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also ; which was probably done, according to a method we have often seen in the East, by introducing a wick into a lump of grease, which is set in a lamp, or in a round hollow vessel made for the purpose. The heat of the kindled wick, as in a candle, gradually melts as much of the fat as is required to feed the flame. The inconvenience of the deprivation of the useful lard of hogs for this and other purposes, seems to have given occasion to an explanation that the prohibition was not to be understood to imply that the fat of hogs might not be obtained by purchase from the Gentiles.
The prohibition of keeping hogs does not appear to have had complete effect, as regulations are made concerning towns in which hogy were kept; and the keepers of swine are mentioned as contemptible and infamous wretches, so that it was a favourite term of great abuse to call a person “a hog breeder” or “a swine-herd.” Although therefore it may be likely that the herds of swine, here mentioned, were the property of the heathen who certainly did live with the Jews in the towns of this neighbourhood, it is not impossible that they belonged to Jews, who kept them in despite of the prohibitions we have mentioned.
spake unto them of the kingdom of God,
and healed them that had need of healing 1 Christ sendeth his apostles to work miracles, and to preach. 7 Herod desired to see Christ. 17 Christ
12 *And when the day began to wear teedeth five thousand : 18 enquireth what opinion away, then came the twelve, and said unto the world had of him : foretelleth his passion : him, Send the multitude away, that they 23 proposeth to all the pattern of his patience.
may go into the towns and country round 28 The transfiguration. 37 He healeth the lunatick: 43 again forewarneth his disciples of his about, and lodge, and get victuals: for we passion : 46 commendeth humility: 51 biddeth are here in a desert place. them to shew mildness towards all, without desire 13 But he said unto them, Give ye them of revenge. 57 Divers would follow him, but to eat. And they said, We have no more upon conditions.
but five loaves and two fishes ; except Then 'he called his twelve disciples toge- we should go and buy meat for all this ther, and gave them power and authority people. over all devils, and to cure diseases.
14 For they were about five thousand 2 And he sent them to preach the king- men. And he said to his disciples, Make dom of God, and to heal the sick.
them sit down by fifties in a company. 3 And he said unto them, Take nothing 15 And they did so, and made them all for your journey, neither staves, nor scrip, sit down. neither bread, neither money; neither have 16 Then he took the five loaves and the two coats apiece.
two fishes, and looking up to heaven, he 4 And whatsoever house ye enter into, blessed them, and brake, and gave to the there abide, and thence depart.
disciples to set before the multitude. 5 And whosoever will not receive you, 17 And they did eat, and were all filled : when ye go out of that city, shake off the and there was taken up of fragments that very dust from your feet for a testimony remained to them twelve baskets. against them.
18 T’And it came to pass, as he was 6 And they departed, and went through alone praying, his disciples were with him: the towns, preaching the Gospel, and heal and he asked them, saying, Whom say the ing every where.
people that I am ? 71 Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all 19 They answering said, John the Bapthat was done by him: and he was per- tist; but some say, Elias; and others say, plexed, because that it was said of some, that one of the old prophets is risen again. that John was risen from the dead;
20 He said unto them, But whom say ye 8 And of some, that Elias had appeared; that I am ? Peter answering said, The and of others, that one of the old prophets Christ of God. was risen again.
21 And he straitly charged them, and 9 And Herod said, John have I beheaded : commanded them to tell no man that thing; but who is this, of whom I hear such things? 22 Saying, “The Son of man must suffer And he desired to see him.
many things, and be rejected of the elders 10 And the apostles, when they were and Chief Priests and Scribes, and be slain, returned, told him all that they had done. and be raised the third day. And he took them, and went aside pri- 23 9 'And he said to them all, If any vately into a desert place belonging to the man will come after me, let him deny himcity called Bethsaida.
self, and take up his cross daily, and follow Îl And the people, when they knew it, followed him: and he received them, and 24 For whosoever will save his life shall
Matt, 16. 13, 6 Matt. 17. 22. 7 Matt. 10.38.
1 Matt, 10. 1.
* Matt. 14. 1.
