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to lay the proposal before them. He proceeded to advise them to keep him as a hostage, and send over his companions, with some of their chiefs, to open the negotiation. His apparent frankness completely deceived them; and they insisted that he himself should go to the Huron village, while his companions remained as hostages. He set out accordingly with three of the principal Iroquois. When he reached the village, he gave the whoop of one who brings good tidings, and proclaimed with a loud voice that the hearts of their enemies had changed; that the Iroquois would become their countrymen and brothers; and that they should exchange their miseries for a life of peace and plenty in a fertile and prosperous land. The whole Huron population, full of joyful excitement, crowded about him and the three envoys, who were conducted to the principal lodge and feasted on the best that the village could supply, fitienne seized the opportunity to take aside four or five of the principal chiefs, and secretly tell them his suspicions that the Iroquois were plotting to compass their destruction under cover of overtures of peace; and he proposed that they should meet treachery with treachery. He then explained his plan, which was highly approved by his auditors, who begged him to charge himself with the execution of it. fitienne now caused criers to proclaim through the village that every one should get ready to emigrate in a few days to the country of their new friends. The squaws began their prepara1650.] THE BITER BIT. 533
tions at once, and all was bustle and alacrity; for the Ilurons themselves were no less deceived than were the Iroquois envoys. During one or two succeeding days, many messages and visits passed between the Hurons and the Iroquois, whose confidence was such that thirtyseven of their best warriors at length came over in a body to the Huron village, fitienne's time had come. He and the chiefs who were in the secret gave the word to the Huron warriors, who, at a signal, raised the war-whoop, rushed upon their visitors and cut them to pieces. One of them, who lingered for a time, owned before he died that Etienne's suspicions were just, and that they had designed nothing less than the massacre or capture of all the Hurons. Three of the Iroquois, immediately before the slaughter began, had received from Etienne a warning of their danger in time to make their escape. The year before, he had been captured, with Bre"beuf and Lalemant, at the town of St. Louis, and had owed his life to these three warriors, to whom he now paid back the debt of gratitude. They carried tidings of what had befallen to their countrymen on the main-land, who, aghast at the catastrophe, fled homeward in a panic.1 Here was a sweet morsel of vengeance. The i Ragueneau, Relation des Hurons, 1651, 5, 6. Le Mercier, in the Relation of 1654, preserves the speech of a Huron chief, in which he speaks of this affair, and adds some particulars not mentioned bj Rn-gueneau. He gives thirty-four as the number killed. miseries of the Hurons were lighted up with a brief gleam of joy; but it behooved them to make a timely retreat from their island before the Iroquois came to exact a bloody retribution. Towards spring, while the lake was still frozen, many of them escaped on the ice, while another party afterwards followed in canoes. A few, who had neither strength to walk nor canoes to transport them, perforce remained behind, and were soon massacred by the Iroquois. The fugitives directed their course to the Grand Manitoulin Island, where they remained for a short time, and then, to the number of about four hundred, descended the Ottawa, and rejoined their countrymen who had gone to Quebec the year before. These united parties, joined from time to time by a few other fugitives, formed a settlement on land belonging to the Jesuits, near the southwestern extremity of the Isle of Orleans, immediately below Quebec. Here the Jesuits built a fort, like that on Isle St. Joseph, with a chapel, and a small house for the missionaries, while the bark dwellings of the Hurons were clustered around the protecting ramparts.1 Tools and seeds were given them, and they were encouraged to cultivate the soil. Gradually they rallied from their dejection, and the mission i The site of the fort was the estate now known as "La Terre da Fort," near the landing of the steam ferry. In. 1850, Mr. N. H. Bowen, a resident near the spot, in making some excavations, found a solid stone wall five feet thick, which, there can be little doubt, was that of the work in question. This wall was originally crowned with palisades. See Bowen, Historical Sketch of the Isle of Orleans, 25 1673.] OLD LORETTE. 535 settlement was beginning to wear an appearance of thrift, when, in 1656, the Iroquois made a descent upon them, and carried off a large number of captives under the very cannon of Quebec, — the French not daring to fire upon the invaders, lest they should take revenge upon the Jesuits who were at that time in their country. This calamity was, four years after, followed by another, when the best of the Huron warriors, including their leader, the crafty and valiant Etienne Annaotaha, were slain, fighting side by side with the French, in the desperate conflict of the Long Sault.1 The attenuated colony, replenished by some straggling bands of the same nation, and still numbering several hundred persons, was removed to Quebec after the inroad in 1656, and lodged in a square enclosure of palisades close to the fort.2 Here they remained about ten years, when, the danger of the times having diminished, they were again removed to a place called "Notre-Dame de Foy," now Ste. Foi, three or four miles west of Quebec. Six years after, when the soil was impoverished and the wood in the neighborhood exhausted, they again changed their abode, and, under the auspices of the Jesuits, who owned the land, settled at Old Lorette, nine miles from Quebec. 1 Relation, 1660 (anonymous), 14. * In a plan of Quebec of 1660, the "Fort des Hurons " is laid down on a spot adjoining the north side of the present Place d'Armes. Chaumonot was at this time their missionary. It may be remembered that he had professed special devotion to Our Lady of Loretto, who in his boyhood had cured him, as he believed, of a distressing malady.1 He had always cherished the idea of building a chapel in honor of her in Canada, after the model of the Holy House of Loretto, — which, as all the world knows, is the house wherein Saint Joseph dwelt with his virgin spouse, and which angels bore through the air from the Holy Land to Italy, where it remains an object of pilgrimage to this day. Chaumonot opened his plan to his brother Jesuits, who were delighted with it, and the chapel was begun at once, not without the intervention of miracle to aid in raising the necessary funds. It was built of brick, like its original, of which it was an exact facsimile; and it stood in the centre of a quadrangle, the four sides of which were formed by the bark dwellings of the Hurons, ranged with perfect order in straight lines. Hither came many pilgrims from Quebec and more distant settlements, and here Our Lady granted to her suppliants, says Chaumonot, many miraculous favors, insomuch that "it would require an entire book to describe them all."2
1 See ante, 191.
2 "Les praccs qu'on y obtient par l'entremise de la Mere de Dieu vont jusqu'au miracle. Comme il faudroit composer un livre entier pour decrirc toutes ces faveurs extraordinaires, je n'en rapporterai que deux, ayant cte temoin oculaire de Tune et propre sujet de l'autre."— Vie, 05.
The removal from Notre-Dame de Foy took place at the end of 1673, and the chapel was finished in the following year. Compare