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and suffer them universally to believe, that this mighty blessing came to them all in a way, which was imaginary, and by means, to which it was in no degree attributable.
From these considerations it may, I think, with the highest probability be concluded, that mankind are sanctified through, or by means of, the truth of God.
To all that has been here alleged it may, however, be objected, that in the Scriptures our sanctification, particularly our regezzeration, is ascribed directly, and solely, to the agency of the Holy Ghost; and that the doctrine, contended for in this discourse, contradicts this part of the Scriptural scheme.
To this objection I answer, that the doctrine, for which I contend, is as plainly asserted, and in as many passages of the Scriptires, as that, which is alleged in the objection. If, then, we deny the former of these doctrines; we shall do violence to as many, and as plain, scriptural declarations, as if we deny the latter. Our dislike to the doctrine, asserted in this discourse, will in no degree justify us in rejecting, or contravening, those passages of Scripture, in which it is asserted. They stand upon their own basis; the authority and inspiration of that Divine Spirit, who, while he challenges this Agency to Himself, has been pleased to attribute also this Instrumentality to his Word. His declarations we are bound to receive as we find them; and cannot alter the obvious meaning, with any better warrant, than we can challenge for altering the words, which contain that meaning.
It may be further objected, that this doctrine robs God of his peculiar glory in regenerating the soul of man.
To this. I answer, that we are, at the best, incompetent judges of this subject; and are therefore unable to determine, satisfactorily, in what manner God will be most glorified. If God has thought proper to give us such an account of the subject, as has been here specified, it will be found in the end, that he is more glorified in the manner, conformed to these declarations, than in any other. The Psalmist, under the unerring influence of Inspiration, says to God, Thou hast magnified thy Word above all thy Name. Should it prove one of the ways, in which God magnifies his Word, that it is constituted the Means of regeneration to mankind; there can be no reasonable doubt, that it will be found, in the end, perfectly consistent with the most perfect glorification of his Name.
The truth, however, is, that neither of these answers is at all necessary to satisfy us concerning these objections. The Spirit of God is, in truth, the only Agent in renovating man; or, in other words, the only Efficient cause of his renovation. This, however, he would be in as perfect a degree, if he were supposed to employ Means in accomplishing this change of character, as if he
were supposed to accomplish it without them. The supposition, · that an agent, if he employ means to effectuate his purposes, will,
on this account, cease to be, or be at all less, an agent, is built upon no known principles of truth or evidence.
The farmer and gardener turn their soil, and plant their seeds : the rain descends upon them, and the sun shines : but all these things do not make them spring up and yield their increase. God must still interpose with his creative power, to produce these desirable effects; or a crop will be expected in vain. God, therefore, is the sole Agent and Author of the crop; yet the farmer and the gardener, the ground and the seed, the rain and the sunshine, are all Means of its existence. Without these means, there would, according to the established order of things, be no crop. Of course, they are mcans of its existence; and means indispensable.
It may be said, that these cases are not similar. If this should be said, it would, I think, be said rashly: for Christ himself, St. Peter, St. James, and St. Paul, have all chosen this allusion to illastrate this very subject. See the parable of the sower. See also, 1 Cor. in. where Paul declares himself to have planted, Apollos to have watered, and God to have given the increase.
With regard to the other objection, it is obvious, that, so far as we can see, the glory of regenerating man is all ascribed to God; and all ascribed in the manner most honourable to him ; is attributed to his Spirit as the Efficient cause, and to his Word as the Means. If he has in fact, as, if I mistake not, I have proved, declared that this is the manner, in which he has chosen to accomplish this work; we need not fcar, that in giving this account of it we shall detract from his character.
REMARK. If the scheme of discourse, which has been here exhibited, is just; it will follow, that the Gospel is to be preached to sinners.
My audience may, perhaps, wonder that any evidence should be thought necessary to prove this assertion. If I am not misinformed, however, the assertion has not only been questioned, but denied. That such should have been the fact is certainly wonderful. in my view, as well as in that of others.
When the Gospel was first preached by Christ, the whole world, with very few exceptions, was in a state of sin. The Gentiles were so generally of this character, that, as a body, they were styled, by St. Paul, sinners of the Gentiles. Gal. ii. i5. To the Gentiles, however, Paul was sent directly by Christ, to preach the Gospel. The extraordinary commission of this Apostle deserves to be here repeated. Delivering thee from the people, and from the Gentiles unto whom now I send thee; To open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God; that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them who are sanctified by faith that is in me. Acts. xxvi. 17, 18.
Here it is to be remarked, that St. Paul was sent to the Gentiles, not only to preach the Gospel, and to open their eyes, but to
turn them, also, from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God. Accordingly, he was not disobedient unto the hearenly vision; but shewed first to them of Damascus, and at Jerusalem, and throughout all the coasts of Judea, and then to the Gentiles, that they should repent, and turn to God, and do works meet for repentance.
These declarations made by St. Paul, are unanswerably evinced to be true by the history of his life. In the very manner, here recited, he preached to both Jews and Gentiles the glad tidings of salvation ; and persuaded men every where to renounce, and forsake, their iniquities; and thus actually opened their eyes, and turned them from darkness to light.
