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is not stated; nothing that can be called an account is given ; but it is the junction of two conclusions, deduced from independent sources, and deducible only by investigation and comparison.” (Horæ Paulinæ,' ch. iv. No. 4.)
17. “ Did I use lightness ?" -This it seems was the charge which, on the account described in the preceding note, the discontented party at Corinth had brought against him. But from this he completely vindicates himself, in this and the first part of the following chapter. The original intention had been formed under happier auspices, and presupposed that the Corinthians would remain faithful and united. The divisions and disorders which had since arisen, rendered an alteration of his plan expedient even for their sakes. The information he had received at Ephesus, as to the state of affairs in the Corinthian church, and which occasioned him to write his first epistle, led him to determine not to go at once to Corinth, but to proceed first to Macedonia, that there might be time for his epistle to work its proper effect before he arrived among them, and that their amendment of that which he had condemned in them, might render the meeting more pleasant and cordial, and relieve him from the unpleasant necessity of meeting them with severity and grief. Hence he asseverates in the strongest manner, “I call God for a record upon my soul, that to spare you, I came not as yet unto Corinth,” verse 23.
20.“ In him are yea, and in him Amen.”—That is, “ In him are most true, and in him are most faithful" or tain.” The word " Amen” is here employed in its original form, as an adjective, true, faithful, certain, although it is more usually employed as an adverb both in the Old and New Testaments. See the note on 1 Cor. xiv. 16.
8 Wherefore I beseech you that ye would confirm
love toward him. 1 Having sheued the reason why he came not to 9 For to this end also did I write, that I
them, 6 he requireth them to forgive and to comfort that excommunicated person, 10 even as him might know the proof of you, whether ye be self also upon his true repentance had forgiven obedient in all things. him, 12 declaring uithal why he departed from 10 To whom ye forgive any thing, I furTroas to Macedonia, 14 and the happy success give also: for if I forgave any thing, to whom which God gave to his preaching in all places.
I forgave it, for your sakes forgave I it'in But I determined this with myself, that the person of Christ ; I would not come again to you in heavi- 11 Lest Satan should get an advantage of
us: for we are not ignorant of his devices. 2 For if I make you sorry, who is he then 12 Furthermore, when I came to Troas to that maketh me glad, but the same which is preach Christ's Gospel, and a door was made sorry by me?
opened unto me of the Lord, 3 And I wrote this same unto you, lest, 13 I had no rest in my spirit, because I when I came, I should have sorrow from found not Titus my brother: but taking my them of whom I ought to rejoice; having leave of them, I went from thence into confidence in you all, that my joy is the joy Macedonia. of you all.
14 Now thanks be unto God, which always 4 For out of much affliction and anguish causeth us to triumph in Christ, and maketh of heart I wrote unto you with many tears ; manifest the savour of his knowledge by us not that ye should be grieved, but that ye in every place. might know the love which I have more 15 For we are unto God a sweet savour abundantly unto you.
of Christ, in them that are saved, and in 5 But if any have caused grief, he hath them that perish: not grieved me, but in part: that I may 16 To the one we are the savour of death not overcharge you all.
unto death; and to the other the savour of 6 Sufficient to such a man is this 'punish- life unto life. And who is sufficient for ment, which was inflicted of many.
these things? 7 So that contrariwise ye ought rather to 17 For we are not as many, which * corforgive him, and comfort him, lest perhaps rupt the word of God: but as of sincerity, such a one should be swallowed up with but as of God, in the sight of God speak we overmuch sorrow.
in Christ. 1 Or, censure. 9 0r, in the sight. 3 Or, deal deceitfully with. • Chap. 4.2. [Verse 13. “ Because I found not Titus." —See the introductory note.
14. “ Always causeth us to triumph in Christ, and maketh manifest the savour,” &c.—Elsner and many other commentators think, with sufficient reason, that there is here an allusion to the perfumes that were usually censed during the triumphal processions of Roman conquerors. Plutarch, on an occasion of this kind, describes the streets and temples as being evusopatwy sängus, "full of incense,” which might not improperly be called an odour of death to the vanquished, and of life the conquerors. It is possible that in the following verses the apostle further alludes to the different effects of strong perfumes, to cheer some, and to throw others into various disorders, according to the different dispositions they may be in to receive them.
There is perhaps not equal foundation for another conjecture which has been offered that the expression “causeth us to triumph in Christ,” contains an allusion to the custom of victorious generals, who, in their triumphal processions, were wont to carry some of their relations with them in their chariot.
