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* Tempest.] The Tempefi and The Midsummer Night's Dream are the nobles efforts of that sublime and amazing imagination peculiar to Shakspeare, which foars above the bounds of nature, without fortaking fense; or, more properly, carries nature along with him beyond her established limits. Fletcher seems particularly to have admired these two plays, and hath wrote two in imitation of them, The Sea Voyage and The Faithful Shepherdess. But when he presumes to break a lance with Shakipeare, and write in emulation of him, as he does in The False One, which is the rival of Antony and Cleopatra, he is not so successful. After him, Sir John Suckling and Milton catched the brightest fire of their imagination from these two plays; which shines fantastically indeed in The Gollins, but much more nobly and ferenely in The Mok at Ludlow Cafile.

WARBURTON. No one has hitherto been lucky enough to discover the romance on which Shakspeare may be supposed to have founded this play, the beauties of which could not secure it from the criticism of Ben Jonson, whose malignity appears to have been more than equal to his wit. In the introduction to Bartholomew Fuir, he says: If there be never a servant monster in the fair, who can help it, he says, nor a neft of antiques ? He is loth to make nature afraid in his plays, like those that beget Tales, Tempesis, and such like drolleries." STEEVENS.

I was informed by the late Mr. Collins of Chichester, that Shakspeare's Tempeji, for which no origin is yet assigned, was formed on a romance called Aurelio and Ifalella, printed in Italian, Spanish, French, and English, in 1589. But though this information has not proved true on examination, an useful conclusion may be drawn from it, that Shakspeare's story is fomewhere to be found in an Italian novel, at lealt that the story preceded Shakspeare. Mr. Collins had searched this subject with no less fidelity than judgement and industry; but his memory failing in his last calamitous indisposition, he probably gave me the name of one novel for another. I remember he added a circumstance, which may lead to a discovery,--that the principal character of the romance, answering to Shakspeare's Profpero, was a chemical necromancer, who had bound a spirit like Ariel to obey his call, and perform his services. It was a common pretence of dealers in the occult sciences to have a demon at command. At least Aurelio, or Orelio, was probably one of the names of this romance, the production and multiplicity of gold being the grand object of alchemny. Taken at large, the magical part of the Tempest is founded on that sort of philofophy which was practited by John Dee and his affociates, and


has been called the Rosicrucian. The name Ariel came froin the Talmudistick mysteries with which the learned Jews had infected this science. T. WARTON.

Mr. Theobald tells us, that The Tempest must have been written after 1609, because the Bermuda Inands, which are mentioned in it, were unknown to the English until that year ; but this is a mistake. He might have seen in Hackluyt, 1600, folio, a description of Bermuda, by Henry May, who was thipwrecked there in 1593.

It was however one of our author's last works. In 1598, he played a part in the original Every Man in his Humour. Two of the characters are Prospero and Stephano. Here Ben Jonson taught him the pronunciation of the latter word, which is always right in The Tempest:

Is not this Stephăno, my drunken butler ?" And always wrong in his earlier play, The Merchant of Venice, which had been on the stage at least two or three years before its publication in 1600:

“ My friend Stephāno, fignify I pray you," &c. -So little did Mr. Capell know of his author, when he idly supposed his school literature might perhaps have been loft by the dispation of youth, or the busy scene of publick life! Farmer,

This play must have been written before 1614, when Jonson sneers at it in his Bartholomew Fair. In the latter plays of Shakspeare, he has less of pun and quibble than in his early ones. In The Merchant of Venice, he expressly declares against them. This perhaps might be one criterion to discover the dates of his plays.

BLACKSTONE. See Mr. Malone's Attempt to ascertain the Order of Shakspeare's Plays, and a Note on The cloud-capp'd towers, &c. AA IV.




Alonso, king of Naples.
Sebastian, his brother.
Profpero, the rightful Duke of Milan.
Antonio, his brother, the ufurping Duke of Milan.
Ferdinand, son to the king of Naples.
Gonzalo, an honest old counsellor of Naples.

} lords.
Caliban, a savage and deformed save.
Trinculo, a jefter.
Stephano, a drunken butler.
Master of a ship, Boatswain, and Mariners.
Miranda, daughter to Prospero.
Ariel, an airy Spirit.

7 Juno,

spirils. Nymphs, Reapers,

Other Spirits attending on Prospero.

SCENE, the sea, with a ship; afterwards an

uninhabited isand.

* This enumeration of persons is taken from the folio 1623.


T E M P E S T.



On a Ship at Sea.

A Storm with Thunder and Lightning.

Enter a Ship-master and a Boatswain,
Master. Boatswain,
Boats. Here, master: What cheer?

MAST. Good: Speak to the mariners: fall to't yarely,“ or we run ourselves aground: bestir, hestir.


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Boatsirain,) In this naval dialogue, perhaps the first example of failor's language exhibited on the itage, there are, as I have been told by a tkilful navigator, some inaccuracies and contradictory orders. Johnson.

The foregoing observation is founded on a mistake. These orders should be considered as given, not at once, but successively, as the emergency required. One attempt to save the ship failing, another is tried.' Malone.

2-fall to't yarely,] i. e. Readily, nimbly. Our author is frequent in his use of this word. So, in Decker's Satiromaftir: " They'll make his muse as yare as a tumbler.” Steevens,

Here it is applied as a fea-term, and in other parts of the scene. So he uses the adjective, A& V. fc. v: “Our fhip is tight and yare." And in one of the Henries : yare are our thips." To . ' this day the sailors say, “ fit yare to the helm.” Again, in

. Antony and Cleopatra, A& II. sc. ii : “ The tackles yarely frame the office." T. WARTON.


Enter Mariners. Boats. Heigh, my hearts; cheerly, cheerly, my hearts; yare, yare: Take in the top-fail; Tend to the master's whistle.—Blow, till thou burst thy wind, 3 if room enough!

Enter Alonso, SEBASTIAN, Antonio, Ferdi

NAXD, GONZALO, and others.

Alon. Good boatswain, have care, Where's the master? Play the men.4

3 Blow, till thou burst thy wind, &c.) Perhaps it might be read: Blow, till thou lurst, wind, if room enough. JOHNSON.

Perhaps rather-Blou', till thou lurfi thee, wind! if room enough. Beaumont and Fletcher have copied this pairage in The Pilgrim :

Blow, How west wind, " Blow till thou rive !" Again, in Pericles Prince of Tyre, 1609:

"1/1. Sailor. Blow, and Split thyself !" Again, in K. Lear: « Blow, winds, and bursi your

cheeks !" Again, in Chapman's version of the fifth book of Homer's Odydiy:

• Such as might fhield them from the winter's worst,

Though steel it breath'd, and blew as it would burji." Again, in Fletcher's Doulle Marriage :

Rife, winds, Blow till you l'urft the air." The allusion in these patlages, as Mr. M. Mason observes, is to the manner in which the winds were represented in ancient prints and pi&tures. Steevens.

* Play the men.) i. e. act with spirit, behave like men. So, in Chapman's translation of the second Iliad: " Which doing, thou fhalt know what fouldiers play the

men, “ And what the cowards." Again, in Marlowe's Tamburlaine, 1590, p. 2:

Viceroys and peers of Turkey, play the men." "s2 ginos, ávépos isi, Iliad, V. v. 529. STEEVENS.

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