8 Matt. 14. 13.
4 Matt. 14. 15.
tain to pray.
lose it: but whosoever will lose his life for 40 And I besought thy disciples to cast my sake, the same shall save it.
him out; and they could not. 25 For what is a man advantaged, if he 41 And Jesus answering said, O faithless gain the whole world, and lose himself, or and perverse generation, how long shall I be cast away?
be with you, and suffer you ? Bring thy son 26 °For whosoever shall be ashamed of hither. me and of my words, of him shall the Son 42 And as he was yet a coming, the devil of man be ashamed, when he shall come in threw him down, and tare him. And Jesus his own glory, and in his Father's, and of rebuked the unclean spirit, and healed the the holy angels.
child, and delivered him again to his father. 27 10But I tell you of a truth, there be some 43 | And they were all amazed at the standing here, which shall not taste of death, mighty power of God. But while they wontill they see the kingdom of God.
dered every one at all things which Jesus 28 "And it came to pass about an eight did, he said unto his disciples, days after these ''sayings, he took Peter and 44 "Let these sayings sink down into John and James, and went
your ears : for the Son of man shall be deli
vered into the hands of men. 29 And as he prayed, the fashion of his 45 But they understood not this saying, countenance was altered, and his raiment and it was hid from them, that they perwas white and glistering.
ceived it not: and they feared to ask him 30 And, behold, there talked with him of that saying. two men, which were Moses and Elias:
46 Then there arose a reasoning 31 Who appeared in glory, and spake of among them, which of them should be his decease which he should accomplish at greatest. Jerusalem.
47 And Jesus, perceiving the thought of 32 But Peter and they that were with their heart, took a child, and set him by were awake, they saw his glory, and the two 48 And said unto them, Whosoever shall men that stood with him.
receive this child in my name receiveth me: 33 And it came to pass, as they departed and whosoever shall receive me receiveth from him, Peter said unto Jesus, Master, it him that sent me: for he that is least among is good for us to be here: and let us make you all, the same shall be great. three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for 49 | And John answered and said, Moses, and one for Elias : not knowing what Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy he said.
name; and we forbad him, because he fol34 While he thus spake, there came a
loweth not with us. cloud, and overshadowed them: and they
50 And Jesus said unto him, Forbid him feared as they entered into the cloud. not: for he that is not against us is for us.
35 And there came a voice out of the 51 9 And it came to pass, when the time cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son: hear was come that he should be received up, he him.
stedfastly set his face to go to Jerusalem, 36 And when the voice was past, Jesus 52 And sent messengers before his face: was found alone. And they kept it close, and they went, and entered into a village of and told no man in those days any of those the Samaritans, to make ready for him. things which they had seen.
53 And they did not receive him, because 37 | "And it came to pass, that on the his face was as though he would go to Jenext day, when they were come down from rusalem. the hill, much people met him.
54 And when his disciples James and 38 And, behold, a man of the company John saw this, they said, Lord, wilt thou cried out, saying, Master, I beseech thee, that we command fire to come down from look upon my son : for he is mine only child. heaven, and consume them, even as ''Elias
39 And, lo, a spirit taketh him, and he did? suddenly crieth out; and it teareth him that 55 But he turned, and rebuked them, and he foameth again, and bruising him hardly said, Ye know not what manner of sp ye departeth from him.
9 Matt 16. 26. Mark 8. 36.
9 Matt. 10. 33. 10 Matt. 16. 29.
15 Matt, 18. 1. Mark 9,31,
11 Matt. 17.1. 16 Mark 9. 38.
13 Matt. 17. 14.
14 Matt, 17.22.
12 Or, things.
56 For the Son of man is not come to de- But he said, Lord, suffer me first to stroy men's lives, but to save them. And go and bury my father. they went to another village.
60 Jesus said unto him, Let the dead 57 | And it came to pass, that, as they bury their dead: but go thou and preach went in the way, a certain man said unto the kingdom of God. him, Lord, I will follow thee whithersoever 61 And another also said, Lord, I will
follow thee; but let me first go bid them 58 And Jesus said unto him, Foxes have farewell, which are at home at my house. holes
, and birds of the air have nests ; but 62 And Jesus said unto him, No mån, the Son of man hath not where to lay his having put his hand to the plough, and head.
looking back, is fit for the kingdom of 59 And he said unto another, Follow God.
