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and in order to prevent a similar attempt in | upon some circumstances which bespeak future, England must have possessions in the power and presence of the ALMIGHTY Asia. And when an attempt is made to drive GOVERNOR OF NATIONS in this calamity. her from these, she must in order to secure them, add others to them. And thus has

England during a period of one hundred years continued adding new territories to her already acquired dominions in Asia; until they now extend, from north to south, a distance of about two thousand miles, and not much less from east to west, and contain a population of one hundred and fifty millions of people. It may be that England in thus extending her dominions in Asia has been guilty of some apparent injustice, but I think that her conduct will bear looking into. God commanded the Israelites to take possession of the land of Canaan and to exterminate the inhabitants. It is true that he has not commanded England to exterminate the inhabitants of Hindostan, but he said thousands of years ago, 66 Japheth shall dwell in the tents of Shem," and so it has come to pass. God commands in the ordinary dispensations of Providence, as well as by an audible voice, and the language. of inspiration. God has no doubt commissioned England to take possession of Hindostan, and that for some good and wise purpose."

We think these remarks lay a solid foundation for all future reflection. We are the descendants of Japheth; the Indians are the descendants of Shem. God said he would "enlarge Japheth;" he has done so, and is still progressing. He said Japheth should "dwell in the tents of Shem." This prediction also has been accomplished; and now Satan, knowing that his kingdom there is tottering, that his dominions there are falling, has come down with great force, malice, and wrath. But the word of our God shall stand for ever; and he will overturn, overturn, and overturn, until "He shall come, whose right it is; and he shall reign for ever."

Öpposed to this view stands the feeling of many, whose thoughts run like the following:

It is a question which I cannot answer to my own mind, whether or not a nation professing Christianity has a right to possess a country of idols, and promise the idolators to protect them in undisturbed exercise of idolatry. should not such a nation leave the idolator alone? or, if God gives an idolatrous country into the power of Christian nations, what must be His object? Should Christians not confess their religion as boldly as the Hindoo and the Mohammedan confess their false religions?

We cannot enter upon this objection now, but pass on.

Mr. Cadman, the rector of St. George's, Southwark, delivered a plain and sensible address to his parishioners, in the course of which he shewed how England, as a nation, had not only been careless of her Christian character, but had, moreover, absolutely endeavoured to shut out every ray of gospel light, and every movement of spiritual life, in those immense dominions.

William Thorpe, of Bristol, in his work entitled "The Destinies of the British Empire," has more fully unveiled the downright wicked countenance which England has given to India's gross idolatries, than any writer we ever read. We have published Mr. Thorpe's unveiling of Britain's bad doings in her adopted India, in a penny pamphlet, entitled "ENGLAND'S APOSTACY IN INDIA, with Notes, That Narratives, and Illustrations." pamphlet must be read by millions; and if the Lord will nerve our arm, and aid our effort, we will not rest, until all the churches in Christendom are made more fully acquainted than ever with the inexpressibly awful traffic which this country has carried on with India's heathen gods, and, surely, over this dark and deepstained page of our country's history the true Church of Christ shall yet have to say, " And we know that all things work together for good," &c.

But, in reviewing some of the circumstances surrounding this gloomy Indian epoch, we shall quote from Mr. Cadman's sermon (J. A. Berger, Publisher, Queen's Head-passage) the following. He said,

We have to thank God, indeed, for many benefits conferred on India by our government; but it is a remarkable fact that should not be lost sight of on this day of humiliation, that those very men whose hands have been imbued with the blood of the best of England's children, whose atrocities have been almost unparalleled, who had no pity even for innocent children and defenceless females,-that these very men are the class of all others in India who have not been allowed, so far as Government influence has gone, to be brought into any accquaintance with the light of the glorious Gospel of Christianity. There is one instance mentioned, in our missionary records, of a Sepoy, who, after persuing the Scriptures, was led to a chaplain at the station, (no longer ago than 1819), for further instruction,

the result of which was that he embraced Christianity: a court of inquiry was accordIn this Scriptural view of the questioningly instituted by order of the Government; we are tempted to pause, and reflec the clergyman was reported to his bishop for