The beginning of the Preaching of Christ, as recited in the Gospel according to St. Mark, is in these words : The time is fulfilled : the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand. Repent ye, and believe the Gospel. The people, therefore, whom he addressed, had not hitherto repented, nor believed. Of course they were sinners. In the whole history contained in the Gospel, and in the Acts, there is not, so far as I recollect, a single instance recorded, in which we have any satisfactory proof, that even an individual sinner was regenerated without the influence of Divine Truth upon his heart. On the contrary, these writings are full of examples, in which the efficacy of this Truth is asserted directly, as having been indispensably concerned in producing this change in man.
The same doctrine is, also, amply exhibited, as it respects the Jewish Church. Of the Priests, the ordinary Ministers of that Church, whose proper office it was to teach the Scriptures to the Israelites, God says, in the Prophet Malachi, The Law of Truth was in their mouth; and they turned many away from iniquity. This declaration is a complete history of the fact in question, so far as the present subject is concerned, throughout all the preceding ages of the Jewish Church.
What was true concerning the periods, contained in the Scriptural history, has been equally true, so far as we have any information of the periods, which have since elapsed. Ministers have every where, and in every age of the Christian Church, preached to sinners : and sinners under their preaching have been turned to God. In all these facts the duty of Ministers, at the present time, is distinctly seen, and gloriously encouraged. He who would preach as the Priests preached, as Christ preached, as the Apostles preached, will proclaim the tidings of salvation to sinners; and will urge them unceasingly to Faith, Repentance, and Holiness. Upon his preaching, if faithfully conducted in this manner, and accompanied by his own prayers, and those of the Christians around him, he may confidently look for the blessing of God.
THE ORDINARY MEANS OF GRACE.—WHAT THEY ARE.- AND WHAT
IS THEIR INFLUENCE
1 CORINTHIANS iv. 15.-For though ye have ten thousand instruclors in Christ, yet
hare ye not many fathers; for in Christ Jesus have I begollen you through the Gospel.
In the last discourse, I attempted to prove, that there are Means of Grace and Salvation: the first subject, then proposed for discussion. I shall now endeavour,
II. To shew What they are ; and,
The Means of Grace may be distributed into a greater or less number of divisions, without any material disadvantage. At the present time, it will, however, be useful to mention only those, which are of peculiar importance.
Of these, the Gospel, by which I here intend the Scriptures at large, is ever to be regarded as the sum : for it plainly involves them all. The Gospel is especially to be considered as being efficacious to salvation, when it is preached : this being that instilution of God, to which His peculiar blessing, life for evermore, is especially annexed in the Gospel itself. Still, it is ever to be remembered, that in every lawful, serious use of its instructions, precepts, warnings, threatenings, invitations, and promises, it is possessed of the same general nature, and influence.
When we speak of the Means of grace, in the plural, we always intend either different modes of applying the Gospel, or some or other of its Precepts, or Ordinances, to the human Understanding, or Affections ; or the performance of some act, or series of acs, enjoined in the Scriptures.
It will be proper further to observe, that the phrase, which I have here used, is commonly employed to denote, both the Means by which in the usual course of providence, grace is originally obtained ; and the Means of increasing it, when once oblained.
Under this head are included,
To these may be added, as efficacious to the same end, although differing in several respects from all those already mentioned, the
instructive and monilory, the merciful and afflictive, Dispensations of Divine Providence to ourselves and others. It ought to be remembered, that I consider none of these as Means of Grace, in any other sensc, than as they display, and impress upon the mind, The Truth of God.
In the Scriptures, all these things appear to sustain the char acter, which I have attributed to them.
The Law of the Lord, says David, is perfect; converting the soul : The lestimonies of the Lord are sure ; making wise the sim. ple. Search the scriptures, says our Saviour to thc Jews, for in them ye think ye have the words of clernal life. How shall they believe, says St. Paul, in him, of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher ? So then, Faith cometh by hearing; and hearing by the Ioril of God. God be merciful to me a sinner, said thc Publican, who went up to the temple to pray: and our Saviour informs us, that he went down to his house, justified rather than the pharisce. He that walketh with wise men, says Solomon, shall be wise. Examine yourselves, says St. Paul, whether ye be in the failh ; prove your own selves: know ye not your own selves; how that Jesus Christ is in yoll, except ye be reprobate ? This exhortation is obviously given to persons, supposed by the Apostle to be, individually, of different moral characters ; and is plainly given to them all, whatever their character might be. Stand in awe, said David to his enemies, and sin nol: commune with your own heart upon your bed ; and be still. Keep thy heart, said Darid to Solomon, with all diligence ; for out of it are the issues of lifc.
Train up a child in the way he should go ; says Solomon, and when he is old, he will not depart from il: and again, The reproofs of instruction are the way of life. Fathers, says St. Paul, Train up your children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.
These and many other passages, of a nature generally similar, I consider as directing, either mediately, or immediately, the conduct of sinners. Most of them are so obviously of this character, as apparently to admit of no dispute, A part of them may, I am aware, admit of objections to this construction. But, if these were to be given up, the rest would, I apprehend, be abundantly sufficient to answer the purposc, for which they have been quoted. That they are directed to such objects, as I have termed Means of Grace, will not be questioned.
With the instruction, furnished us concerning this subject by the Word of God, we are bound to unite that also, which is exhibited to us by his Providence. If certain measures have been customarily crowned with success in the pursuit of salvation; and other measures, or the omission of these successful ones, have terminated without that success; then we are warranted to conclude, that the course, which has been heretofore successful, will be again. We are warranted to conclude, that what God has usually blessed, he may confidently be expected to bless ; and that the