6 Who also hath made us able ministers
of the new testament; not of the letter, but | Lest their false teachers should charge him with of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the vainglory, he sheweth the faith and graces of the spirit 'giveth life. Corinthians to be a sufficient commendation of his ministry. 6 Whereupon entering a comparison
7 But if the ministration of death, written between the ministers of the law and of the Gos- and engraven in stones, was glorious, pel, 12 he proveth that his ministry is so far the that the children of Israel could not stedmore ercellent, as the Gospel of life and liberty is fastly behold the face of Moses for the glory more glorious than the law of condemnation.
of his countenance; which glory was to be Do we begin again to commend ourselves ? done away: or need we, as some others, epistles of com- 8 How shall not the ministration of the mendation to you, or letters of commenda- spirit be rather glorious ? tion from you?
9 For if the ministration of condemna2 Ye are our epistle written in our tion be glory, much more doth the minishearts, known and read of all men :
tration of righteousness exceed in glory: 3 Forasmuch as ye are manifestly declared 10 For even that which was made glorito be the epistle of Christ ministered by us, ous had no glory in this respect, by reason written not with ink, but with the Spirit of of the glory that excelleth. the living God: not in tables of stone, but 11 For if that which was done away tas in fleshy tables of the heart.
glorious, much more that which remaineth 4 And such trust have we through Christ is glorious. to God-ward :
12 Seeing then that we have such hope, 5 Not that we are sufficient of ourselves we use great plainness of speech: to think any thing as of ourselves; but our 13 And not as Moses, which put sufficiency is of God;
over his face, that the children of Israel 1 Or, quickeneth. Or, boldness. * Exod. 34. 33.
vail uld not stedfastly look to the end of that 16 Nevertheless when it shall turn to the hich is abolished:
Lord, the vail shall be taken away. 14 But their minds were blinded : for 17 Now the Lord is that Spirit: and where til this day remaineth the same vail un- the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty. ken away in the reading of the old testa- 18 But we all, with open face beholding int; which vail is done away in Christ. as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are 15 But even unto this day, when Moses is changed into the same image from glory to id, the vail is upon their heart.
glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord.
• Or, of the Lord the Spirit. 'erse 1. “ Epistles of commendation.”—These commendatory letters, or letters of introduction, were much in use in primitive church, and are often mentioned by the early Christian writers. A Christian being about to travel, was ished by the church to which he belonged, or from individual members of it, with letters to churches or individual istians, in the towns through which he intended to pass, and, more particularly in the place to which he was going. se letters secured the bearer the warmest hospitality and fraternal consideration from the parties to whom they e addressed. Dr. Hammond-whose citations, from classical and early Christian writers, amply illustrate the om-thinks it derived from the tessera hospitalitatis of the Greeks and Romans: but it was also a custom of the s; and, as Bloomfield observes, it was in itself likely to be a custom wherever letters were known and personal comnication not very frequent. “ Tables of the heart." - This expression frequently occurs in the Jewish writings; and the metaphor of writing livingly on the heart, the soul, things that should be remembered well, and be never absent from the mind, ther with the distinction of such tablets, and such writing, from that which might be forgotten or laid aside, written ablets that might be torn or broken, and with ink which might be blotted out-was very familiar to them, and 1 also occurs in the classical writings. “ The letter kılleth, but the spirit,” &c.- Possibly the expression may be derived from a distinction which the Jews in the habit of making between the body and soul of the law. “The words are the body of the law, and the book ie law is the clothing ; but besides these, there is the soul of the law, which they who are wise look into.” Zohar Cum, fol. 63. 3. : “When Moses is read.”—In the note to Luke iv, 16, we have explained the manner of reading the Law in the sh synagogues. We now introduce a cut which will illustrate the details there given.
7 But we have this treasure in earthen
vessels, that the excellency of the power le declareth how he hath used all sincerity and uithful diligence in preaching the Gospel, 1 and may be of God, and not of us. ow the troubles and persecutions which he daily
8 We aretroubled on every side, yet not disndured for the same did redound to the praise of tressed; we are perplexed, but ’not in despair; jod's power, 12 to the benefit of the Church, 16 9 Persecuted, but not forsaken; cast nd to the apostle's own eternal glory.
down, but not destroyed; IEREFORE seeing we have this ministry, as 10 Always bearing about in the body the have received mercy, we faint not; dying of the Lord Jesus, that the life also 2 But have renounced the hidden things of Jesus might be made manifest in our body. 'dishonesty, not walking in craftiness, nor 11 For we which live are alway delivered ndling the word of God deceitfully; but unto death for Jesus' sake, that the life also manifestation of the truth commending of Jesus might be made manifest in our rselves to every man's conscience in the mortal flesh. "ht of God.
