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"Three weeks ago-almost a monththe 7th it was I picked up the commandant, mortally wounded, out of the street; he died in my house; assassins unknown, but presumed political. His brethren wrote from Rome last night to thank me for having assisted him in his last moments. Poor fellow! it was a pity; he was a good soldier, but imprudent. It was eight in the evening when they killed him. We heard the shot; | my servants and I ran out, and found him expiring, with five wounds, two whereof mortal-by slugs they seemed. I examined him, but did not go to the dissection next morning.


Carriage at 8 or so- went to visit La Contessa G. - found her playing on the piano-forte-talked till ten, when the Count, her father, and the no less Count, her brother, came in from the theatre. Play, they said, Alfieri's Fileppo-well received.

"Two days ago the King of Naples passed through Bologna on his way to congress. My servant Luigi brought the news. I had sent him to Bologna for a lamp. How will it end? Time will show.

"Came home at eleven, or rather before. If the road and weather are comfortable, mean to ride to-morrow. High time-almost a week at this work-snow, sirocco, one day frost and snow the other-sad climate for Italy. But the two seasons, last and present, are extraordinary. Read a Life of Leonardo da Vinci by Rossi-ruminated wrote this much, and will go to bed.

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January 5. 1821.

"Rose late-dull and drooping-the weather dripping and dense. Snow on the ground, and sirocco above in the sky, like yesterday. Roads up to the horse's belly, so that riding (at least for pleasure) is not very feasible. Added a postscript to my letter to Murray. Read the conclusion, for the fiftieth time (I have read all W. Scott's novels at least fifty times), of the third series of Tales of my Landlord,'—grand work Scotch Fielding, as well as great English poet-wonderful man! I long to get drunk with him.

“Dined versus six o' the clock. Forgot that there was a plum-pudding, (I have added, lately, eating to my family of vices,') and had dined before I knew it. Drank half a

bottle of some sort of spirits — probably spirits of wine; for what they call brandy, rum, &c. &c. here is nothing but spirits of wine, coloured accordingly. Did not eat two apples, which were placed by way of dessert.

Fed the two cats, the hawk, and the tame (but not tamed) crow. Read Mitford's History of Greece-Xenophon's Retreat of the Ten Thousand. Up to this present moment writing, 6 minutes before eight o' the clockFrench hours, not Italian.

"Hear the carriage — order pistols and great coat, as usual- necessary articles. Weather cold—carriage open, and inhabitants somewhat savage-rather treacherous and highly inflamed by politics. Fine fellows, though, good materials for a nation. Out of chaos God made a world, and out of high passions comes a people.

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Clock strikes going out to make love. Somewhat perilous, but not disagreeable. Memorandum —a new screen put up to-day. It is rather antique, but will do with a little repair.

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Thaw continues-hopeful that riding may be practicable to-morrow. Sent the papers to All'.—grand events coming.

"11 o' the clock and nine minutes. Visited La Contessa G. Nata G. G. Found her beginning my letter of answer to the thanks of Alessio del Pinto of Rome for assisting his brother the late Commandant in his last moments, as I had begged her to pen my reply for the purer Italian, I being an ultramontane, little skilled in the set phrase of Tuscany. Cut short the letter-finish it another day. Talked of Italy, patriotism, Alfieri, Madame Albany, and other branches of learning. Also Sallust's Conspiracy of Catiline, and the War of Jugurtha. At 9 came in her brother, Il Conte Pietro-at 10, her father, Conte Ruggiero.

"Talked of various modes of warfareof the Hungarian and Highland modes of broard-sword exercise, in both whereof I was once a moderate 'master of fence.' Settled that the R. will break out on the 7th or 8th of March, in which appointment I should

trust, had it not been settled that it was to

have broken out in October, 1820. But those Bolognese shirked the Romagnuoles.

"It is all one to Ranger.' One must not be particular, but take rebellion when it lies in the way. Come home-read the Ten Thousand' again, and will go to bed.

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‘Mem.—Ordered Fletcher (at four o'clock this afternoon) to copy out seven or eight apophthegms of Bacon', in which I have detected such blunders as a schoolboy might detect rather than commit. Such are the sages! What must they be, when such as I can stumble on their mistakes or mistatements? I will go to bed, for I find that I grow cynical.

