« FöregåendeFortsätt »
land are called Querns. In the centre of the upper stone was a cavity for pouring in the corn; and by the side of this, a: Wright wooden handle for moving the stone. As the operation began, one of the women with her right hand pushed this handle to the woman opposite, who again sent it to her companion,—thus communicating a rotatory and very rapid motion to the upper stune; their left hands being all the while employed in supplying fresh corn, as fast as the brain and Hour escaped from the sides of the machine" (< Travels,' iv. 167–8). But although this hand-mill is in general use throughout the East, where wind or water-mills are unknown; yet, as its smallness renders the operation indivus, a fixed mill is sometimes used in large establishments. This differs little from the portable mill except in its larger size. It acts in the same manner as the other, and like that is worked by women, as appears from our present engraving, which shows a Sicilian mill of a similar description. We rather think that the Jews may have had such a mill as this-- besides the common small one; and we are supported in this by finding that they certainly had some larger mills than the common ; for the Talmud lets us kuow that, like other nations, they had large mills which were iurned by asses. The asses of mills are often mentioned, and notice is taken of a man who worked his mill with wild asses. We mention this merely to show that the Jews had large mills; and that therefore the large and fixed mill was probably in use among them. The large and small hand-mills, together with the large one worked by an ass, mule, or horse, are often found to be in use in the same country. It deserves to be noticed here, that the mill-stone meationed in ch. xvii. 6, is in the original called an ass mill-stone, which might suggest that it denotes one of those larger mill-stones belonging to a mill worked ty an ass: but this is not quite certain, as it happens that the lower mill stone of the hand mill was also called the ass, on account of the burden which it bore.
Such of the other contents of this important chapter as require illustration, will receive it under the parallel passages in Mark and Luke.
his own servants, and delivered unto them 1 The parable of the ten virgins, 14 and of the ta
his goods. lents. 31 Also the description of the last judg- 15 And unto one he gave five 'talents, to ment.
another two, and to another one; to every Then shall the kingdom of heaven be man according to his several ability; and likened unto ten virgins, which took their straightway took his journey. lamps, and went forth to meet the bride- 16 Then he that had received the five groom.
talents went and traded with the same, and 2 And five of them were wise, and five made them other five talents. were foolish.
17 And likewise he that had received 3 They that were foolish took their lamps, two, he also gained other two. and took no oil with them :
18 But he that had received one went 4 But the wise took oil in their vessels and digged in the earth, and hid his lord's with their lamps.
money 5 While the bridegroom tarried, they all 19 After a long time the lord of those slumbered and slept.
servants cometh, and reckoneth with them. 6 And at midnight there was a cry made, 20 And so he that had received five taBehold, the bridegroom cometh; go ye out lents came and brought other five talents, to meet him.
saying, Lord, thou deliveredst unto me five 7 Then all those virgins arose, and trim- talents : behold, I have gained beside them med their lamps.
five talents more. 8 And the foolish said unto the wise, Give 21 His lord said unto him, Well done, us of your oil; for our lamps are 'gone out. thou good and faithful servant : thou hast
9 But the wise answered, saying, Not so; been faithful over a few things, I will make lest there be not enough for us and you: thee ruler over many things: enter thou but
go ye rather to them that sell, and buy into the joy of thy lord. for yourselves.
22 He also that had received two talents 10 And while they went to buy, the came and said, Lord, thou deliveredst unto bridegroom came ; and they that were ready me two talents : behold, I have gained two went in with him to the marriage: and the other talents beside them. door was shut.
23 His lord said unto him, Well done, !! Afterward came also the other virgins, good and faithful servant; thou hast been saying, Lord, Lord, open to us.
faithful over a few things, I will make thee 12 But he answered and said, Verily I ruler over many things : enter thou into the say unto you, I know
joy of thy lord. 13 Watch therefore, for ye know neither 24 Then he which had received the one
nor the hour wherein the Son of talent came and said, Lord, I knew thee that man cometh.
thou art an hard man, reaping where thou 14 f 'For the kingdom of heaven is as a hast not sown, and gathering where thou man travelling into a far country, who called hast not strawed : "Or, roing out * Chap. 24. 42. Mark 13. 33.
• A talent is 1871. 108.--chap. 18. 24.
* Luke 19, 12.
