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future evil is confessed to be an increase of misery, the hope which magnifies future good cannot be denied to be an acceflion of happiness.

The most numerous class of those who presume to hope for miraculous advantages, is that of gamesters. But by gamesters I do not mean the gentlemen who stake an estate, against the cunning of those who have none; for I leave the cure of lunatics to the professors of physic : I mean the diffolute and indigent, who in the common phrase put themselves in fortune's way, and expect from her bounty that which they eagerly desire, and yet believe to be too dearly purchased by dili. gence and industry; tradesmen who neglect their business, to squander in fashionable follies more athan it can produce; and swaggerers, who rank themselves with gentlemen, merely because they have no business to pursue.

The gamester of this class will appear to be equally wretched, whether his hope be fulfilled or disappointed; the object of it depends upon a contingency, over which he has no influence ; he pursues no purpose with gradual and perceptible success, and, therefore, cannot enjoy the pleasure which arises from the anticipation of its accomplishment; his mind is perpetually on the rack; he is anxious in proportion to the eagerness of his defire, and his inability to effect it ; to the pangs of suspence, succeed thofe of disappointment; and a momentary gain only embitters the loss that follows. Such is the life of hii, who shuns business because he would secure leisure for enjoyment; except it happens, against the odds of a million to one, that a run of success puts

him into the possession of a sum fufficient to subsist him in idleness the remainder of his life: and in this case,


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the idleness which made him wretched while he waited for the bounty of fortune, will necessarily keep him wretched after it is bestowed : he will find, that, in the gratification of his appetites, he can fill but a small portion of his time, and that these appetites themselves are weakened by every attempt to increase the enjoy. ment which they were intended to supply; he will, therefore, either doze away life in a kind of liftless indolence, which he despairs to exalt into felicity, or he will imagine that the good he wants is to be obtained by an increase of his wealth, by a larger house, a more splendid equipage, and a more numerous retinue. If with this notion he has again recourse to the altar of fortune, he will either be undeceived by a new series of success, or be will be reduced to his original indigence by the loss of that which he knew not how to enjoy : if this happens, of which there is the highest degree of probability, he will instantly become more wretched in proportion as he was rich; though, while he was rich, he was not more happy in proportion as

Whatever is won, is reduced by experiment to its intrinsic value ; whatever is loft, is heightened by imagination to more. Wealth is no fooner dillipated, than its inanity is forgotten, and it is regretted as the means of happiness- which it was not found to afford. The gamefter, therefore, of whatever class, plays against manifest odds ; since that which he wins he discovers to be brass, and that which he loses he values as gold. And it should also be remarked, that in this estimate of his life, I have not supposed him to lose a single stake which he had not first won.

But though gaming in general is wisely prohibited by the legislature, as productive not only of private


he had been poor.

but of public evil; yet there is one species to which all are sometimes invited, which equally encourages the hope of idleness, and relaxes the vigour of industry.

Ned Froth, who had been several years butler in a family of distinction, having saved about four hundred. pounds, took a little house in the suburbs, and laid in a stock of liquors for which he paid ready money, and which were, therefore, the best of the kind. Ned

perceived his trade increase; he pursued it with fresh alacrity, he exulted in his success, and the joy of his heart sparkled in his countenance : but it happened that Ned, in the midt of his happiness and prosperity, wasprevailed upon to buy a lottery ticket. The moment his hope was fixed upon an object which industry could not obtain, he determined to be industrious no longer : to draw drink, for a dirty and boiterous rabble, was a flavery to which he now submitted with reluctance, and he longed for the moment in which he should be free : inftead of telling his story and cracking his joke for the entertainment of his customers, he received them with indifference, was observed to be filent and. sullen, and amused himself by going three or fourtimes a day to search the register of fortune for the fuccess of his ticket.

In this disposition Ned was fitting one morning in the corner of a bench by his fire-fide, wholly abstracted in the concemplation of his future fortune ; indulging. this moment the hope of a mere possibility, and the next shuddering with the dread of losing the felicity which his fancy had combined with the poffefion of. ten thousand pounds. A man well dressed entered



hastily, and inquired for him of his guests, who many times called him aloud by his name, and curst him for deafness and stupidity, before Ned started up as from a dream, and asked with a fretful impatience what they wanted. An affected confidence of being well received, and an air of forced jocularity in the stranger, gave Ned fome offence; but the next moment, he catched him in his arms in a transport of joy, upon receiving his congratulation as proprietor of the fortunate ticket, which had that morning been drawn a prize of the first class.

It was not, however, long before Ned discovered that ten thousand pounds did not bring the felicity which he expected ; a discovery which generally produces the diffipation of sudden affluence by prodigalie ty. Ned drank, and whored, and hired fiddlers, and bought fine clothes; he bred riots at Vauxhall, treated flatterers, and damned plays. But something was ftill wanting ; and he resolved to ftrike a bold stroke, and attempt to double the remainder of his prize at play, that he might live in a palace and keep an equipage : but in the execution of this project, he lost the whole produce of bis lottery ticket, except five hundred pounds in Bank notes, which when he would have staked he could not find. This sum was more than that which had established him in the trade he had left; and yet, with the power of returning to a station that was once the utmost of his ambition, and of renewing that pursuit which alone had made him happy, such was the pungency of his regret, that in the despair of recoverug the money which he knew had produced nothing


but riot, disease, and vexation, he threw himself from the Bridge into the Thames.

I am, Sir,

Your humble servant,


No. XCV. Tuesday, O&ober 2. 1753.

-Dulcique animos novitate tenebo.


And with sweet novelty your soul detain.

It is often charged upon writers, that with all their pretensions to genius and discoveries, they do little more than copy one another; and that compositionsobtruded upon the world with the pomp of novelty, contain only tedious repetitions of common sentiments, or at best exhibit a transposition of known images, and give a new appearance to truth only by some flight diffe." rence of dress and decoration.

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