large size. The whole has the appearance of great antiquity, both from its outward appearance and almost complete destruction ; but the style of the architecture is evidently Roman. The blocks of this great edifice are extremely large, and these, as well as the materials of the smaller buildings, and the fragments scattered around in every direction, are chiefly of the black porous stone which abounds throughout the western shores of the lake. Some masses of coarse white marble are seen, however, in the centre of the large ruin, and some subterraneous work appears to have been constructed there of that substance. The remains are more fully described by Buckingham. See also Burckhardt's 'Syria,' p. 319.
From an attentive consideration of our Saviour's journeys to and from Capernaum, and his voyages thence across the lake, we incline to think that it could not have stood so near the northern end of the lake as this Tel-hoom; and that it must have been nearer to Tiberias. Besides, although Capernaum was “ exalted unto heaven" by our Lord's residence and preaching, it may be doubted whether it was so important a town as Tel-hoom appears to have been ; else it would probably have been noticed, on some occasion or other, by Josephus. But he only mentions a fine fountain of excellent water which the people of the country called Capharnaum, and which, we may suppose, gave its name to the town, or received it therefrom. As the inhabitants are remarkable for preserving the ancient names of places, we might expect its site to be indicated by some more resembling name than Tel-hoom. When Dr. Richardson was near the village of Mensura, about six miles west of the lake, he asked some natives if they knew such a place as Capernaum. They answered, “ Cavernahum va Chorasi,-- they are quite near, but in ruins.” This is an important circumstance, from their joining Chorasin, which the Doctor had not named, to Capernaum,-as did our Saviour in his famous denunciation; and from their adding, that they were in ruins, whereas they could not have known but that the inquirer had in view an existing town or village. By " quite near," they probably meant the nearest part of the shore of the lake, which, from Mensura, would be a point about four miles S.S.W. of Tel-hoom, and eight nearly north of Tiberias-a situation which agrees much better than any other with the intimations which may be collected from the Gospels. Moreover, Bishop Pococke found just in this neighbourhood a fine fountain, which ran off in a stream through the plain to the lake, and which he supposed might correspond to the spring called Capharnaum, mentioned by Josephus. Future travellers will probably make more careful inquiries and researches: and meanwhile the site of Capernaum must be regarded as very uncertain.
Capernaum still existed in the sixth century, when it was visited by Antoninus Martyr, who mentions a church erected over the spot where St. Peter's house was supposed to have stood : and the old rhyming traveller, whose work was printed by Purchas from the MS. in Sir R. Cotton's library, seems to mention the site as being known in his time (about 400 years since). The following couplet occurs between those in which he mentions mount Tabor and the sea of Galilee :
“There is that cite that hight Cafarnaum
Where Crist many miraclez hath don.”
would thrust out a little from the land. And 1 Christ teacheth the people out of Peter's ship: 4 he sat down, and taught the people out of
in a miraculous taking of fishes, shewetk hou he the ship will make him and his partners fishers of men: 4 Now when he had left speaking, he said 12 cleanseth the leper : 16 prayeth in the wilder. ness ; 18 healeth one sick of the palsy : 27 calleth
unto Simon, Launch out into the deep, and Matthew the Publican: 29 eateth with sinners, as
let down your nets for a draught. being the physician of souls : 34 foretelleth the 5 And Simon answering said unto him, fastings and afflictions of the apostles after his as- Master, we have toiled all the night, and cension : 36 and likeneth fainthearted and weak
have taken nothing: nevertheless at thy disciples to old bottles and worn garments.
word I will let down the net. And 'it came to pass, that, as the people 6 And when they had this done, they pressed upon him to hear the word of God, inclosed a great multitude of fishes : and he stood by the lake of Gennesaret,
their net brake. 2 And saw two ships standing by the 7 And they beckoned unto their partlake: but the fishermen were gone out of ners, which were in the other ship, that they them, and were washing their nets.
should come and help them. And they came, 3 And he entered into one of the ships, and filled both the ships, so that they began which was Simon's, and prayed him that he to sink.
