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the sauce, gave thanks, saying, “ Blessed be thou, O Lord our God, King everlasting, who hast sanctified us by thy commandments, and hast commanded us to eat unleavened bread." He then, with the others, eats that which he has taken.

After other suitable thanks, the paschal lamb was then eaten; and the eating part of the feast concluding with this, the company again washed their hands ; after which the master gave thanks for what had been eaten.

Another cup of wine was then taken ; and this was called “the cup of blessing" (see 1 Cor. x. 16), pre-eminently, because the final blessing, or, as we should say, “grace after meat," was pronounced over it, as concluding the meal. A fourth cup was added; and this was called “the cup of Hallel,” because over it was sung the remaining four psalms of the Egyptian Hallel, being the 115th, 116th, 117th, and 118th. Another blessing was then pronounced, and with this the least of the Passover ended,

It will be seen that there is much here concerning which the Law gives no directions, although nothing, that we can see, contrary to the Law, or which might not be suitably introduced. We have judged that the statement might be useful, as such were certainly the usages of the Jews in the time of Christ, and it will be found that they illustrate all the details offered by the Evangelists concerning our Lord's celebration of the Passover, and thus supply means for more clearly understanding the whole account.

31. That he may sift you as wheat.”—After the corn had been trodden, the clods of earth were broken and sifted to separate the grain. It was apparently with an allusion to this process, that the sisting of wheat was made a symbol of affliction.

CHAPTER XXIII.

him in a gorgeous robe, and sent him again

to Pilate. 1 Jesus is accused before Pilate, and sent to Herod. 8 Herod mocketh him. 12 Herod and Pilate are

12 And the same day Pilate and Herod mude friends. 13 Barabbas is desired of the peo

were made friends together: for before they ple, and is loosed by Pilate, and Jesus is given to were at enmity between themselves. be crucified 27 He telleth the women, that la- 13 'And Pilate, when he had called ment him, the destruction of Jerusalem : 34 pray; together the Chief Priests and the rulers eth for his enemies. 39 Two evildoers are crucified

and the people, with him. 46 His death. 50 His burial.

14 Said unto them, Ye have brought this And the whole multitude of them arose, and man unto me, as one that perverteth the led him unto Pilate.

people: and, behold, I, having examined 2 And they began to accuse him, saying, him before you, have found no fault in this We found this fellow perverting the nation, man touching those things whereof ye accuse and forbidding to give tribute to Cæsar, him: saying that he himself is Christ a King. 15 No, nor yet Herod : for I sent you to

3 'And Pilate asked him, saying, Art him; and, lo, nothing worthy of death is thou the King of the Jews? And he an- done unto him. swered him and said, Thou sayest it.

16 I will therefore chastise him, and re4 Then said Pilate to the Chief Priests lease him. and to the people, I find no fault in this man. 17 (For of necessity he must release one

5 And they were the more fierce, saying, unto them at the feast.) He stirreth up the people, teaching through- 18 And they cried out all at once, saying, out all Jewry, beginning from Galilee to Away with this man, and release unto us

Barabbas : 6 When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked 19 (Who for a certain sedition made in whether the man were a Galilæan.

the city, and for murder, was cast into 7 And as soon as he knew that he be- prison.) longed unto Herod's jurisdiction, he sent 20 Pilate therefore, willing to release him to Herod, who himself also was at Je- Jesus, spake again to them. rusalem at that time.

21 But they cried, saying, Crucify him, 8 And when Herod saw Jesus, he was crucify him. exceeding glad: for he was desirous to see 22 And he said unto them the third time, him of a long season, because he had heard Why, what evil hath he done? I have found many things of him; and he hoped to have no cause of death in him : I will therefore seen some miracle done by him.

chastise him, and let him go. 9 Then he questioned with him in many 23 And they were instant with loud words; but he answered him nothing. voices, requiring that he might be crucified.

10 And the Chief Priests and Scribes And the voices of them and of the Chief stood and vehemently accused him.

Priests prevailed. 11 And Herod with his men of war set 24 And Pilate 'gave sentence that it him at nought, and mocked him, and arrayed should be as they required. * Matt. 27. 23.

this place.

1 Matt. 27. il.

3

Or, assenti d.

