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name as it arises, and of carefully noting every important date. For geography and chronology are the wings of history. Without them the student cannot fly, nor can he walk even, or crawl, except in 'darkness visible,' and in a maze ‘without a plan.'

In schools where written answers are sent up weekly, the use of this book as a time-saver for tutors and pupils will be obvious. It may also be profitably used in oral teaching. A competent teacher of history and geography may, with the aid of a wall map or of an atlas in the hands of each of his pupils, do much, with one weekly lesson only, to make his class respectably proficient in subjects where ignorance is as deplorable as it is common. Such a teacher cannot go over the same ground much too often; and his attention may, in the first instance, be directed to those questions which, in one form or another, 'regurgitate' so frequently in the following papers.

With respect to the Essays, the student will do well to supply references to the other subjects, similar to those which are appended here to the first six. It is for this purpose that so much space has been left in this part of the volume; and also because the compiler has found, from experience, that a list of Essay subjects printed closely together is by no means so useful as it might theoretically appear to be. An excellent custom

g every importar prevails in many schools of arguing the pros and cons

of various questions in the School Debating Society. are the wings of

The compiler would strenuously urge youthful debaters not fly

, nor can arkness visible to select their subjects for debate from the questions and

essays in this book, and above all to fight their battles ent up weekly,

o'er again,' on the same subject, half after half, or term es and pupils after term. They will most assuredly find their account ased in oral in doing so. y and geo

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1. Compare the Greek and English languages as vehicles of thought.

2. Compare Homer and Virgil in respect of their employment of (1) metaphors, (2) epithets.

3. Compare the political and social state of North and South Greece in ancient times.

4. What effect had the Persian wars on the Hellenic world?

5. Explain the formation and character of the Roman Senate. In what sense can it be said to have been a representative assembly?

6. 'Quis tulerit Gracchos de seditione querentes ?' Is the implied view of the Gracchi a fair one?

7. Describe the mode in which the House of Commons has gradually extended its power.


8. How far did the Saxon and Norman elements of our language become fused into one race?

9. Give a short life of the Sultan Saladin.

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1. Paraphrase and comment on the following passage:

In arts mechanical the first deviser comes shortest,
and time addeth and perfecteth ; but in science the first
author goeth farthest, and time leeseth and corrupteth.
Whereof the reason is no other, but that in the former
many wits and industries have contributed in one; and
in the latter many wits and industries have been spent
about the wit of some one, whom many times they have
rather depraved than illustrated. For as water will not
ascend higher than the level of the first spring-head from
whence it decendeth, so knowledge derived from Aristotle,
and exempted from liberty of examination, will not rise
again higher than the level of Aristotle. And therefore,
although the position be good, Oportet discentem credere,
yet it must be coupled with this, Oportet edoctum judi-
care; for disciples do owe unto masters only a temporary
belief and a suspension of their own judgment until they
be fully instructed, and not an absolute resignation or
perpetual captivity: and therefore to concede this point,
I will say no more, but, so let great authors have their
due, as time which is the author of authors be not de-
prived of his due, which is further and further to dis-
cover truth.

2. Explain and comment on the following words and phrases: 'society'—'optimism'—'sense'—'cynicism' -the golden mean'—'moral courage.'

3. Criticise briefly any two of the following authors: Pascal, Wordsworth, Macaulay, Thackeray, Schiller.






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