[See Works, p. 808.]

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"Mist-thaw-slop-rain. No stirring Read Spence's Anecout on horseback. dotes. Pope a fine fellow-always thought him so. Corrected blunders in nine apophthegms of Bacon-all historical- and read Mitford's Greece. Wrote an epigram. Turned to a passage in Guinguené- ditto in Lord Holland's Lope de Vega. Wrote a note on Don Juan.

"At eight went out to visit. Heard a little music-like music. Talked with Count

Pietro G. of the Italian comedian Vestris, who

is now at Rome-have seen him often act in

Venice a good actor―very. Somewhat

"The crow is lame of a leg


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it happened some fool trod upon his toe,
The falcon pretty brisk — the
cats large and noisy- the monkeys I have
not looked to since the cold weather, as they
suffer by being brought up. Horses must be
gay get a ride as soon as weather serves.
Deuced muggy still an Italian winter is a
sad thing, but all the other seasons are charm-

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"What is the reason that I have been, all my lifetime, more or less ennuyé? and that, if any thing, I am rather less so now than I was at twenty, as far as my recollection serves? I do not know how to answer this, but presume that it is constitutional, - as well as the waking in low spirits, which I Temhave invariably done for many years. perance and exercise, which I have practised at times, and for a long time together vigorously and violently, made little or no differViolent passions did;—when under their immediate influence - it is odd, but I was in agitated, but not in depressed, spirits. "A dose of salts has the effect of a tempo


of a mannerist; but excellent in broad comedy, as well as in the sentimental pathetic. He has made me frequently laugh and cry, neither of which is now a very easy matter at least, for a player to produce in me. "Thought of the state of women under the ancient Greeks convenient enough. Present state a remnant of the barbarism of the chivalric and feudal ages-artificial and unnatural. They ought to mind homeand be well fed and clothed- but not mix-rary inebriation, like light champagne, upon ed in society. Well educated, too, in religion and savage to ferocity silent, however, and me. But wine and spirits make me sullen -but to read neither poetry nor politics— nothing but books of piety and cookery. retiring, and not quarrelsome, if not spoken Music-drawing-dancing - also a little to. Swimming also raises my spirits, gardening and ploughing now and then. I in general they are low, and get daily lower. have seen them mending the roads in Epirus That is hopeless; for I do not think I am so much ennuyé as I was at nineteen. The with good success. Why not, as well as hayproof is, that then I must game, or drink, or making and milking? be in motion of some kind, or I was miserable.

"Came home, and read Mitford again, and played with my mastiff-gave him his supper. Made another reading to the epigram, but the turn the same. To-night at the theatre, there being a prince on his throne in the last scene of the comedy, the audience laughed, and asked him for a Constitution. This shows the state of the public mind here,

as well as the assassinations. It won't do. There must be an universal republic,-and there ought to be.

1 ["Till Voltaire appeared, there was no nation more ignorant of its neighbours' literature than the French. He first exposed, and then corrected, this neglect in his countrymen. There is no writer to whom the authors of other nations, especially of England, are so indebted for the extension of their fame in France, and, through France, in Europe. There is no critic who has employed more time, wit, ingenuity, and diligence in promoting the literary intercourse between country and country, and in celebrating in one language the triumphs of another. Yet, by a strange fatality, he is constantly represented as the enemy of all literature but his own; and Spaniards, Englishmen, and Italians vie with each other in inveighing against his occasional exaggeration of faulty passages; the authors of which, till he pointed out their beauties, were hardly known beyond the country


At present, I can mope in quietness; and like being alone better than any company -except the lady's whom I serve. But I if I ever reach near to old age, like Swift, ‘I feel a something, which makes me think that, shall die at top' first. Only I do not dread idiotism or madness so much as he did. On the contrary, I think some quieter stages of both must be preferable to much of what men think the possession of their senses.

in which their language was spoken. Those who feel such indignation at his misrepresentations and oversights would find it difficult to produce a critic in any modern language, who, in speaking of foreign literature, is better informed or more candid than Voltaire; and they certainly never would be able to discover one who to those qualities unites so much sagacity and liveliness." Vol. i. p. 215. ed. 1817.]