12 So then death worketh in us, but life 3 But if our Gospel be hid, it is hid to in you. 'm that are lost :
13 We having the same spirit of faith, ac4 In whom the god of this world hath cording as it is written, 'I believed, and I nded the minds of them which believe therefore have I spoken; we also believe,
t, lest the light of the glorious Gospel of and therefore speak; rist, who is the image of God, should 14 Knowing that he which raised up the .ne unto them.
Lord Jesus shall raise up us also by Jesus, 5 For we preach not ourselves, but Christ and shall present us with you. sus the Lord; and ourselves your ser- 15 For all things are for your sakes, that the ats for Jesus' sake.
abundant grace might through the thanks6 For God, who commanded the light to giving of many redound to the glory of God. ne out of darkness, hath shined in our 16 For which cause we faint not; but arts, to give the light of the knowledge of though our outward man perish, yet the ine glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ. I ward man is renewed day by day. ? Or, not altogether without help, or, means.
1 Gr, shame.
3 Psal. 116. 10.
17 For our light affliction, which is but are seen, but at the things which are not for a moment, worketh for us a far more ex- seen: for the things which are seen are ceeding and eternal weight of glory; temporal; but the things which are not
18 While we look not at the things which I seen are eternal. Verse 3. “ If our Gospel be hid.”—It is important to observe that the metaphor here is closely connected with that in ch. ii. 15. There the apostle says, the veil was upon the hearts of the Jews (not upon the Law itself) when they heard the Law of Moses read ; so now, he says, to adopt the translation of Doddridge, * If our Gospel be under a reil too, it is veiled to them that are lost:" that is to say, that the veil is upon their hearts, not upon the Gospel itself, as it was upon the hearts of the Jews with respect to the Law of Moses. In both cases there is very probably an allusion to the veil which the Jews wore when they worshipped.
7. “We have this treasure in earthen vessels.”—In vessels of clay, which are always brittle, and often remarkably 99 in East (see the note on Lev. xv. 12). But the word és tparnos also, and indeed in its primary signification, means "* testaceous," as being from otpuxov, a shell; and shells were often made use of to contain things of value in twe cabinets of the curious. Being thus employed, and being moreover brittle, the word came to denote also fragile vessels of clay. The idea suggested by the metaphor is therefore the same with both explanations.
17. “ A far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory."—All translators confess their inability to find terins in ce language by which adequately to express the force of this remarkable sentence. The Greek language only affards materials for so powerful an expression. " It is,” says Blackwall, “ infinitely emphatical, and cannot be expressed by any translation. It signifies that all hyperboles fall short of describing that weighty, eternal glory, so solid and lasting that you may pass from one hyperbole to another, and yet, when you have gained the last, are infinitely below it(“Sacred Classicks,' vol. i. p. 337.) Correspondingly, Horne translates, “ A weight of glory, infinite and eternal, beyed all hyperbole and expression.” While on this subject, we willingly transcribe the following observations, cited by se same author, from the Gospel Advocate' (Boston, Mass. 1824):-—“ Occasionally the student of the Epistles (oi Paul) is at once astonished and delighted by a fervency of language unexampled in any other writer. Words of the most intense signification are accumulated, and, by their very strength, are made to express their weakness when we pared with the inexpressible greatness of their object. Our langnage cannot express the force of rat Stubis ss urspbedny uwie Bargos dorms (2 Cor. iv. 17), which is but faintly shadowed forth in the translation of an eminent ent... • an excessively exceeding and eternal weight of glory.' Numerous, and some, if possible, more striking exames occur, but cannot be adequately displayed in any, even the best, translation. Even the ordinary grammatical da pounds are not sufficient for the glowing ideas of ihe apostle. Thus, wishing to express his own utier worthlesspiss, considered in himself, he makes use of a comparative found only in the most exalted sentences of the classic authors,ffect on thCMCI TOTIQq; not unaptly rendered by our translators, « less than the least.'»
7 (For we walk by faith, not by sight :)
8 We are confident, I say, and willing 1 That in his assured hope of immortal glory, 9 and rather to be absent from the body, and to be
in expectance of it, and of the general judgment,
9 Wherefore we 'labour, that, whether that, having received life from Christ, endeavour- present or absent, we may be accepted of eth to live as a new creature to Christ only, 18
him. and by his ministry of reconciliution to reconcile
10 "For we must all appear before the others also in Christ to God.
judgment seat of Christ; that every one For we know that if our earthly house of may receive the things done in his body, this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a | according to that he hath done, whether it building of God, an house not made with be good or bad. hands, eternal in the heavens.
il Knowing therefore the terror of the 2 For in this we groan, earnestly desiring Lord, we persuade men; but we are made to be clothed upon with our house which manifest unto God; and I trust also are is from heaven:
made manifest in your consciences. 3 If so be that being clothed we shall not 12 For we commend not ourselves again be found naked.
unto you, but give you occasion to glory ou 4 For we that are in this tabernacle do our behalf, that ye may have somewhat to groan, being burdened: not for that we answer them which glory 'in appearance. would be unclothed, but clothed upon, that and not in heart. mortality might be swallowed up of life. 13 For whether we be beside ourselves.
