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which sprang the English Earls of Arundel; but never had the mailed barons of his line confronted a fate so appalling, with so prodigious a constancy. To the last he refused to flinch, and "his death was the astonishment of his murderers."1 In him an enthusiastic devotion was grafted on an heroic nature. His bodily endowments were as remarkable as the temper of his mind. His manly proportions, his strength, and his endurance, which incessant fasts and penances could not undermine, had always won for him the respect of the Indians, no less than a courage unconscious of fear, and yet redeemed from rashness by a cool and vigorous judgment; for, extravagant as were the chimeras which fed the fires of his zeal, they were consistent with the soberest good sense on matters of practical bearing. Lalemant, physically weak from childhood, and slender almost to emaciation, was constitutionally unequal to a display of fortitude like that of his colleague. When Bre"beuf died, he was led back to the house whence he had been taken, and tortured there all night, until, in the morning, one of the Iroquois, growing tired of the protracted entertainment, killed him with a hatchet.2 It was said that 1 Charlevoix, i. 204. Alepambe uses a similar expression.

2 "We saw no part of his body," says Hupueneau, " from head to foot, which was not burned, even to his eyes, in the sockets of which these wretches had placed live coals." — Relation des Hurons, 1049, 15.

Lalemant was a Parisian, and his family belonged to the class of iims dr nil*, or hereditary practitioners of the law. He was thirty

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at times he seemed beside himself; then, rallying, with hands uplifted, he offered his sufferings to Heaven as a sacrifice. His robust companion had lived less than four hours under the torture, while he survived it for nearly seventeen. Perhaps the Titanic effort of will with which Brébeuf repressed all show of suffering conspired with the Iroquois knives and firebrands to exhaust his vitality; perhaps his tormentors, enraged at his fortitude, forgot their subtlety, and struck too near the life. The bodies of the two missionaries were carried to Sainte Marie, and buried in the cemetery there; but the skull of Bre"beuf was preserved as a relic. His family sent from France a silver bust of their martyred kinsman, in the base of which was a recess to contain the skull; and, to this day, the bust and the relic within are preserved with pious care by the nuns of the Hotel-Dieu at Quebec.1 nine years of age. His physical weakness is spoken of by several of those who knew him. Marie de l'lncarnation says, "C'etait I'homme le plus faible et le plus delicat qu'on eut pu voir." Both Bressani and Ragueneau are equally emphatic on this point. 1 Photographs of the bust are before me. Various relics of the two missionaries were preserved; and some of them may still be seen in Canadian monastic establishments. The following extract from a letter of Marie de l'lncarnation to her son, written from Quebec in October of this year, 1649, is curious: —

"Madame our foundress [Madame de la Peltrie] sends you relics of our holy martyrs; but she does it secretly, since the reverend Fathers would not give us any, for fear that we should send them to France; but, as she is not bound by vows, and as the very persons who went for the bodies have given relics of them to her in secret, I begged her to send you some of them, which she has done very gladly, from the respect she has for you." She adds, in the same letter, "Our Lord having revealed to him [Brebeuf] She ti.ue of his martyrdom three days before it happened, he went, full of joy, to find the other Fathers; who, seeing him in extraordinary spirits, caused him, by an inspiration of God, to be bled; after which the surgeon dried his blood, through a presentiment of what was to take place, lest he should be treated like Father Daniel, who, eight months before, had been so reduced to ashes that no remains of his body could be found." Brebeuf had once been ordered by the Father Superior to write down the visions, revelations, and inward experiences with whicii he was favored, — "at least," says Ragueneau, "those which he could easily remember, for their multitude was too great for the whole to be recalled." "I find nothing," he adds, "more frequent in this memoir than the expression of his desire to die for Jesus Christ: 'Sentio me vehementer impelli ad moriendum pro Christo.' ... In fine, wishing to make himself a holocaust and a victim consecrated to death, and holily to anticipate the happiness of martyrdom which awaited him, he bound himself by a vow to Christ, which he conceived in these terms;" and Ragueneau gives the vow in the original Latin. It binds him never to refuse "the grace of martyrdom, if, at any day, Thou shouldst, in Thy infinite pity, offer it to me, Thy unworthy servant;" . . . "and when I shall have received the stroke of death, I bind myself to accept it at Thy hand, with all the contentment and joy of my heart." Some of his innumerable visions have been already mentioned. (See ante, 198.) Tanner, Societas Militans, gives various others, — as, for example, that he once beheld a mountain covered thick with saints, but above all with virgins, while the Queen of Virgins sat at the top in a blaze of glory. In 1637, when the whole country was enraged against the Jesuits, and above all against Brebeuf, as sorcerers who had caused the pest, Ragueneau tells us that "a troop of demons appeared before him divers times, — sometimes like men in a fury, sometimes like frightful monsters, bears, lions, or wild horses, trying to rush upon him. These spectres excited in him neither horror nor fear. He said to them,'Do to me whatever God permits you; for without His will not one hair will fall from my head.' And at these words all the demons vanished in a moment." — Relation des Hurons, 1649, 20. Compare the long notice in Alegambe, Mortes Jllustres, 044.

In Ragueneau's notice of Brebeuf, as in all other notices ol deceased missionaries in the Relations, the saintly qualities alor.e 1849.] QUALITIES OF BREBEUF. 495 are brought forward, — as obedience, humility, etc.; but wherever Brebeuf himself appears in the course of those voluminous records, he always brings with him an impression of power. We are told that, punning on his own name, he used to say that he was an ox, fit only to bear burdens. This sort of humility may pass for what it is worth; but it must be remembered that there is a kind of acting in which the actor firmly believes in the part he is playing. As for the obedience, it was as genuine as that of a welldisciplined soldier, and incomparably more profound. In the case of the Canadian Jesuits, posterity owes to this, their favorite virtue, the record of numerous visions, inward voices, and the like miracles, which the object of these favors set down on paper, at the command of his Superior; while, otherwise, humility would have concealed them forever. The truth is, that, with some of these missionaries, one may throw off trash and nonsense by the cart-load, and find under it all a solid nucleus of saint and hero. •


Dispersion Of The Hcrons.Sainte Marie Abandoned. Isle — Removal Of The Mission. The New Fort.Misery Of The Hurons. Famine. Epidemic. EmployMents Of The Jesuits. All was over with the Hurons. The death-knell of their nation had struck. Without a leader, without organization, without union, crazed with fright and paralyzed with misery, they yielded to their doom without a blow. Their only thought was flight. Within two weeks after the disasters of St. Ignace and St. Louis, fifteen Huron towns were abandoned, and the greater number burned, lest they should give shelter to the Iroquois. The last year's harvest had been scanty; the fugitives had no food, and they left behind them the fields in which was their only hope of obtaining it. In bands, large or small, some roamed northward and eastward, through the halfthawed wilderness; some hid themselves on the rocks or islands of Lake Huron; some sought an asylum among the Tobacco Nation : a few joined the Neutrals

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