Verse 53. - Because his face was as though he would go to Jerusalem.”—The road from Galilee to Jerusalem lay through Samaria. One of the grand points of controversy between the Jews and Samaritans was, as stated by the woman of Samaria, “ Our fathers worshipped in this mountain (Gerizim); but ye say that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship” (John iv. 20). Believing therefore that their own temple, on Mount Gerizim, was the place to which all worship should tend, their zeal and the bitterness of their hate was particularly excited against those Jews who. on the periodical occasions, passed through their lands to worship at Jerusalem, at the passover and other public festivals. There does not seem to have been much hospitality or kind feeling between the Jews and Samaritans at any time ; but probably they would not have refused to receive Jewish passengers into their towns and villages merely from understanding that they were going to Jerusalem, unless they knew that they were going there expressly to worship at the Temple, which they could not but know when numerous people passed through their lands on the recurrence of the great festival. Of all festivals the one most likely to excite their animosity was the Feast of the Dedication of that tempie, which was to them so obnoxious, and which appears to have been the very festival which Jesus and his disciples were now proceeding to attend.
We learn from Josephus that the journey from Galilee to Jerusalem, on occasion of the festivals, usually took three days; and he mentions that the passage through the land of the Samaritans on such occasions was sometimes attended with disturbances and even bloodshed. He relates in particular one remarkable affray, after the time of our Saviour, when some Galileans were attacked, and many of them slain by the Samaritans in their way to Jerusalem at one of the festivals. This affair made a great stir, particularly when the Jews, finding that the procurator (Cumanus
, the predecessor of Felix) had been bribed by the Samaritans, avenged their own cause upon them with fire and sword. In consequence of this, many Galileans were put to death by Quadratus the president of Syria, who ultimately sent all the leading parties to Rome for trial. The result was that the emperor Claudius ordered all the Samaritans who had been sent to Rome to be put to death ; Cumanus, the procurator, to be banished; and Celer, the tribune who had been active against the Jews, to be sent to Jerusalem, and there to be drawn through the city and publicly executed.
60. “ Let the dead bury their dead.”—This, certainly, has a singular sound, and has taken its place among the dificult passages of Scripture. But to a Jew, who was familiar with the idea involved, its meaning must have been instantly clear. The term “dead” is here used both in its figurative and literal acceptation. It was common among the Jews to describe an ungodly or sinful person as one dead though alive. Our Saviour therefore means to say that one who had an urgent call to follow Him, might leave even his dead father to be buried by his other sons or other relatives who were "dead” to the great concerns of eternal life. By this remarkable instance-strong even to seeming harshness—our Lord did most pointedly indicate the superior object and higher duty to which all others must give place.
62. “Put his hand to the plough, and looking back."- This proverbial expression, derived from the labours of agricul. ture, has been illustrated by parallel citations from the heathen poets. It was necessary that the ploughman should give his undivided attention to the work before him, that his furrow might be kept straight. This therefore aptly inculcates that he who would take up his cross to follow Christ, should not-—“Cast one longing, lingering look behind" upon the world and its concerns.
2 Therefore said he unto them, *The harCHAPTER X.
vest truly is great, but the labourers are 1 Christ sendeth out at once seventy disciples to few: pray ye therefore the Lord of the har
work miracles, and to preach: 17 admonisheth vest, that he would send forth labourers into them to be humble, and wherein to rejoice : 21
his harvest. thanketh his Father for his grace : 23 magnifieth the happy estate of his Church : 25 teacheth the
3 Go your ways: 'behold, I send you Lawyer how to attuin eternal life, and to take forth as lambs among
wolves. every one for his neighbour that needeth his mercy : 4. Carry neither purse, nor scrip, nor 41 reprehendeth Martha, and commendeth Mary shoes: and salute no man by
way. her sister.
5 “And into whatsoever house ye enter, AFTER 'these things the Lord appointed first say, Peace be to this house. other seventy also, and sent them two and 6 And if the son of peace be there, your two before his face into every city and place, peace shall rest upon it: if not, it shall turn whither he himself would come.
to you again. " Matt. 10. 1.
* Matt. 9.37
* Matt. 10. 16.
• Matt. 10. 11.
7 And in the same house remain, eating | even so, Father; for so it seemed good in nd drinking such things as they give: for thy sight. che labourer is worthy of his hire. Go not 22 All things are delivered to me of my 'rom house to house.