["I remember as I and others were taking with Swift an evening walk, about a mile out of Dublin, he stopped short: we passed on; but perceiving he did not follow us, I went back and found him fixed as a statue, and earnestly gazing upwards at a noble elm, which, in its uppermost branches, was much withered and decayed. Pointing at it, he said, I shall be like that tree, I shall die at top." -DR. YOUNG, in his Letter to Richardson.]

"January 7. 1821. Sunday. the troops, even here. With twenty men

hours against any force to be brought against it, now in this place, for the same time; and, in such a time, the country would have notice, and would rise,—if ever they will rise, of which there is some doubt. In the mean time, I may as well read as do any thing else, being alone.

"January 8. 1821. Monday.

"Still rain-mist -snow-drizzle-and this house might be defended for twenty-four all the incalculable combinations of a climate where heat and cold struggle for mastery. Read Spence, and turned over Roscoe, to find a passage I have not found. Read the fourth vol. of W. Scott's second series of Tales of my Landlord.' Dined. Read the Lugano Gazette. Read I forget what. At eight went to conversazione. Found there the Countess Geltrude, Betti V. and her husband, and others. Pretty black-eyed woman that-only nineteen- same age as Teresa, who is prettier, though. "The Count Pietro G. took me aside to say that the Patriots have had notice from Forli (twenty miles off) that to-night the government and its party mean to strike a stroke that the Cardinal here has had orders to make several arrests immediately, and that, in consequence, the Liberals are arning, and have posted patroles in the streets, to sound the alarm and give notice to fight for it.

"He asked me what should be done?' I answered, Fight for it, rather than be taken in detail;' and offered, if any of them are in immediate apprehension of arrest, to receive them in my house (which is defensible), and to defend them, with my servants and themselves (we have arms and ammunition), as long as we can, or to try to get them away under cloud of night. On going home, I offered him the pistols which I had about me- - but he refused, but said he would come off to me in case of accidents. "It wants half an hour of midnight, and rains; as Gibbet says, 'a fine night for their enterprise-dark as hell, and blows like the devil.' If the row don't happen now, it must soon. I thought that their system of shooting people would soon produce a re-action-and now it seems coming. I will do what I can in the way of combat, though a little out of exercise. The cause is a good one.

"Rose, and found Count P. G. in my apartments. Sent away the servant. Told me that, according to the best information, the Government had not issued orders for the arrests apprehended; that the attack in Forli had not taken place (as expected) by the Sanfedisti-the opponents of the Carbonari or Liberals-and that, as yet, they are still in apprehension only. Asked me for some arms of a better sort, which I gave him. Settled that, in case of a row, the Liberals were to assemble here (with me), and that he had given the word to Vincenzo G. and others of the Chiefs for that purpose. He himself and father are going to the chase in the forest; but V. G. is to come to me, and an express to be sent off to him, P. G., if any thing occurs. Concerted operations. They are to seize-but no matter.

"I advised them to attack in detail, and in different parties, in different places (though at the same time), so as to divide the attention of the troops, who, though few, yet being disciplined, would beat any body of people (not trained) in a regular fight unless dispersed in small parties, and distracted with different assaults. Offered to let them assemble here if they choose. It is a strongish post-narrow street, commanded from within-and tenable walls.

"Dined. Tried on a new coat. Letter to Murray, with corrections of Bacon's Apophthegms and an epigram the latter not for publication. At eight went to Teresa, Countess G. At nine and a half came in "Turned over and over half a score of Il Conte P. and Count P. G. Talked of a books for the passage in question, and can't certain proclamation lately issued. Count find it. Expect to hear the drum and the R. G. had been with * * (the * *), to sound musquetry momently (for they swear to re-him about the arrests. He, **, is a trimmer, sist, and are right,)—but I hear nothing, as yet, save the plash of the rain and the gusts of the wind at intervals. Don't like to go to bed, because I hate to be waked, and would rather sit up for the row, if there is to be one.