baptizing the Sepoy, and the Sepoy soldier was dismissed from the army for embracing, the religion of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Very remarkable was that man's testimony before our officers, when he said, "You will allow me to serve your king, but you will not allow me to serve your God." This was done, no doubt, from motives of policy; our rulers then thought that it was not wise to allow such an instance to pass unnoticed, that it might introduce rebellion in the Sepoy ranks, and so lead to the loss of our Indian Empire. The result of such a policy we have now seen. The Jews of old said, with reference to our Saviour, "If we let him alone, all men will believe on him, and the Romans will come and take away both our place and nation." They put him to death, and the Romans did come

the law of God as transgressed by Adam and all his posterity in him; and you must be careful here to distinguish between sovereignty and justice. And I here speak of sovereignty in relation to the lost. Now it is an act simply of divine sovereignty to pass them by, leaving them in the fall. This is an unfathomable deep-a deep which none but the Creator can fully sound. There stands the awful fact in the Scriptures, that "whom he will he hardeneth."

It was an act of divine sovereignty to place man in the garden of Eden on grounds condi tional. It was act of divine sovereignty to constitute Adam the federal and natural head of the human race. It was an act also of sovereignty to give to Adam the kind of law he (the and scatter their nation, the very evil that they Lord) thought proper. Nor can I scarcely dreaded was thus brought upon them by their say that he gave such law because it was s sinful departure from God's truth. Such just law; but rather that such a law was just seemed to be the feeling of our rulers."If because he gave it. For in his own natural we let the Missionaries thus alone, the existence, he is above and beyond all external armies will rise, the Sepoys will become law. The laws of his own self and eternal rebellious, and we shall lose our autho- existence are what no finite being can com rity and dominion." And mark the re- prehend. Whatever, therefore, he does, is sult! It was in that very place, at that right: if only for this reason, that it is right very station where that man was dismissed because he does it. from the army, that the Sepoys first manifes-region of pure sovereignty, determined upon He therefore, in the ted that awful cruelty and bloodshed which whatever plans and counsels he pleased; but, we have to lament. It was at Meerut that the mind this, his plans once fixed, he will not Sepoy embraced Christianity, and it was there that the first outbreak of rebellious Sepoys His counsel must stand, and he will do all alter; and therefore they cannot be altered. took place, attended with such awful cruelties. I mention this not as professing to be able to his pleasure. trace the course of God's judgment, but I mention it as a remarkable circumstance which at least ought to be observed by those who belive there is a God who judgeth in the earth, and is jealous of his own honour and glory."

This is, truly, a most solemn fact! We could dwell on 'it a long time, and attach thereto a variety of incidents, all expressing the certainty that "Our God is in the heavens," and that "by him ac tions are weighed," but we must defer, until our next, the deduction of many Biblical and practical lessons which 66 'India's Mutiny" is calculated to teach. We have occupied too much room, but the vastness of the subject must be our excuse.



My good Theophilus, before closing what I have to say to you upon the final judgement of the righteous, I shall, in this letter, begin to set before you those laws by which the unrighteous must be finally judged; and those laws may be summed up in these three-the legal, the natural, and the dispensational.

1st. The Legal. By the legal I mean

To make my meaning clear, take it thushis plan with Adam was that if he ate of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, he should die; fairly implying, that if he did not eat thereof, he should not die. Now, here you see, whether Adam eat of the forbidden tree or not, the counsel of God would stand-his counsel could not be overthrown; for the counsel was, that if he ate, he should die. Well, he did eat, and he did die-virtually, time. Now, if he do not eat of the tree, still at the time, and actually, at the "appointed" the counsel of God would stand, in the fact, that Adam would not die; and thus, either way, the counsel of God would stand."

But now, mind that, while as a matter of sovereignty, God gave what law he thought proper. Now this law thus given, becomes the fixed eternal rule of right and wrong in the sight of God. It was not sovereignty, but justice that condemned Adam, and all his posterity: whether we can see the justice of this terrible order of things or not does not alter the fact-that all sinned-all died in Adam.