Father: and no man knoweth who the Son 8 And into whatsoever city ye enter, and is, but the Father; and who the Father is, hey receive you, eat such things as are set but the Son, and he to whom the Son will
reveal him. 9 And heal the sick that are therein, and 23 | And he turned him unto his disciay unto them, The kingdom of God is come ples, and said privately, 'Blessed are the igh unto you.
eyes which see the things that ye see : 10 But into whatsoever city ye enter, and 24 For I tell you, that many prophets and hey receive you not, go your ways out into kings have desired to see those things which he streets of the same, and say,
ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear 11 Even the very dust of your city, which those things which ye hear, and have not leaveth on us, we do wipe off against you: | heard them. otwithstanding be ye sure of this, that 25 | And, behold, a certain Lawyer stood ne kingdom of God is come nigh unto up, and tempted him, saying, 'Master, what
shall I do to inherit eternal life? 12 But I say unto you, that it shall be 26 He said unto him, What is written in ! .ore tolerable in that day for Sodom, than the law ? how readest thou ? r that city.
27 And he answering said, Thou shalt 13 'Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, ee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty works and with all thy soul, and with all thy id been done in Tyre and Sidon, which strength, and with all thy mind; and thy ve been done in you, they had a great neighbour as thyself. vile ago repented, sitting in sackcloth and 28 And he said unto him, Thou hast thes.
answered right: this do, and thou shalt 14 But it shall be more tolerable for live. Te and Sidon at the judgment, than for 29 But he, willing to justify himself,
said unto Jesus, And who is my neigh15 And thou, Capernaum, which art ex- bour ? ed to heaven, shalt be thrust down to 30 And Jesus answering said, A certain 1.
man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, 16 “He that heareth you heareth me; and and fell among thieves, which stripped him that despiseth you despiseth me; and of his raiment, and wounded him, and dethat despiseth me despiseth him that parted, leaving him half dead. it me.
31 And by chance there came down a 7 And the seventy returned again with certain Priest that way: and when he saw
saying, Lord, even the devils are sub- him, he passed by on the other side. : unto us through thy name.
32 And likewise a Levite, when he was 8 And he said unto them, I beheld Satan at the place, came and looked on him, and ightning fall from heaven.
passed by on the other side. 9 Behold, I give unto you power to tread 33 But a certain Samaritan, as he jourserpents and scorpions, and over all the neyed, came where he was: and when he rer of the enemy: and nothing shall by saw him, he had compassion on him, means hurt you.
34 And went to him, and bound up his O Notwithstanding in this rejoice not, wounds, pouring in oil and wine, and set t the spirits are subject unto you; but him on his own beast, and brought him to er rejoice, because your names are writ- an inn, and took care of him. in heaven.
35 And on the morrow when he departed, I f In that hour Jesus rejoiced in he took out two opence, and gave
them to it, and said, I thank thee, O Father, the host, and said unto him, Take care of
d of heaven and earth, that thou hast him; and whatsoever thou spendest more, ; these things from the wise and pru. when I come again, I will repay thee. t, and hast revealed them unto babes : 36 Which now of these three, thinkest
* Matt. 11. 21.
* Matt. 10. 40.
7 Many ancient copies add these words, And turning to his disciples, he said,
9 Matt, 22. 35, 10 See Matt, 20, 2.
8 Matt. 13. 16.
thou, was neighbour unto him that fell 40 But Martha was cumbered about much among the thieves ?
serving, and came to him, and said, Lord, 37 And he said, He that shewed mercy dost thou not care that my sister hath left on him. Then said Jesus unto him, Go, me to serve alone? bid her therefore that and do thou likewise.
she help me. 38 | Now it came to pass, as they went, 41 And Jesus answered and said unto that he entered into a certain village: and a her, Martha, Martha, thou art careful and certain woman named Martha received him troubled about many things: into her house.
42 But one thing is needful: and Mary 39 And she had a sister called Mary, hath chosen that good part, which shall not which also sat at Jesus' feet, and heard his be taken away from her. word.