25 And he released unto them him that saying, Dost not thou fear God, seeing thou for sedition and murder was cast into prison, art in the same condemnation ? whom they had desired; but he delivered 41 And we indeed justly; for we receive Jesus to their will.

the due reward of our deeds: but this man 26 •And as they led him away, they laid hath done nothing amiss. hold upon one Simon, a Cyrenian, coming 42 And he said unto Jesus, Lord, rememout of the country, and on him they laid the ber me when thou comest into thy kingdom. cross, that he might bear it after Jesus. 43 And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say

27 | And there followed him a great unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in company of people, and of women, which paradise. also bewailed and lamented him.

44 And it was about the sixth hour, and 28 But Jesus turning unto them said, there was a darkness over all the 'earth Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, until the ninth hour. but weep for yourselves, and for your chil- 45 And the sun was darkened, and the dren.

veil of the temple was rent in the midst. 29 For, behold, the days are coming, in 46 And when Jesus had cried with a the which they shall say, Blessed are the loud voice, he said, "Father, into thy hands barren, and the wombs that never bare, and I commend my spirit: and having said thus, the paps which never gave suck.

he gave up the ghost. 30 Then shall they begin to say to the

47 Now when the centurion saw what was mountains, Fall on us; and to the hills, done, he glorified God, saying, Certainly this Cover us.

was a righteous man. 31 For if they do these things in a green 48 And all the people that came together tree, what shall be done in the dry ? to that sight, beholding the things which

32 "And there were also two other, male- were done, smote their breasts, and refactors, led with him to be put to death. turned.

33 And when they were come to the 49 And all his acquaintance, and the place, which is called Calvary, there they women that followed him from Galilee, crucified him, and the malefactors, one on stood afar off, beholding these things. the right hand, and the other on the left. 50 | "And, behold, there was a man

34 | Then said Jesus, Father, forgive named Joseph, a counsellor; and he was a them; for they know not what they do. good man, and a just: And they parted his raiment, and cast 51 (The same had not consented to the lots.

counsel and deed of them ;) he was of Ari35 And the people stood beholding. And mathæa, a city of the Jews: who also himthe rulers also with them derided him, say- self waited for the kingdom of God. ing, He saved others; let him save himself, 52 This man went unto Pilate, and if he be Christ, the chosen of God.

begged the body of Jesus. 36 And the soldiers also mocked him, 53 And he took it down, and wrapped it coming to him, and offering him vinegar, in linen, and laid it in a sepulchre that was

37 And saying, If thou be the king of hewn in stone, wherein never man before the Jews, save thyself.

38 And a superscription also was written 54 And that day was the preparation, over him in letters of Greek, and Latin, and and the sabbath drew on. Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF 55 And the women also, which came with THE JEWS.

him from Galilee, followed after, and beheld 39 | And one of the malefactors which the sepulchre, and how his body was laid. were hanged railed on him, saying, If thou 56 “And they returned, and prepared be Christ, save thyself and us.

spices and ointments; and rested 'the sab40 But the other answering rebuked him, bath day according to the commandment. Isa, 2 19. Hos. 10.8 Rev. 6. 16. & 1 Pet. 4.17.

8 Or, the place of a scull. Or, lando

11 Matt 27.57.. Verse 7. He sent him to Herod.—Herod doubtless had come to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover ; and this mark of deference from Pilate, probably paved the way to the reconciliation between them (verse 12). Perhaps this was Pilate's object, though we may also suppose, that in transferring the adjudication of this affair to Herod, he partly sought the ease of his own conscience, alarmed by his wife's dream (Matt. xxvii, 19), and by clear perception of Christ's innocence and the malice of his accusers. The Roman governors were fully empowered to punish any persons guilty of crimes within their own provinces, even though such persons belonged to other states and jurisdictions. Hence the

was laid.

• Matt, 27. 32.

7 Matt. 37.38.

10 Psal. 31.5.

stances.

mark of attention paid by Pilate to Herod was perfectly gratuitous, though naturally enough suggested by circum