The great God foreknowing every thing does not associate him influentially with the fall. The devil was the agent, not God. Therefore sin is of the devil. Sin, in the commencement of it, was a flat contradiction to God's law. "Ye shall not surely die." That the devil was a liar from the beginning. And all men being in relation to eternal truth,

led by him, are therefore called liars. "Let God be true, but every man a liar." Thus, my good Theophilus, you will see that in order for the blessed God to be the author of sin, he must tell lies; in a word, become a liar; for sin is a deadly lie. Who would not tremble at the thought of wilfully making God a liar? Truly then is it written that it is impossible for God to lie. The man, therefore, who says God is the author of sin, can never know what he is saying; he cannot be conscious, that so speaking, he is making the God of truth one with the old serpent the devil. We cannot speak too reverentially of our Maker, nor too broadly mark the everlasting difference between the delusions of Satan, and the truths of the blessed God.

Thus you see that the great God instituted that order of things which seemed good in his sight but sin has come in upon that order of things, and death by sin.

Now, my good Theophilus, let us tremblingly look upon the fall of man; let us see what and where he is by that fall.


Now, as to what he is. He is dead in sin. The satanic falsehood which he has received into his soul is his death. He is loathsomely dead yet nothing under heaven is so dearly hugged, loved, followed, and abode by, in some form or another, as that very same falsehood, which is at once our death, our deformity, our sin, our curse. Man is every way corrupt; and yet he may do many works in the moral and social relations of life, which are accepted in the sight of God, for what they are: so if Cain, in these respects, had done well, he would have been accepted to family pre-eminence, but nothing more. For when the heart is put to the test of God's holy law, in the spirit of that law, it (the heart) can produce nothing in the sight of that law, but all manner of concupiscence; there is not one thing there that the law can sanction. So that we can be neither sanctified nor justified by the law. Not sanctified, for the law has nothing in such a case but wrath to minister. Not justified, unless the law can justify sin and unrighteousness; for the sinner has nothing else that is really his own, nor can this be by any creature-power altered for ever; for ought man can do must the sinner remain in the image and likeness of Satan and so they are called by the same names that Satan is, such as dragon, viper, serpent, devil.

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But it is not only what man is by the fall, but also where he is. He is under the law and its curse. The same law that appoints the body to a literal death, appoints the whole person to a second death-a death that never dies.

Man is in the hands of the law; it has fast hold of him; it holds him with an almighty grasp there is no escaping; it is a prison whose walls no one ever scaled yet, or

ever will; it has bars which cannot be broken; its chains are everlasting chains; not one link will ever give way; not a jot or tittle shall or can fail.

But man is not only under the law, and in the hands of the law, but also on his way to the judgment seat of God; and what thousands of the human race are daily called to appear at the bar of God! probably, upon the average, from fifty to sixty thousand a day; from two to three thousand an hour; nearly fifty a minute! What, to angels, to the Saviour, and perhaps to the saints, must such a scene be!

Man, I say, is on his way to the judgment seat of the Judge of all. Can none go back? No, not one minute; but minutes will mercilessly flow, and could man stay for awhile the wheels of time, and give to himself an antediluvian longevity on earth, this would only make it all the worse; he would have the more to answer for; and although it is for the elect's sakes that days are shortened, still the lost will not be wronged thereby. Every moment renders the distance between the bottomless pit and the unrighteous man less and less.

First, then, what men are by the fall, and where they are, will form one rule of final judgment; yea, already are they in this awful state judged. The judgment already given of them is two-fold: First, that there "is none righteous, no, not one;" and second, that they are already under condemnation; for, "by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation."

Well, then, in the final judgment they will be judged according to what they are, and also according to where they are; if tares, they cannot be taken for wheat; if goats, they cannot be taken for sheep; if dogs, they cannot be taken for children, but must be taken for what they are. God is Judge himself.