25 And I was afraid, and went and hid 36 Naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick, thy talent in the earth: lo, there thou hast and ye visited me: I was in prison, and ye that is thine.
came unto me. 26 His lord answered and said unto him, 37 Then shall the righteous answer him, Thou wicked and slothful servant, thou saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hunknewest that I reap where I sowed not, and gred, and fed thee? or thirsty, and gave gather where I have not strawed :
thee drink? 27 Thou oughtest therefore to have put 38 When saw we thee a stranger, and took my money to the exchangers, and then at thee in? or naked, and clothed thee? my coming I should have received mine 39 Or when saw we thee sick, or in priown with usury.
son, and came unto thee? 28 Take therefore the talent from him, 40 And the King shall answer and say and give it unto him which hath ten talents. unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch
29 "For unto every one that hath shall be as ye have done it unto one of the least of given, and he shall have abundance: but these my brethren, ye have done it unto from him that hath not shall be taken
away even that which he hath.
41 Then shall he say also unto them on 30 And cast ye the unprofitable servant | the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into outer darkness: there shall be weeping into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and gnashing of teeth.
and his angels: 31 9 When the Son of man shall come in 42 For I was an hungred, and ye gave his glory, and all the holy angels with him, me no meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me then shall he sit upon the throne of his
no drink : glory:
43 I was a stranger, and ye
took me not 32 And before him shall be gathered all in: naked, and ye clothed me not : sick, and nations: and he shall separate them one in prison, and ye visited me not. from another, as a shepherd divideth his 44 Then shall they also answer him, saysheep from the goats :
ing, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, or 33 And he shall set the sheep on his athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or right hand, but the goats on the left. in prison, and did not minister unto thee?
34 Then shall the King say unto them 45 Then shall he answer them, saying, on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for it not to one of the least of these, ye did it you from the foundation of the world :
not to me. 35 'For I was an hungred, and ye gave 46 And these shall go away into everme meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me lasting punishment: but the righteous into drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me in : life eternal.
5 Chap. 13. 12. Mark 4. 25. Luke 8. 18. & Isa, 58.7. Ezek, 18.7. 7 Psal. 6. 8. Chap. 7.23. 8 Dan. 19. 2. John 5. 29. Verse 1. “ Took their lamps.". It appears from this and the whole narrative that the Jewish nuptial processions took place by night, and by the light of torches or lamps. This is still the prevailing custom in the East, and was in ancient times the same also among the Greeks and Romans. Homer describes (Iliad xviii.) “ Rites matrimonial solemnized with pomp
Of hymeneal song, heard all around.
Of pipe and harp, while in the portals stood
Women, admiring, all, the gallant show."
COWPER. In this there is scarcely any thing which may not be traced in the Jewish ceremonies ; even the “striplings dancing to the sound of pipe and harp," illustrates Luke vii. 32, where the children crying to each other in the market place “We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced,” are generally supposed to allude to the rejoicing nuptial procession. As to the lamps or torches used on such occasions, the Rabbins indicate their form as similar to those used by the “Ishmaelites" or Arabians, and which are thus mentioned by Jarchi :-“ It was the custom in the land of Ishmael to bring the bride from the house of her father to that of her husband, in the night time: and there were about ten staves, upon the top of each of which was a brazen dish, containing rags, oil, and pitch, and this being kindled formed blazing torches, which were carried before the bride.” These are just the same torches which are still employed on similar occasions by the people of Arabia and Egypt.