Verse 4. “ Salute no mon by the way.”—See the note on Ps. cxxix. 8. In their salutations, on meeting, much time is often consumed by the Orientals in mutual inquiries and compliments, manual and oral. They are also fond of inquiring into all the business—such as the name, native place, residence, and present object of persons they meet on the road and who return their salutation. In this no offence or impertinence is intended or taken. It is the habit of the people and the custom of the country. But a stranger not familiar with the custom, or, from the more reserved habits of his own country, not disposed to disclose himselt fully to every one he meets, is apt to be much annoyed, and finds it difficult to get rid of the questioner without exciting suspicion. The Orientals, who in general have little idea of the value of time, do not mind the loss of it which is thus involved. Yet they were so far sensible of it, that it appears to have been the practice to inculcate upon messengers, who were sent upon business which required dispatch, that they should not salute any one by the way. Compare 2 Kings iv. 29. The restriction on this point, will be the better understood when it is stated that it was a maxim among the Jews to salute every one by the way. Exceptions were indeed made with respect to such as were mourners, and those who fasted; these not being expected to offer or return any salutation. That our Saviour did not intend to intimate any objection to proper salutations of civility and respect, appears clearly enough from what immediately follows, where the disciples are instructed to salute the house to which they came in the customary form ;—"Peace be to this house."
13. “ Chorazin.”—This place is now here mentioned but in this and the parallel texts, and in these only by way of reference. It would seem to have been a town of some note, on the shores of the lake of Galilee, and near Capernaum, along with which and Bethsaida its name occurs. The answer of the natives to Dr. Richardsvn, when he en quired concerning Capernaum (see the note on iv. 31), connected Chorazin in the same manner with that city.
30. “Went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves." —Jericho was at this time a very important city; indeed, it would seem from Josephus to have been next in consequence to Jerusalem itself. At this place also twelve thousand priests and Levites were stationed, with a view to the rotation of service at Jerusalem. llence the peculiar propriety with which our Lord introduces the priest and Levite as passing this way. The road to Perea, beyond Jordan, also passed this way, whence it was one of the most frequented roads of Palestine. How fitly the road from Jerusalem to Jericho was made the scene of this interesting story, will appear when it is understood that this road has always been infested by numerous daring and desperate robbers; and its character is so notorious, even at the present day, in this respect, that travellers are rarely allowed by the governor of Jerusalem to proceed to Jericho and the Dead Sea without an escort. Josephus intimates, and Jerome says, that the savage mountainous wilderness through which this road passed had acquired the name of the bloody way. The monks however have restricted this name, or rather that of the “ Valley of Abdonim” (blood), to a small round, grassy valley, which they have fixed upon as the place where the supposed facts of this parable took place. That the region is well suited for a scene of robbery and murder will appear by the following, from Mr. Buckingham:
“ The whole of this road from Jerusalem to Jericho is held to be the most dangerous about Palestine ; and, indeed, in this portion of it, the very aspect of the scenery is sufficient, on the one hand, to tempt to robbery and murder, and, on the other, to occasion a dread of it in those who pass that way. It was partly to prevent any accident happening to us at this early stage of our journey, and partly perhaps to calm our fears on that score, that a messenger had been despatched by our guides to an encampment of their tribe near, desiring them to send an escort to meet us at this place. We were met here accordingly by a band of about twenty persons, on foot, all armed with matchlocks, and presenting the most ferocious and robber-like appearance that could be imagined. The effect of this was heightened by the shouts which they sent forth from hill to hill, and which were re-echoed through all the valleys; while the bold projecting crags of rock, and the dark shadows in which every thing was buried below, the towering height of the cliffs above, and the forbidding desolation which everywhere reigned around, presented a picture that was quite in harmony throughout all its parts. It made us feel most forcibly the propriety of its being chosen as the scene of the delightful tale of compassion which we had before so often admired for its doctrine, independently of its local beauty. In these gloomy solitudes, pillage, wounds, and death would be accompanied with double terror from the frightful aspect of every thing around. Here the unfeeling act of passing by a fellow-creature in distress, as the Priest and Levite are said to have done, strikes one with horror, as an act almost more than inhuman. And here, too, the compassion of the Good Samaritan is doubly virtuous, from the purity of the motive which must have led to it, in a spot where no eyes were fixed on him to draw forth the performance of any duty, and from the courage which was necessary to admit of a man's exposing himself, by such delay, to the risk of a similar fate to that from which he was endeavouring to rescue a fellow-creature."
If space allowed, we should also be glad to transcribe the account which Sir F. Henuiker gives of his being stripped naked by the Arabs, and left severely wounded, on this road, in the year 1820. As this traveller states, a similar circumstance happened to the monk Brocard (not indeed two hundred years ago, as he says, but), towards the end the thirteenth century. Many other testimonies might be collected of the dangerous character of the road from Jerusalem to Jericho.