5 Now he that hath wrought us for the it is to God: or whether we be sober, it is selfsame thing is God, who also hath given for
your cause, unto us the earnest of the Spirit.
14 For the love of Christ constraineth 6 Therefore we are always confident,
are always confident, us; because we thus judge, that if one died knowing that, whilst we are at home in the for all, then were all dead: body, we are absent from the Lord :
15 And that he died for all, that they 1 Or, endeavour.
3 Gr. in the
2 Rom. 14. 10.
which live should not henceforth live unto | and hath given to us the ministry of reconthemselves, but unto him which died for ciliation; them, and rose again.
19 To wit, that God was in Christ, recon16 Wherefore henceforth know we no ciling the world unto himself, not imputing man after the flesh: yea, though we have their trespasses unto them; and hath 'comknown Christ after the flesh, yet now hence- mitted unto us the word of reconciliation. forth know we him no more.
20 Now then we are ambassadors for 17 Therefore if any man be in Christ, the Christ, as though God did beseech you by is a new creature: Sold things are passed us: we pray you in Christ's stead, be away ; behold, all things are become conciled to God. new.
21 For he hath made him to be sin for 18 And all things are of God, who hath us, who knew no sin; that we might be reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ, I made the righteousness of God in him. . Or, let him be.
B Gr. put in us. Verse 1. “Our earthly house." —The leading idea in the very striking and sustained metaphor which follows, comparing the human frame to a dwelling, and that one of the humblest description—as a tent, hut, or shed, liable to be * dissolved,” worn down, broken, decayed, by the course of time and the action of the elements-occurs sometimes in both the classical and Jewish writers; but nowhere with so much force as here, where this fragile tenement is so emphatically contrasted with the “house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens." Waller's beautiful lines will occur to many readers :
“The soul's dark cottage, battered and decayed,
Lets in new light through chinks that time has made." 4. “ Not for that we would be unclothed, but clothed upon.”—The figurative language which the apostle is here employing, is very similar to what we read in the Jewish writers, who speak of this mortal body as a clothing of which the soul is divested at death, and as being arrayed with other and better clothing in Paradise. “When a man's time is come to leave this world, he does not depart until the angel of death has stripped him of the clothing of this body. And when the soul is stripped of the body by the angel of death, it departeth, and is arrayed with that other body which is in Paradise.” Again: "The soul does not mount up to appear before the Holy King, until it is held worthy to be clothed with that clothing which is above.” (Zohar in Exod., fol. 62, 92.)
5 Isa. 43. 19. Rev. 21. 5.
suffering, by kindness, by the Holy Ghost,
by love unfeigned, i That he hath approved himself a faithful minister 7 By the word of truth, by the power of
of Christ, both by his exhortations, 3 and by in- God, by the armour of righteousness on the tegrity of life, 4 and by patient enduring all kinds right hand and on the left
, of affliction and disgraces for the Gospel. 10 Of which he speaketh the more boldly amongst them,
8 By honour and dishonour, by evil rebecause his heart is open to them, 13 and he ex- port and good report: as deceivers, and yet pecteth the like affection from them again, 14 true; exhorting to flee the society and pollutions of idol
9 As unknown, and yet well known; as aters
, as being themselves temples of the living dying, and, behold, we live; as chastened, God.
and not killed; We then, as workers together with him, be- 10 As sorrowful, yet alway rejoicing; as seech
also that ye receive not the grace poor, yet making many rich; as having noof God in vain.
thing, and yet possessing all things.
2 (For he saith, I have heard thee in a Ti O ye Corinthians, our mouth is open
time accepted, and in the day of salvation unto you, our heart is enlarged. have I succoured thee: behold, now is the 12 Ye are not straitened in us, but
ye accepted time; behold, now is the day of are straitened in
your own bowels. salvation.)
13 Now for a recompence in the same, 3 'Giving no offence in any thing, that (I speak as unto my children,) be ye also the ministry be not blamed:
enlarged. 4 But in all things approving ourselves 14 Be ye not unequally yoked together as the ministers of God, in much patience, with unbelievers : for what fellowship hath in afflictions, in necessities, in distresses, righteousness with unrighteousness? and
5 In stripes, in imprisonments, 'in tu- what communion hath light with darkmults, in labours, in watchings, in fastings; ness? 6 By pureness, by knowledge, by long- 15 And what concord hath Christ with
3 Gr.commending. • Or, in tossings to and
1 Isa, 49. 8.
% 1 Cor. 10.32.