“ Went forth to meet the bridegroom.”—It is remarkable here that the Syriac, Persic, and Vulgate versions add, and the bride." But this does not exist in any Greek copies, except the Cambridge one of Beza's. Although the testi. mony of these versions—particularly the Syriac-is very valuable, we are not disposed to insist that they supply an omission in the Greek copies ; it being quite sufficient for explanatory purposes, if we find, from this testimony, that the authors of these versions, who were well acquainted with Oriental manners, understood the procession to be that of the bridegroom and the bride-that is, of the bridegroom conducting the bride home from her father's house. And this is the explanation we had been led to consider the most probable, even before we knew that it had the sanction of the
versions we have named. It comports well enough with Oriental ideas to mention the procession as the bridegroom's, even when the bride is present in it: there can be no doubt that the procession is that of the night in which the bridegroom fetches home his bride from the house of her father: and the only question which can arise is, whether he is now described as proceeding to take her, or as returning with her. Ás the bride is not named, the former alternative is usually taken. But in this case the virgins must be supposed to have been in attendance on the bride, and for these or any women to go forth to meet the bridegroom and his male attendants, would have been very contrary ta those ideas of delicacy which the Orientals exhibit on such occasions. And, moreover, it appears that the marriage entertainment, to which the foolish virgins in vain sought admittance, was held at the bridegroom's house, since it is he who takes upon him to answer the application which they made, and since the grand and final entertainment is and was held at the bridegroom's house after the bride was brought home. For these and other reasons, too minute to state on a question of no great importance, but conclusive to one acquainted with Oriental manners, we feel satisfied that the procession was that of the bridegroom conducting home his bride. It only then remains doubtful whether the virgins were friends of the females of the bridegroom's family, and who were in attendance at his house ready to meet and receive the bride on her approach ; or whether they were young women living in the neighbourhood, and more or less acquainted with the parties, who proposed to meet the procession with their lamps on its approach to their station, and accompany it to the house of the bridegroom. We imagine the latter to be the best explanation, as we know, from the Rabbins, that it was considered an act of kindness and consideration to attend on such occasions, whether iavited
The custom of conveying the bride with great state to her future home is universal in the East; but the details are modified by the local usages and religions of the different countries ; and sometimes there are differences even in the same country. In Syria, Persia, and in India the bridegroom in person brings home his bride; the Turks more usualiy devolve this duty on a near relative, and remain at home to receive the lady on her arrival. We may collect from Scripture and the Rabbinical traditions, that the Jews had both usages, but that the former was the most common. Again, in Egypt, the bridegroom goes to the mosque when the bride is expected, and returns home in procession after she has arrived. In Western Asia the procession usually walks, if the bride's future house is at no great distance in the same town. The bride then generally walks under a canopy, but when the distance is too great-and, in central and eastern Asia, whether the distance be great or small-the bride rides on a mare, mule, ass, or camel, or is carried in a litter or palanquin. Sometimes, when the distance is not great-the bride alone (or the bridegroom also, if present) rides, and the rest walk-as among the Druses of Lebanon. Much depends on the circumstances of the parties. We think we can collect that the Jews practised nearly all these methods; but that, when the bridegroom's residence was near, the bride walked on foot under a canopy. When the bridegroom himself brings home his bride, the former with his friends usually moves in front, sometimes with an interval between the two parties: but they often coalesce, as if for the protection of ihe bride and her party, and then the bridegroom and bride move near each other, or even, as in India, are borne in the same palanquin. On this point we have not been able to discern clearly the practice of the Jews; but suspect that it varied with circumstances and in the course of the ages which their history embraces. Music usually attends such processions, and often dancing; the Jews certainly had the former, and, as some think, the latter also at least in the time of our Saviour. These observations, which are necessarily brief, may serve to convey some ideas concerning the nuptial processions of the Hebrews. The engravings we now give may afford some further assistance. The first represents an Indian bridegroom proceeding to take hone his bride ; and it might equally be taken to illustrate the return, with the bridegroom in advance of the bride. The other cut shows the manner in which the bride is conveyed home by the Druses of Lebanon-which will be considered the more satisfactory from the Scriptural interest of the locality, and from the fact that ancient customs are always the longest preserved among the mountains.
10. " The door was shut.”—The following, from Ward's View of the Hindoos,' contains some points of illustration, although it rather relates to the arrival of the bridegroom to take his bride than to his coming home with her. "At a marriage, the procession of which I saw some years ago, the bridegroom came from a distance, and the bride lived at Serampore, to which place the bridegroom was to come by water. After waiting two hours, at length, near midnight, it was announced, as if in the very words of Scripture, “Behold the bridegroom cometh, go ye out to meet him.' All the persons employed-[Were any of them females ?)—now lighted their lamps, and ran with them in their hands to fill up their stations in the procession ; some of them had lost their lamps, and were unprepared; but it was then too late to seek them, and the cavalcade moved forward to the house of the bride, at which place the company entered a large and splendidly illuminated area before the house, covered with an awning, where a great multitude of friends, dressed in their best apparel, were seated upon mats. The bridegroom was carried in the arms of a friend, and placed upon a superb seat in the midst of the company, where he sat a short time, and then went into the house, the door of which was immediately shut, and guarded by sepoys. I and others expostulated with the doorkeepers, but in vain. Never was I so struck with our Lord's beautiful parable as at this moment: “And the door was shut! I was exceedingly anxious to be present while the marriage formulas were repeated, but was obliged to depart in disappointment."
3 Then assembled together the Chief
Priests, and the Scribes, and the elders of I The rulers conspire against Christ. 6 The woman anointeth his head. 14 Judas selleth him. the people, unto the palace of the high priest, 17 Christ eateth the Passover : 26 instituteth his who was called Caiaphas, holy supper : 36 prayeth in the garden: 47 and 4 And consulted that they might take being betrayed with a kiss, 57 is carried to Caia- Jesus by subtilty, and kill him. phas, 69 and denied of Peter.
