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blessings of pardon from the merciful Father, through repentance, which is declared the only means of procuring forgiveness for our failures ; and that he leads such as worship him in spirit to righteous conduct, and ultimately to salvation, through his guiding influence, which is called the Holy Spirit, given as the consequence of their sincere prayer and supplication.” Of our Saviour he speaks as “the Christ of God;" he says he places “implicit confidence in his veracity, candour, and perfection;" he represents him as “a Being in whom dwelt all truth, and who was sent with a divine law to guide mankind by his preaching and example ; as receiving from the Father the commission to come into the world for the salvation of mankind; as judging the world by the wisdom of God, and as being empowered to perform wonderful works." He considers his nature as subordinate, and that he received all the power which he manifested from the Father ; that he was, however, “superior to the Angels in Heaven, living from the beginning of the world to eternity; and he believes that the Father created all things by him and for him ;" and he dwells with great satisfaction on the conclusion to which the Gospel had led him, that the unity existing between the Father and himself is “a subsisting concord of will and design, such as existed among his apostles, and not identity of


Of the force of argument, by which he supported his Unitarian creed, some estimate may be formed from the singular fact, that one of the Baptist Missionaries of Serampore (Mr. William Adam) was actually converted by Ram Mohun, and is now a Unitarian.

The intrinsic sublimity and simplicity of this doctrine of the Unity of the Deity, and the conviction that all the great teachers of mankind, Moses, Menu, Christ, and Mahomet, inculcated no other, recommended it more and more to a mind like his, and increased his zeal to propagate it. He courted opportunities for dispute with Pagans-Hindus and Bauddhas—and with Deists, as well as Trinitarian Christians : his pen was not idle, and in the course of a few years he made many converts amongst his own countrymen. One of our authoritiest states, that “the great object of his life was to establish a new sect in his native country, the basis of whose creed was to be the Unity of God.” It is certain

• The first two appeals were printed at the Serampore press; but the proprietor of that press refused to print the final appeal ; whereupon Ram Mohun Roy purchased type, and set up "the Unitarian Press, Dhurmtollah," where he printed his appeal, chiefly with native aid only.

+ Mr. Arnot.

that, in conjunction with some whom he had brought over to his views (amongst others, that respectable and liberal-minded man, Dwarkanath Tagore), he held meetings, and established a system of worship, which consisted of reading monotheistic writings, music and singing hymns or songs inculcating the Unity of the Deity. The forms resemble those in our Unitarian chapels : first a hymn ; then a prayer, followed by a portion of a monotheistic scripture ; then another hymn; after which a sermon or lecture. *

A part of his plan for correcting the errors of his countrymen, and disseminating the doctrine he had adopted, was the establishment of schools, at his own expense, with the aid of a few liberal and philanthropic individuals. The pupils of Ram

The institution which he and his party established in 1828, at a house in the Chitpoor road, is named the Bhurma Subha. The meetings are held there on Saturday evenings; the service consists in preaching from the Vedant (in the vernacular Bengalee), and singing psalms in praise of the One True God. Christians and persons of every persuasion are admitted, and wavering orthodox Hindus (as the idolaters are termed) some. times visit the meetings, and ask questions of the pundits of the institution. Gifts are sometimes given to the Brahmins there. A regular chapel was built in 1829, on ground purchased by some wealthy Hindus, "for the worship and adoration of the eternal, unsearchable, and immutable being, who is the author and preserver of the universe." See the curious trust-deed, Asiat. Journ. N. S. vol. ii. p. 141.

Mohun's school, at Calcutta, are likely to swell the sect of seceders from Brahminism, which now comprehends a considerable number of the rising generation of baboos.

Another auxiliary part of his scheme was availing himself of the periodical press, the efficacy of which, in the propagation of truth, he could well appreciate. He was, at different times, the proprietor or publisher of newspapers in the native languages, one of which, the Caumoodi (set up by him in opposition to the Brahminical Chundrika ), is now edited by his son, Radhaprasad Roy. In 1829, he became, in conjunction with Dwarkanath Tagore and Neel Rutton Holdar, a proprietor of an English newspaper, the Bengal Herald, and was obliged as such to plead guilty, in the Supreme Court of Calcutta, to an indictment for a libel on an attorney.* This paper was soon after discontinued.

His connexion with the periodical press brought him, of course, into communication with the conductors of what was termed the liberal press of Calcutta, then struggling for dangerous power.

The candid and ingenuous mind of Ram Mohun Roy did not see, in the attempts of these liberals, a project to lift themselves into notoriety, eminence, and

• Asiat. Jown. N. S. rol. i. pp. 106 and 123.

influence, at the expense of order and public security; he deemed them coadjutors with himself in the work of reform he was urging onward. Accordingly, when the ordinance for registering the Calcutta press was issued, in 1823, he joined five other native gentlemen in a memorial (understood to have been from his pen) to the sole acting judge of the Supreme Court, praying him not to register the regulation.* We are assured he lived to acknowledge the propriety of the measure he then condemned.

One of the great abuses against which Ram Mohun Roy early directed his assault, was the practice of Suttee. Prior to the death of his father, he openly denounced this barbarous rite, and in 1810, he published in Bengalee, for general circulation, a little tract, entitled “ Conference between an Advocate for, and an Opponent of, the Practice of Burning Widows alive;" and two years after, a second “Conference." The irresistible arguments contained in these little works silently prepared the way for the safe prohibition by Government of this disgraceful custom.

It is worthy of remark, however, that - Ram Mohun Roy was long averse to the authoritative abolition of suttees. In the Minute of Lord

• See the Memorial, Asiat. Journ. vol. xvi. p. 158. VOL. III.


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