And also as to where they are; for if in bondage to sin, they cannot be taken for free; and if one with the beast, the wild beast of this world's religion, then they are not on mount Zion; and if born only after the flesh, then they cannot see, much less be in the kingdom of heaven; and if one with the ungodly, they cannot be one with the godly; and if they put off one livery of Satan, to serve him in another (as comely, may be, as angels of light), then where God and the Lamb are they cannot come; and if standing on first Adam ground, then such ground is cursed, and not blessed; and if standing on law ground, then devouring fire, everlasting burnings, not everlasting consolation, must surround and swallow them up; and if in a spirit of enmity against the truth, then they cannot be taken for friends, but must be dealt with as enemies, and so must all enemies perish; but them that love him shall be as the sun, when he goeth forth in his might.

Thus all are already, both in what they are, and where they are, in a state of condemnation; and here the Lord, taking that holy law for his rule, which he hath given, taking this law for his rule, he might justly have left the whole human race finally under sin and wrath, and so his wrath would have abode upon them; and if from this state any are taken, then election, mediation, regeneration, and a sworn covenant, all join to do the wondrous work.

Now, having shewn that man is as to what he is, and also as to where he is, that in both these he is in a state of condemnation, you will observe that I have said nothing here about personal works for which men will be condemned. This I hope to do in my next; the subject is indeed solemn, but still it endears the Saviour; and that we may love and honour him more and more, is the sincere desire of your humble servant in the Lord, A LITTLE ONE.



xviii.; and those "three men" he addressed as his Lord. Now, if it be argued that Christ was a man before his incarnation in time's fulness, then it may be as reasonably proved that the Father was a man, and that the Holy Ghost was a man, because Jehovah was pleased to reveal the trinity of his Being in the form of three men.

The preference is not in order of time, but in order of dignity. (John i. 27.) At least, I think so. I cannot conceive that it has any reference to anteriority, or posteriority of existence; but to the superiority of the august Person of whom John was the herald.

To illustrate my idea, I observe that Cain was before Abel in existence, but Abel was before Cain in preference. Ishmael was before Isaac in the order of his birth, but Isaac was before Ishmael in Heaven's favour. I may be referred to the 15th verse; but I argue, he was not before John as the "Son of man," but as the "Son of God." passages taken altogether, seem to me to speak thus, "He was before me," as the Son of God, and "came after me," as the Son of



But though I thus write, I would not be BY MR. SAML. COZENS, OF SOMER'S TOWN. thought an apologist for Socinianism, whose

Christ is a mere time thing, or thing of time. There is not a single ray of eternal Deity or dignity in the Christ they preach.

MR. EDITOR,-Dear Sir; In answer to your correspondent, "One of the Least," I re- I believe most cordially the doctrine despectfully say, that I perceive nothing par-clared in Prov. viii. 23,-" I was set up from ticularly remarkable, in the fact, that, the Greek aner, (i. e. an adult male person), and not anthropos (i. e. an individual of the human race, a man or woman, a person) occurs in the original text-John i. 30. If anthropos, and not aner, had been in the passage, He would have been no less "emphatically man."

everlasting." Here we have a personal pronoun, in connection with personal properties, and personal acts. We learn from this, that Christ existed before his incarnation. Yes, say some, as God. Truly: but, Do you mean to tell me that he was set up as God? If so, Who was the Setter up? Do you answer, God? Then God must set up God, and If" One of the Least" entertains the idea therefore, there must be two Gods-a God that the "Son of man,"-Matt. viii. 20-setting up, and a God set up-which is as the "Son of man was anterior to preposterous. John, let me remind him that John was his senior by six months.

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I would ask, reverently, If Christ was a man-a real man-a substantial man, before John-before he was born of the virgin, What became of that man which existed before the divine conception in Mary's womb? And will it not follow, that, if Christ was a "real" man before his assumption of our nature, (in what is denominated "The fulness of time," that is to say, getting on for nineteen hundred years ago) and, then, a man after, or, at that assumption, that there must be two men. I know that he is spoken of as a man in the Old Testament, but "God calleth things that are not as though they were," Rom. iv. 17. I may be referred to his appearing in the form of a man to the Hebrew fathers; but, if we come to appearances, we may argue in favour of a plurality, --for three men, and not one man, appeared to Abraham in the plains of Mamre, Genesis

But, say some, If he did not exist as a real man before his advent, and was not set up as God, and yet, was a person, What person was he? I answer, the SON of God. And as the Son of God, he was set up from everlasting. We can't define the setting up of the Son of God, no more than we can explain the sending of the Son of God. Whom did God send into this world? His Son. Then it follows that he had a Son to send. (John iii. 17.) And the Son sent, was the Son set up and he was set up for the same purpose that he was sent.