5 But they said, Not on the feast day, And it came to pass, when Jesus had finish lest there be an uproar among the people. ed all these sayings, he said unto his disciples, 6 T 'Now when Jesus was in Bethany, in
2 'Ye know that after two days is the the house of Simon the leper, feast of the Passover, and the Son of man is 7 There came unto him a woman having betrayed to be crucified.
an alabaster box of very precious ointment, and poured it on his head, as he sat at 26 | And as they were eating, Jesus meal.
2 John Il. 47.
I Mark 14. l. Luke 92. 1. John 13. I.
3 Mark 14. 3. Joho 11. 1.
took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, 8 But when his disciples saw it, they had and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, indignation, saying, To what purpose is this eat; this is my body. waste?
27 And he took the cup, and
gave thanks, 9 For this ointment might have been sold and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all for much, and given to the poor.
of it; 10 When Jesus understood it, he said 28 For this is my blood of the new testaunto them, Why trouble ye the woman? for ment, which is shed for many for the remisshe hath wrought a good work upon me. sion of sins.
11 For ye have the poor always with you; 29 But I say unto you, I will not drink but me ye have not always.
henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until 12 For in that she hath poured this oint- that day when I drink it new with you in my ment on my body, she did it for my burial.
Father's kingdom. 13 Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever 30 And when they had sung an "hymn, this Gospel shall be preached in the whole they went out into the mount of Olives. world, there shall also this, that this woman 31 Then saith Jesus unto them, "All ye hath done, be told for a memorial of her. shall be offended because of me this night:
14 | 'Then one of the twelve, called Ju- for it is written, 'I will smite the shepherd, das Iscariot, went unto the Chief Priests, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered
15 And said unto them, What will ye give abroad. me, and I will deliver him unto you? And 32 But after I am risen again, "I will go they covenanted with him for thirty pieces before you into Galilee. of silver.
33 Peter answered and said unto him, 16 And from that time he sought oppor- Though all men shall be offended because tunity to betray him.
of thee, yet will I never be offended. 17' q 'Now the first day of the feast of
34 Jesus said unto him, "Verily I say unleavened bread the disciples came to Je- unto thee, That this night, before the cock sus, saying unto him, Where wilt thou that crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. we prepare for thee to eat the Passover ? 35 Peter said unto him, Though I should
1o And he said, Go into the city to such die with thee, yet will I not deny thec. Likea man, and say unto him, The Master saith, wise also said all the disciples. My time is at hand; I will keep the Pass- 36 | "Then cometh Jesus with them over at thy house with my disciples. unto a place called Gethsemane, and saith
19 And the disciples did as Jesus had unto the disciples, Sit ye here, while I go appointed them; and they made ready the and pray yonder. Passover
37 And he took with him Peter and the 20 "Now when the even was come, he sat two sons of Zebedee, and began to be down with the twelve.
rowful and very heavy. 21 And as they did eat, he said, Verily I 38 Then saith he unto them. My soul is say unto you, that one of you shall betray exceeding sorrowful, even unto death : tarry me.
ye here, and watch with me. 22 And they were exceeding sorrowful, 39 And he went a little farther, and fell and began every one of them to say unto on his face, and prayed, saying, O my Fahim, Lord, is it I ?
ther, if it be possible, let this cup pass from 23 And he answered and said, 'He that me : nevertheless not as I will, but as thou dippeth his hand with me in the dish, the wilt. same shall betray me.
40 And he cometh unto the disciples, and 24 The Son of man goeth as it is written findeth them asleep, and saith unto Peter, of him: but woe unto that man by whom What, could ye not watch with me the Son of man is betrayed ! it had been hour ? good for that man if he had not been born. 41 Watch and pray, that ye enter not into
25 Then Judas, which betrayed him, temptation: the spirit indeed is willing, but answered and said, Master, is it I? He said the flesh is weak. unto him, Thou hast said.
42 He went away again the second time,
• Cent, 15 11. Mark 14. 10. Luke 99. 3. • Mark 14. 12. Luke 92. 7. 7 Mark 14. 18 Luke 72 11 John 13. 21. 8 Psal. 41. 9. I Cor. 11. 23, 24. 10 Many Greek copies have. gare thanks. 11 Or. psalm.
18 Zech. 13. 7.
IX Mark 14 27. John 16 32. 14 Maik 14. 28, and 16.7. 15 John 13. 38. 18 Mark 14. 32. Luke. 3).