11. " Mocked him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe."— It appears then that Herod suggested the mockery, which was afterwards carried into fuller effect by the Roman soldiers, although it probably would not have occurred spontaneously to them, such a method of deciding pretensions, supposed to be unfounded or which prove unsuccessful, being more conformable to Oriental than to Roman practice. A remarkable illustration of this is related by Philo, as having occurred, soon after the present time, to Herod Agrippa, the nephew of this Herod, and the brother of his notorious wife Herodias. Caligula conferred on this prince the tetrarchy of his uncle Philip, with the title of king, and permission to wear a diadem; and when about to depart to take possession of his dominion, he was advised to proceed by way of Alexandria. On his arrival at that city, he kept himself as private as possible ; but the inhabitants gained intelligence of his arrival and the design of his journey, and being filled with hatred and envy at the idea of a Jew bearing the title of king, expressed their feelings in a very insulting though expressive manner. There was in the town a poor distracted creature called Carabas, who, in all seasons of the year, wandered, naked, about the streets, and, being something between a madman and a fool, was the common laughing stock of boys and idle people. This man they took, and brought him into the theatre, and set him on a lofty seat that he might be conspicuous to all. They then put on his head a paper crown, covered his body with a mat for a regal robe, and, for a sceptre, a piece of reed, taken from the ground, was put into his hand. Having thus invested him with mock royalty, some young fellows, with poles on their shoulders, came and stood on each side of him, as his guards. Then people came around him, some to pay homage to him, others to ask justice from him, and some to learn his will and pleasure concerning affairs of state. Meanwhile, in the crowd, there were loud and confused exclamations of “ Maris ! Maris !” being, as they understood, the Syriac word for "Lord;" thereby indicating the person whom, by all this mock show, they intended to ridicule : Agrippa being a Syrian, and his territory a large country of Syria.

The same kind of mockery has always been common in Persia, where there have been, perhaps, more pretenders to i royalty, than in any other country of the world. The following account, from Morier, of the treatment which one of

these received is striking. “ Mahomed Zemarım Khan was carried before the king. When he had reached the camp, the king ordered Mahomed Khan, the chief of his camel-artillery, to put a mock crown upon the rebel's head, bazubends or armlets upon his arms, a sword by his side, to mount him upon an ass, with his face towards the tail ; and then to parade him through the camp, and to exclaim, * This is he who wanted to be the king!' After this was over, and the people had mocked and insulted him, he was led before the king, who called for his looties, and ordered them

to turn him into ridicule by making him dance and make antics against his will; he then ordered, that whoever chose * might spit in his face. After this he received the bastinado on the soles of his feet, which was administered by the chiefs of the Cagar (or royal) tribe, and some time after he had his eyes put out.” (“Second Journey,

' p. 331.) 38. A superscription was written.”—In leading to his death a person condemned to crucifixion, it was usual to carry before him, or put upon him, an inscription, stating the crime for which he suffered: and sometimes such inscription was fastened to his cross, as in the present instance. It was here written in three languages, that none who could read might remain unapprized of its contents :-In Greek, which was the general language of commerce in Western Asia, and which would be familiar to many Jews from Europe, Egypt, and elsewhere, who probably did not understand, or at all events could not read, the Syriac, called “ Hebrew,” which was vernacular in Palestine. The "Latin” was probably for the use of the Romans, of whom there were many (soldiers chiefly) at Jerusalem during the Paschal week. No doubt, many of the Jews also, from the necessity of communicating with the Romans, had picked up some idea of their language, and an acquaintance with its most frequently recurring words. The Romans would however naturally introduce a repetition in their own language, as an evidence of their superiority. It appears from Josephus (Wars, vi. 2. 4) that the public announcements posted up in the city, were usually in Greek and Latin. We do not know on what authority rests the rather strange opinion that, in conformity with Hebrew and generally Oriental usage, the words of the Greek and Latin were written from right to left, not, as properly they should be, from left to right. But the Greek and Latin were intended for those who could not read the llebrew; and whoever could read Greek and Latin at all, must needs know in what direction words in those languages were written. As to the "Hebrew," the inscription being intended for general information, must have been in the vernacular Syriac ; but very probably the Syriac words were written in the Hebrew character. Public announcements are given in two or three languages in some of our own colonies, and, in general, wherever a foreign people rules, or where the population is mixed and two or more languages are spoken.

3 And they entered in, and found not the CHAPTER XXIV.

body of the Lord Jesus. | Christ's resurrection is declared by two angels to 4 And it came to pass, as they were much the women that come to the sepulchre

: 9 These perplexed thereabout, behold, two men stood to the two disciples that went to Emmaus; 36 by them in shining garments : afterwards he cappeareth to the apostles, and rest 95 And as they were afraid

, and bowed proveth their unbelief: 47 giveth them a charge : down their faces to the earth, they said unto 19 promiseth the Holy Ghost: 51 and so ascendeth them, Why seek ye 'the living among the

dead ? Now ’upon the first day of the week, very

6 He is not here, but is risen: Srememsepulchre, bringing the spices which they in Galilee

, had prepared, and certain others with them.

