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man with an unclean spirit; and he cried and suffered not the devils 'to speak, beout,

cause they knew him. 24 Saying, Let us alone; what have we 35 And in the morning, rising up a great to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth ? | while before day, he went out, and departed art thou come to destroy us? I know thee into a solitary place, and there prayed. who thou art, the Holy One of God.

36 And Simon and they that were with 25 And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold him followed after him. thy peace, and come out of him.

37 And when they had found him, they 26 And when the unclean spirit had torn said unto him, All men seek for thee. him, and cried with a loud voice, he came 38 And he said unto them, Let us go out of him.

into the next towns, that I may preach there 27 And they were all amazed, insomuch also: for therefore came I forth. that they questioned among themselves, 39 And he preached in their synagogues saying, What thing is this? what new doc- throughout all Galilee, and cast out devils. trine is this? for with authority commandeth 40 17 And there came a leper to him, behe even the unclean spirits, and they do seeching him, and kneeling down to him, obey him.

and saying unto him, If thou wilt, thou 28 And immediately his fame spread canst make me clean. abroad throughout all the region round 41 And Jesus, moved with compassion, about Galilee.

put forth his hand, and touched him, and 29 And forthwith, when they were come saith unto him, I will; be thou clean. out of the synagogue, they entered into the 42 And as soon as he had spoken, immehouse of Simon and Andrew, with James diately the leprosy departed from him, and and John.

he was cleansed. 30 But Simon's wife's mother lay sick of 43 And he straitly charged him, and a fever, and anon they tell him of her. forthwith sent him

away; 31 And he came and took her by the hand, 44 And saith unto him, See thou say noand lifted her up; and immediately the fever thing to any man: but go thy way, shew left her, and she ministered unto them. thyself to the priest, and offer for thy cleans

32 And at even, when the sun did set, ing those things which Moses commanded, they brought unto him all that were dis- for a testimony unto them. cased, and them that were possessed with 45 "But he went out, and began to pubdevils.

lish it much, and to blaze abroad the matter, 33 And all the city was gathered together insomuch that Jesus could no more openly at the door.

enter into the city, but was without in de. 34 And he healed many that were sick sert places: and they came to him from of divers diseases, and cast out many devils; every quarter. 15 Matt. 8. 11, 18 Or, to say that they knew him.

18 Luke 5. 15. Mark.-Although it has been questioned by some writers, there appears no sufficient reason to doubt that the author of this Gospel is the same Mark whose name so frequently occurs in the Acts of the Apostles. Matthew and John were apostles, Mark and Luke apostolic men, as Tertullian well distinguishes. St. Peter calls him his son; probably meaning his convert, or son in the faith: a fact which bears against the conclusion that he was one of the Seventy disciples sent forth by our Saviour. He was most probably converted, through St. Peter, at some time after our Lord's ascension. We know he was a Jew, and nephew to Barnabas. His Jewish name was John, to which Mark (Mareus) was a Roman addition, which was probably, as Michaelis supposes, assumed by him when he left Judea to go into foreign countries, a practice not unusual among the Jews of that age, who frequently assumed a name more familiar to the nations which they visited than that by which they had been distinguished in their own country. The passage which informs us of his original name (Acts xii. 12) also acquaints us that his mother's name was Mary, that she lived at Jerusalem, and that the Christians of that city frequently assembled at her house. We also collect that Mark accompanied Paul and Barnabas on their visit to the Gentiles (Acts xii. 25), but that he left them at Pamphylia, and returned to Jerusalem (xiii. 13), in consequence of which Paul refused to take him on the next journey (xv. 36-40). This unhappily created a "sharp contention” between Paul and Barnabas, the result of which was that they separated, and Barnabas took Mark with him to Cyprus. Paul was however afterwards reconciled to Mark, who again became his fellow-labourer, and was with him during his imprisonment at Rome (Col. iv. I. Philem. 24). That Mark was also at Rome with St. Peter (1 Pet. v. 13) is the only other particular concerning him which the Scriptures contain. The ancient tradition is, that he went to preach the Gospel in Egypt: and to this day the Coptic Christians of that country look upon St. Mark as the founder and first bishop of their church ; and their patriarch styles himself “The unworthy servant of Jesus Christ, called by the grace of God, and by his gracious will appointed to his service, and to the see of the holy evangelist Mark.” It is also added, that he remained in Egypt, and died at Alexandria, in the eighth year of Nero (A.D. 61 or 62). Some comparatively modern writers state that he suffered martyrdom; but this is not said by any ancient writer, and is contradicted by Jerome, whose expressions appear to imply that he died a natural death. All the ancient Christian writers, from the beginning of the second century downward, agree that Mark wrote his