1 Matt 4. 18.
8 When Simon Peter saw it, he fell down 23 Whether is easier, to say, Thy sins be at Jesus' knees, saying, Depart from me; forgiven thee; or to say, Rise up and walk ? for I am a sinful man, O Lord.
24 But that ye may know that the Son of 9 For he was astonished, and all that man hath power upon earth to forgive sins, were with him, at the draught of the fishes (he said unto the sick of the palsy,) I say which they had taken:
unto thee, Arise, and take up thy couch, 10 And so was also James, and John, the and go unto thine house. sons of Zebedee, which were partners with 25 And immediately he rose up before Simon. And Jesus said unto Simon, Fear them, and took up that whereon he lay, and not; from henceforth thou shalt catch men. l departed to his own house, glorifying God.
11 And when they had brought their 26 And they were all amazed, and they ships to land, they forsook all, and followed glorified God, and were filled with fear, sayhim.
ing, We have seen strange things to day. 12 f 'And it came to pass, when he was 27 1.And after these things he went in a certain city, behold a man full of le- forth, and saw a Publican, named Levi, sitprosy: who seeing Jesus fell on his face, and ting at the receipt of custom: and he said besought him, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, unto him, Follow me. thou canst make me clean,
28 And he left all, rose up, and followed 13. And he put forth his hand, and touch- him. ed him, saying, I will : be thou clean. And 29 And Levi made him a great feast in immediately the leprosy departed from his own house: and there was a great comhim.
pany of Publicans and of others that sat 14 And he charged him to tell no man: down with them. but
go, and shew thyself to the priest, and 30 But their Scribes and Pharisees muroffer for thy cleansing, according as Moses mured against his disciples, saying, Why do commanded, for a testimony unto them. ye eat and drink with Publicans and sinners ?
15 But so much the more went there a 31 And Jesus answering said unto them, fame abroad of him: and great multitudes They that are whole need not a physician ; came together to hear, and to be healed by but they that are sick. him of their infirmities.
32 I came not to call the righteous, but 16 And he withdrew himself into the sinners to repentance. wilderness, and prayed.
33 | And they said unto him, "Why do 17 And it came to pass on a certain day, the disciples of John fast often, and make as he was teaching, that there were Phari- prayers, and likewise the disciples of the sees and doctors of the law sitting by, which Pharisees; but thine eat and drink? were come out of every town of Galilee, and 31 And he said unto them, Can'ye make Judæa, and Jerusalem: and the power of the children of the bridechamber fast, while the Lord was present to heal them.
the bridegroom is with them? 18 [ And, behold, men brought in a bed 35 But the days will come, when the a man which was taken with a palsy: and bridegroom shall be taken away from them, they sought means to bring him in, and to and then shall they fast in those days. lay him before him.
36 | And he spake also a parable unto 19 And when they could not find by what them; No man putteth a piece of a new garway they might bring him in because of the ment upon an old; if otherwise, then both multitude, they went (upon the housetop, the new maketh a rent, and the piece that and let him down through the tiling with was taken out of the new agreeth not with his couch into the midst before Jesus. the old.
20 And when he saw their faith, he said 37 And no man putteth new wine into unto him, Man, thy sins are forgiven thee. old bottles; else the new wine will burst the
21 And the Scribes and the Pharisees bottles, and be spilled, and the bottles shall began to reason, saying, Who is this which perish. speaketh blasphemies? Who can forgive 38 But new wine must be put into new sins, but God alone?
bottles; and both are preserved. 22 But when Jesus perceived their 39 No man also having drunk old wine thoughts, he answering said unto them, straightway desireth new: for he saith, The What reason ye in your hearts ?
old is better.
% Matt. 8, 9.
3 Matt. 9. 9.
4 Matt. 9.9.
• Matt. 9. 14.