7 Saying, The Son of man must be deli2 And they found the stone rolled away vered into the hands of sinful men, and be

crucified, and the third day rise again.

into

from the sepulchre.

* 3 x

1 Matt. 28. 1.

* Or, him that liveth.

8 Matt. 17. 23.

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8 And they remembered his words, same day to a village called Emmaus, which

9 And returned from the sepulchre, and was from Jerusalem about threescore furtold all these things unto the eleven, and to longs. all the rest.

14 And they talked together of all these 10 It was Mary Magdalene, and Joanna, things which had happened. and Mary the mother of James, and other 15 And it came to pass, that, while they women that were with them, which told these communed together and reasoned, Jesus himthings unto the apostles.

self drew near, and went with them. 11 And their words seemed to them as 16 But their eyes were holden that they idle tales, and they believed them not. should not know him.

12 «Then arose Peter, and ran unto the 17 And he said unto them, What mansepulchre ; and stooping down, he beheld ner of communications are these that ye the linen clothes laid by themselves, and have one to another, as ye walk, and are departed, wondering in himself at that sad? which was come to pass.

18 And the one of them, whose name was 13 'And, behold, two of them went that I Cleopas, answering said unto him, Art

4 John 20.6. * Mark 16. 12

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thou only a stranger in Jerusalem, and hast 34 Saying, The Lord is risen indeed, and not known the things which are come to hath appeared to Simon. pass there in these days?

35 And they told what things were done 19 And he said unto them, What things in the way, and how he was known of them And they said unto him, Concerning Jesus in breaking of bread. of Nazareth, which was a prophet mighty 36 'And as they thus spake, Jesus himin deed and word before God and all the self stood in the midst of them, and saith people:

unto them, Peace be unto you. 20 And how the Chief Priests and our 37 But they were terrified and affrightrulers delivered him to be condemned to ed, and supposed that they had seen death, and have crucified him.

spirit. 21 But we trusted that it had been he 38 And he said unto them, Why are yo which should have redeemed Israel: and be troubled ? and why do thoughts arise in side all this, to day is the third day since your hearts ? these things were done.

39 Behold my hands and my feet, that it 22 Yea, and certain women also of our is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit company made us astonished, which were hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have. early at the sepulchre;

40 And when he had thus spoken, he 23 And when they found not his body, shewed them his hands and his feet. they came, saying, that they had also seen a 41 And while they yet believed not for vision of angels, which said that he was joy, and wondered, he said unto them, Have alive.

ye here any meat? 24 And certain of them which were with 42 And they gave him a piece of a broiled us went to the sepulchre, and found it even fish, and of an honeycomb. so as the women had said: but him they saw 43 And he took it, and did eat before not.

them. 25 Then he said unto them, O fools, and 44 And he said unto them, These are the slow of heart to believe all that the prophets words which I spake unto you, while I was have spoken:

yet with you, that all things must be ful26 Ought not Christ to have suffered filled, which were written in the Law of these things, and to enter into his glory? Moses, and in the Prophets, and in the

27 And beginning at Moses and all the Psalms, concerning me. prophets, he expounded unto them in all 45 Then opened he their understand the Scriptures the things concerning him- ing, that they might understand the Scripself.

tures, 28 And they drew nigh unto the village, 46 And said unto them, Thus it is written, whither they went: and he made as though and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to he would have gone further.

rise from the dead the third day: 29 But they constrained him, saying, 47 And that repentance and remission Abide with us : for it is toward evening, and of sins should be preached in his name the day is far spent. And he went in to among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. tarry with them.

48 And ye are witnesses of these things. 30 And it came to pass, as he sat at meat 49 | And, behold, I send the promise of with them, he took bread, and blessed it, my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city and brake, and gave to them.

of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power 31 And their eyes were opened, and they | from on high. knew him; and he 'ranished out of their 50 | And he led them out as far as to sight.

Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and 32 And they said one to another, Did blessed them. not our heart burn within us, while he talked 51 'And it came to pass, while he blessed with us by the way, and while he opened to them, he was parted from them, and carried us the Scriptures?

up into heaven. 33 And they rose up the same hour, and 52 And they worshipped him, and rereturned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven turned to Jerusalem with great joy: gathered together, and them that were with 53 And were continually in the temple

praising and blessing God. Amen. Or, cidsed to be seen of them.

them,

7 Mark 16. 14.

8 Juho 15. 26. Acts 1. 4.

Mark 16. 19. Acts 1. 9.

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