17 Matt. 8. 2.

Gospel at Rome, under the instructions of St. Peter. This statement agrees exceedingly well with the contents of the book, and afford an interesting indication of the great modesty of the apostle's character. The transactions in which he (Peter) was personally concerned are related with greater circumstantiality than in the other Evangelists, especially those in which he does not appear to advantage; while other circumstances which redound to his honour, and the high commendations which his Lord bestowed upon him, are entirely omitted.

The church at Rome, for the use of which the Gospel appears in the first instance to have been written, included some Jews, but was chiefly composed of Gentiles. Hence the Evangelist explains many little circumstances, concerning which a Jew would have needed no information ; as when he does not simply name the Jordan, but says "the river of Jordan.” (i. 5); explains “ defiled,” or common hands, by," that is, unwashen” (vii. 2); subjoins to the word “Corban” the interpretation, “that is, a gift” (vii. 11); uses the clearer term “ riches," instead of “mammon;" and so on, in similar examples.

As there is much verbal agreement between Mark's Gospel and that of Matthew, many have thought that Mark did little more than set forth an abridgment of the narrative which Matthew had already published. This was first started as a probable opinion by Augustin, and his authority caused it to be received without much examination. Lardner, Koppe, Michaelis, and others, have however shown this opinion to be untenable. Mark has not always followed Matthew in the arrangement of events; and he furnishes several particulars which are not to be found in any other Gospel; while, in narrating the same facts which Matthew records, he is so far from abridging, that his account is often more full and circumstantial.

All antiquity affirms that St. Mark's Gospel was originally written in the Greek language ; but it abounds in such Hebraisms as indicate the Jew by birth and education ; and in such Latinisms as manifest that the author was con. versant with and had sojourned among the Latins. “No writer of the New Testament,” says Michaelis, “has neglected elegance of language and purity of expression more than St. Mark:” as to mere choice of words, this may be true, but taking the book as a whole, we would say with Blackwall (as cited by Horne), “Simplicity and conciseness are the characteristics of Mark's Gospel ; which, considering the copiousness and majesty of its subjects—the variety of great actions it relates, and the surprising circumstances that attended them-together with the numerous and important doctrines which it contains—is the shortest, the clearest, the most marvellous, and at the same time the most satisfactory history in the world.”

See the respective “ Introductions " of Michaelis, Horne, and Hugg; with the Prefaces” of Calmet, Campbell, and Bloomfield ; most of which fully discuss the various points on which we have touched, as well as others from which we have been obliged to abstain.

29. “ The house of Simon and Andrew." —Although we here find them having a dwelling at Capernaum, John (i. 9) informs us that Bethsaida was their native place.

38. " The next towns.”—Campbell renders, “ the neighbouring boroughs,” for the sake of distinguishing that cities are not intended. Lightfoot has here a note explaining the Jewish distinctions between cities, towns, and villages. In conclusion he observes, “ By xwporóasıs, here, we are to understand towns where there were synagogues, which nevertheless were not either fortified nor towns of trade: among us English called .church towns.”” His previous statement shows that by “cities,” we are to understand towns girt with walls, or trading and market-towns, and such as were greater and nobler than others; while “ villages” were country places which possessed no synagogue.