Mended the fire-have got the arms -and a book or two, which I shall turn over. I know little of their numbers, but think the Carbonari strong enough to beat

[Beaux Stratagem, act iv. sc. 2.]

and deals, at present, his cards with both hands. If he don't mind, they'll be full. ** pretends (I doubt him-they don't,-we shall see) that there is no such order, and seems staggered by the immense exertions of the Neapolitans, and the fierce spirit of the Liberals here. The truth is, that * cares for little but his place (which is a good one), and wishes to play pretty with both parties. He has changed his mind thirty times these last three moons, to my know

ÆT. 33.


ledge, for he corresponds with me. But he is not a bloody fellow-only an avaricious


"It seems that, just at this moment (as Lydia Languish says), there will be no elopement after all. I wish that I had known as much last night-or, rather, this morning I should have gone to bed two hours earlier. And yet I ought not to complain; for, though it is a sirocco, and heavy rain, I have not yawned for these two days.

Came home-read History of Greece before dinner had read Walter Scott's Rob Roy. Wrote address to the letter in answer to Alessio del Pinto, who has thanked me for helping his brother (the late Commandant, murdered here last month) in his last moments. Have told him I only did a duty of humanity- as is true. The brother

lives at Rome.

"Mended the fire with some 'sgobole' (a Romagnuole word), and gave the falcon some water. Drank some Seltzer-water. Mem.-received to-day a print, or etching, of the story of Ugolino, by an Italian painter - different, of course, from Sir Joshua Reynolds's, and I think (as far as recollection goes) no worse, for Reynolds's is not good in history. 1

Tore a button in my new coat. "I wonder what figure these Italians will make in a regular row. I sometimes think that, like the Irishman's gun (somebody had sold him a crooked one), they will only do for shooting round a corner;' at least, this sort of shooting has been the late tenor of their exploits. And yet there are materials in this people, and a noble energy, if well directed. But who is to direct them? No matter. Out of such times heroes spring. Difficulties are the hotbeds of high spirits,

["The subject is said, by Cumberland, to have been suggested to Sir Joshua by Goldsmith. The merit lies in the execution; and even this seems of a disputable excellence. The lofty and stern sufferer of Dante appears on Reynolds's canvass like a famished mendicant, deficient in any commanding qualities of intellect, and regardless of his dying children who cluster around his knees." Brit. Painters, vol. i. P. 268.

"The dungeon of Bonnivard" (the Prisoner of Chillon) " is, like that of Ugolino, a subject too dismal even for the power of the painter or poet to counteract its horrors. It is the more disagreeable, as affording human hope no anchor to rest upon, and describing the sufferer, though a man of talents and virtues, as altogether inert and powerless under his accumulated sufferings."-SIR WALTER SCOTT.]

2 ["There is an offence against simplicity which should be shunned; though it occurs often in Johnson, and though the abstract terms, affected by him, give a kind of false pomp to the style, assuming the air of personification. He thus commences his imitation of the tenth satire of Juvenal:


and Freedom the mother of the few virtues incident to human nature.

"Tuesday, January 9. 1821.

"Rose-the day fine. Ordered the horses; steward or chief servant) coming to tell me but Lega (my secretary, an Italianism for fresco, for the room he has been employed that the painter had finished the work in on lately, I went to see it before I set out. from Titian, &c. considering all things. The painter has not copied badly the prints Dined.


Human Wishes,' all the examples and Read Johnson's Vanity of mode of giving them sublime, as well as the latter part, with the exception of an occasional couplet. I do not so much admire of Sharpe's, (the Conversationist, as he was the opening. I remember an observation that the first line of this poem was supercalled in London, and a very clever man,) fluous, and that Pope (the best of poets, I think,) would have begun at once, only changing the punctuation

"Survey mankind from China to Peru.' 2

The former line, Let observation,' &c. is certainly heavy and useless. But 'tis a grand and so true! · poemtrue as the 10th of Juvenal himself. The lapse of ages changes all things-time-language - the earththe bounds of the sea -the stars of the sky, and every thing about, around, and underneath' man, except man himself, who has always been, and always will be, an unlucky rascal. The infinite variety of lives conduct but to death, and the infinity of wishes lead but to disappointment. All the discoveries which have yet been made have multiplied little but existence. An extirpated disease

'Let observation, with extensive view, Survey mankind from China to Peru.' Dryden and Pope would have been satisfied with the second line, and would have avoided both the tautology and pomposity of the first."— Sharp's Letters to a Young Friend at College; Essays, p. 47. ed. 1834.]