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disciples : for there were many, and they | Christ healeth one sick of the palsy, 14 calleth followed him. Matthew from the receipt of custom, 15 eateth

16 And when the Scribes and Pharisees with Publicans and sinners, 18 excuseth his disci. saw him eat with Publicans and sinners, ples for not fusting, 23 and for plucking the ears they said unto his disciples, How is it that of corn on the sabbath duy.

he cateth and drinketh with Publicans and And again 'he entered into Capernaum sinners ? after some days; and it was noised that he 17 When Jesus heard it, he saith unto was in the house.

them. They that are whole have no need of 2 And straightway many were gathered the physician, but they that are sick: I came together, insomuch that there was no room not to call the righteous, but sinners to reto receive them, no, not so much as about | pentance. the door: and he preached the word unto 18 'And the disciples of John and of the them.

Pharisees used to fast: and they come and 3 And they come unto him, bringing one say unto him, Why do the disciples of John sick of the palsy, which was borne of four. and of the Pharisees fast, but thy disciples

4 And when they could not come nigh fast not? unto him for the press, they uncovered the 19 And Jesus said unto them, Can the roof where he was: and when they had children of the bridechamber fast, while the broken it up, they let down the bed wherein bridegroom is with them? as long as they the sick of the palsy lay.

have the bridegroom with them, they can5 When Jesus saw their faith, he said not fast. unto the sick of the palsy, Son, thy sins be 20 But the days will come, when the forgiven thee.

bridegroom shall be taken away from them, 6 But there were certain of the Seribes and then shall they fast in those days. sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts, 21 No man also seweth a piece of @new

7 Why doth this man thus speak blas- cloth on an old garment: else the new piece phemies! who can forgive sins but God only? that filled it up taketh away from the old,

8 And immediately when Jesus perceived and the rent is made worse. in his spirit that they so reasoned within 22 And no man putteth new wine into themselves, he said unto them, Why reason old bottles: else the new wine doth burst ye these things in your hearts?

the bottles, and the wine is spilled, and the 9 Whether is it easier to say to the sick bottles will be marred: but new wine must of the palsy, Thy sins be forgiven thee; or be put into new bottles. to say, Arise, and take up thy bed, and walk? 23 "And it came to pass, that he went

10 But that ye may know that the Son through the corn fields on the sabbath day; of man hath power on earth to forgive sins, and his disciples began, as they went, to (he saith to the sick of the palsy,)

pluck the ears of corn. 11 I say unto thee, Arise, and take up 24 And the Pharisees said unto him, Bethy bed, and go thy way into thine house. hold, why do they on the sabbath day that

12 And immediately he arose, took up which is not lawful? the bed, and went forth before them all; 25 And he said unto them, Have ye never insomuch that they were all amazed, and read what David did, when he had need, glorified God, saying, We never saw it on and was an hungred, he, and they that this fashion.

were with him? 13 And he went forth again by the sea 26 How he went into the house of God side; and all the multitude resorted unto in the days of Abiathar the High Priest, him, and he taught them.

and did eat the shewbread, which is not 14 'And as he passed by, he saw Levi the lawful to eat but for the Priests, and gave son of Alphæus sitting at the receipt of also to them which were with him? custom, and said unto him, Follow me. And 27 And he said unto them, The sabbath he arose and followed him,

was made for man, and not man for the sab15 And it came to pass, that, as Jesus sat bath: at meat in his house, many Publicans and 28 Therefore the Son of man is Lord also sinners sat also together with Jesus and his of the sabbath. * Matt. 9. 1. Job 14 4. Isa. 43. 95. * Matt 9.9. Or, at the place where the custom eras received. Matt 9. 14. Luke 5. 33.

& Or, rux, or, unutunghi. i Matt. 181.

Verse 19. The children of the bridechamber.”—This alludes to the young men, friends of the bridegroom, who accompanied him and remained in attendance upon him at his marriage. The expression conveys nearly the meaning which we should express by “ bridesinen.” Among the Hebrews their attendance continued for seven days, during which they were exempt from the customary observances. They were not required to attend to the stated times of prayer, or to the use of phylacteries ; nor were they expected to dwell in booths during the feast of tabernacles: muh less were they obliged to observe the occasions of fasting, which were so entirely unsuitable to the nature of the duties they had undertaken. These exemptions of the children of the bride-chamber were sanctioned, or indeed provided, by the Pharisees-the “strictest sect” of the Jewish religion-to some of whom our Lord adduces this illustration.


and calleth unto him whom he would: and 1 Christ healeth the withered hand, 10 and many

they came unto him. other infirmities : 11 rebuketh the unclean spirit:

14 And he ordained twelve, that they 13 chooseth his twelve apostles : 22 convinceth should be with him, and that he might send the blasphemy of casting out devils by Beelzebub : them forth to preach, 31 and sheweth who are his brother, sister, and mother.

15 And to have power to heal sicknesses,

and to cast out devils : AND 'he entered again into the synagogue; 16 And Simon he surnamed Peter; and there was a man there which had a wi- 17 And James the son of Zebedee, and thered hand.

John the brother of James; and he sur2 And they watched him, whether he named them Boanerges, which is, The sons would heal him on the sabbath day; that of thunder : they might accuse him.

18 And Andrew, and Philip, and Bartho3 And he saith unto the man which had lomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and the withered hand, Stand forth.

James the son of Alphæus, and Thaddæus, 4 And he saith unto them, Is it lawful to and Simon the Canaanite, do good on the sabbath days, or to do evil? 19 And Judas Iscariot, which also beto save life, or to kill? But they held their trayed him: and they went into an house. peace.

20 And the multitude cometh together 5 And when he had looked round about again, so that they could not so much as eat on them with anger, being grieved for the bread. hardness of their hearts, he saith unto the 21 And when his friends heard of it, they man, Stretch forth thine hand. And he went out to lay hold on him: for they said, stretched it out: and his hand was restored He is beside himself. whole as the other.

22 | And the Scribes which came down 6 And the Pharisees went forth, and from Jerusalem said, 'He hath Beelzebub, straightway took counsel with the Herodians and by the prince of the devils casteth he against him, how they might destroy him. out devils.

7 But Jesus withdrew himself with his 23 And he called them unto him, and said disciples to the sea : and a great multitude unto them in parables, How can Satan cast from Galilee followed him, and from Judæa, out Satan?

8 And from Jerusalem, and from Idumaa, 24 And if a kingdom be divided against and from beyond Jordan; and they about itself, that kingdom cannot stand. Tyre and Sidon, a great multitude, when 25 And if a house be divided against itthey had heard what great things he did, self, that house cannot stand. came unto him.

26 And if Satan rise up against himself, and 9 And he spake to his disciples, that a be divided, he cannot stand, but hath an end. small ship should wait on him because of 27 No man can enter into a strong man's the multitude, lest they should throng him. house, and spoil his goods, except he will

10 For he had healed many; insomuch first bind the strong man; and then he will that they Xpressed upon him for to touch spoil his house. him, as many as had plagues.

28 "Verily I say unto you, All sins shall 11 And unclean spirits, when they saw be forgiven unto the sons of men, and blashim, fell down before him, and cried, saying, phemies wherewith soever they shall blasThou art the Son of God.

pheme : 12 And he straitly charged them that 29 But he that shall blaspheme against they should not make him known.

the Holy Ghost hath never forgiveness, but 13 ‘And he goeth up into a mountain, I is in danger of eternal damnation : 1 Matt. 12.9. Or, blindness. Or, rushed, • Matt. 10.1, > Or, home. 8 Or, kinsmen.

8 Matt. 12.3).

7 Matt. 9. 34.

30 Because they said, He hath an un- 33 And he answered them, saying, Who clean spirit.

is my mother, or my brethren? 31 | 'There came then his brethren and 34 And he looked round about on them his mother, and, standing without, sent unto which sat about him, and said, Behold my him, calling him.

mother and my brethren! 32 And the multitude sat about him, and 35 For whosoever shall do the will of they said unto him, Behold, thy mother and God, the same is my brother, and my sister, thy brethren without seek for thee.

and mother.