3 ["Time hovers o'er, impatient to destroy,
And shuts up all the passages of joy :

In vain their gifts the bounteous seasons pour,
The fruit autumnal, and the vernal flow'r ;
With listless eyes the dotard views the store,
He views, and wonders that they please no more.'
Vanity of Human Wishes.]

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4 ["What opposite discoveries we have seen!
(Signs of true genius, and of empty pockets)
One makes new noses, one a guillotine,
One breaks your bones, one sets them in the sockets:
But vaccination certainly has been

A kind antithesis to Congreve's rockets," &c.
Don Juan, c. i. st. 129.]

is succeeded by some new pestilence; and a discovered world has brought little to the old one, except the p-first and freedom afterwards the latter a fine thing, particularly as they gave it to Europe in exchange for slavery. But it is doubtful whether the Sovereigns' would not think the first the best present of the two to their subjects.

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"At eight went out - heard some news. They say the King of Naples has declared by couriers from Florence, to the Powers (as they call now those wretches with crowns), that his Constitution was compulsive, &c. &c. and that the Austrian barbarians are placed again on war pay, and will march. Let them

they come like sacrifices in their trim,' the hounds of hell! Let it still be a hope to see their bones piled like those of the human dogs at Morat, in Switzerland, which I have seen.


"Heard some music. At nine the usual visitors news, war, or rumours of war. Consulted with P. G. &c. &c. They mean to insurrect here, and are to honour me with a call thereupon. I shall not fall back; though I don't think them in force or heart sufficient to make much of it. But, onward! -it is now the time to act, and what signifies self, if a single spark of that which would be worthy of the past can be bequeathed unquenchedly to the future? It is not one man, nor a million, but the spirit of liberty which must be spread. The waves which dash upon the shore are, one by one, broken, but yet the ocean conquers, nevertheless. It overwhelms the Armada, it wears the rock, and, if the Neptunians are to be believed, it has not only destroyed, but made a world. In like manner, whatever the sacrifice of individuals, the great cause will gather strength, sweep down what is rugged, and fertilise (for sea-weed is manure) what is cultivable. And so, the mere selfish calculation ought never to be made on such occasions; and, at present, it shall not be computed by me. I was never a good arithmetician of chances, and shall not commence now.

"January 10. 1821. 'Day fine-rained only in the morning. Looked over accounts. Read Campbell's Poets-marked errors of Tom (the author) for correction. Dined-went out-music-Tyrolese air, with variations. Sustained the cause of the original simple air against the variations of the Italian school.

1 [See Childe Harold, c. iii. st. 64. and note.] 2 [See his " Specimens of the British Poets," vol. i. p. 260.]

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"January 11. 1821. ¦ Corrected the tragedy and the Hints from Horace.' Dined, and got into better spirits. Went out-returned finished letters, five in number. Read Poets, and an anecdote in Spence.

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All'. writes to me that the Pope, and Duke of Tuscany, and King of Sardinia, have also been called to Congress; but the Pope will only deal there by proxy. So the interests of millions are in the hands of about twenty coxcombs, at a place called Leibach!

"I should almost regret that my own affairs went well, when those of nations are in peril. If the interests of mankind could be essentially bettered (particularly of these oppressed Italians), I should not so much mind my own 'sma peculiar.' God grant us all better times, or more philosophy!

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“In reading, I have just chanced upon an expression of Tom Campbell's ;- speaking of Collins, he says that no reader cares any more about the characteristic manners of his Eclogues than about the authenticity of the tale of Troy.' 'Tis false — we do care about 'the authenticity of the tale of Troy.' I have stood upon that plain daily, for more than a month in 1810; and if any thing di minished my pleasure, it was that the blackguard Bryant had impugned its veracity. It is true I read Homer Travestied' (the first twelve books), because Hobhouse and others bored me with their learned localities, and I love quizzing. But I still venerated! the grand original as the truth of history (in |

3 [


"I've stood upon Achilles' tomb, And heard Troy doubted ;-time will doubt of Rome." Don Juan, c. iv. st. 101.]

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