9 Matt. 12. 46. Verse 6. “ The Herodians."— No party or sect of this name occurs in any of the Jewish writers; and the Herodians are therefore only known by being mentioned in three places of the New Testament, none of which throw any light upon their distinguishing renets and opinions. In the first we are told that they came with the Pharisees to ask Christ whether it were lawful to pay tribute to Cæsar (Matt. xxii. 16. 17); the second is before us; and the third is that in which our Lord bids his disciples to beware of the leaven of Herod (Mark viii. 15). In the parallel text to this last (Matt. xvi. 6), we read instead of this, “the leaven of the Sadducees ;" which seems to render it probable that the Herodians were Sadducees in their religious opinions, and therefore not forming by themselves a religious sect, as some suppose ; and this, together with the name which they bore, may rather induce the conclusion that they formed a political party or faction, attached to Herod and advocating his principles. This opinion is sanctioned by the Syriae version - the authors of which must have had valuable opportunities of learning the truth-which renders "Herodians" by " the servants of Herod.” The Herod, whose name was taken by this party, was doubtless Herod the Great. To estimate therefore their principles, is to inquire in what particulars their founder differed from the Jewish nation at large; as in these we may expect to find the points in which his followers also differed from them. By this process we may collect that the Herodians concurred with Herod in his scheme of subjecting the country to the Romans, and of obtaining their favour by compliances with many of their idolatrous usages and customs. In the desire of keeping the country subject to the Romans, they were diametrically opposed to the Pharisees, who from the view they took of Deut. xvii. 15, maintained that it was unlawful to submit to the Roman emperor or to pay taxes to him ; whereas Herod and his followers. alleged, and no doubt justly, that the rule in question applied only to voluntary choice, and not to a necessary submission where choice was overpowered by force. This opposition of views between the Pharisees and Herodians, affords light to distinguish the snare which was laid for Christ, when they both applied to know whether tribute might law fully be paid to Cæsar. (See the note on Matt. xxii. 16.) As our Saviour's decision seems rather to favour the Herodian view in this matter, it becomes probable that “the leaven of Herod” lay in that accommodation to idolatry, from views of interest and worldly policy, which Herod, his family, and followers, very notoriously mani. fested, and which they held to be lawful under the circumstances in which they were placed. Thus Herod, imitated on a smaller scale by his descendants, sought to ingratiate himself with the emperor and the people of Rome, by erecting temples with images for idolatrous worship, raising statues, and instituting games in honour of Augustus ; evil things, which, to the Jews, he pretended that he did against his will, and in obedience to the imperial command. This statement also fully explains why the " leaven of Herod” is in another place “the leaven of the Sadducees;" for, as we have stated on a former occasion, the doctrines of the Sadducees were most prevalent in the higher classes of society, and formed. in fact, the court religion, when a court existed. Hence the Herudians, if they were such as ye suppose, were doubtless, in general Sadducees, in their doctrinal opinions. See Prideaux's Connection,' vol üi. 516—520 ; ed. 1725. Jennings's · Jewish Antiquities,' 328-330.

was up,

it was

withered away


sprang up, because it had no depth of

earth: 1 The parable of the souer, 14 and the meuning thereof. 21 We must communicate the light of

6 But when the sun our knowledge to others. 26 The parable of the scorched ; and because it had no root, it seed growing secretly, 30 and of the mustard seed. 35 Christ stilleth the tempest on the sea.

7 And some fell among thorns, and the And 'he began again to teach by the sea thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded side: and there was gathered unto him a

no fruit. great multitude, so that he entered into a 8 And other fell on good ground, and did ship, and sat in the sea; and the whole yield fruit that sprang up and increased; multitude was by the sea on the land. and brought forth, some thirty, and some

2 And he taught them many things by sixty, and some an hundred. parables, and said unto them in his doc- 9 And he said unto them, He that hath trine,

cars to hear, let him hear. 3 Hearken; Behold, there went out a 10 And when he was alone, they that sower to sow:

were about him with the twelve asked of 4 And it came to pass, as he sowed, some him the parable. fell by the way side, and the fowls of the air 11 And he said unto them, Unto you it came and devoured it up.

is given to know the mystery of the king5 And some fell on stony ground, where dom of God: but unto them that are withit had not much earth; and immediately it out, all these things are done in parables :

1 Matt. 13. 1.

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