I hope "One of the Least" will not think these remarks impertinent; but should he do so, I trust he will moderate his displeasure when he knows it was written by, less than the least. Your's, S. COZENS. 12, Queen-street, Camden Town, Oct. 4, 1857.

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WEDNESDAY, Oct. 7, was fixed as a day for fasting and prayer; it had been previously arranged that I should preach at Newland Chapel, High Wycombe, on behalf of the Sunday-school Lending Library. An alteration in the running of the trains rendered it necessary for me to leave London in the morning of that day so early that I reached Wycombe in time to hear the Fast-day sermon which was preached in New Land on the occasion of the Indian disturbances by Mr. Cawse, the pastor. He read the words of Peter for his text-"Humble yourselves, therefore, under the mighty hand of God, and he shall exalt you in due time." It was a seasonable and judicious discourse. I only wish the nation at large, and the churches of Christ especially, could be brought to such a humbling as he described! In the afternoon of the same day a special meeting for prayer was holden. Six godly men poured out their hearts in prayer, with a verse or two of a hymn between, and certainly it was "a prayer meeting" there was a pleading power, an earnestness, and a Scriptural and spiritual consistency throughout the whole which is not always to be heard at meetings of this kind. I thought Mr. Cawse, the pastor, must be much encouraged to be supported by such a number of brethren who could go to the mercy-seat and thus plead with the Majesty of heaven. This prayer meeting made me think of the following remarks which I had read that same morning while journeying to Wycombe. The preacher said — and everybody will know who he is when they read preacher, speaking of the LORD CHRIST in glory, under the character of a Lamb, said:


"Oh! how some people do pray to Christ as if they thought He was some great lion, forgetting that he is a Lamb. Look at our prayer-meetings. Do you go to prayer-meeting together? I shall not inquire. If it is at Burnley as it is every where else, there are very few think of going to the prayer-meeting. It is only the prayer-meeting,' when it ought to be said, "That is just the most That important meeting of the week,' man. is just the one which they ought to attend, if they omit every other. Aye, but shall I tell you why there are few at the prayer-meeting? Part of it is a want of earnestness, a want of love, and a want of a spirit of prayer. But there is another reason, and my friends must excuse me. Those persons who are usually called upon to pray do not pray in the style that is likely to bring out many persons. Our dissenting friends cannot bear forms, any of them, but I have heard some of them say the same prayer twenty times, and whenever they get up, I know what they are going say, and yet they hate forms, all the forms except

those they make themselves. They think it
a very dreadful thing to read a prayer out of a
book, but when they get up you know all they
are a going to say, and you know how and
where they will end, and feel very glad when
they get to the close of it. And the stupid
things people do sometimes say to God in
prayer! Ever since my boyhood I can re-
member a respectable old horse that I used to
see trotted out in most of the prayers that I
heard at my grandfather's chapel,' O Lord,
we would not rush into thy presence as the
unthinking horse into the battle.' Well,
when I was a child I used to think that was a
very singular horse, that 'unthinking' horse
and I was rather struck that any of our friends
at prayer-meeting should call any particular
horse an unthinking' one, and I turned to
my Bible I can remember. I thought that
must be a Bible passage, and I found that
there was not a word about 'unthinking
horses there. I found the passage about men
rushing into sin as a horse into a battle, and
nothing about rushing into God's presence at
all. I have heard that horse a great many
times galloping since, and I should like to
see him transferred far, far away. Then in
our prayers down south-I don't know whe
ther you ever get it here--I hear my friends
say, O Lord, go from heart to heart as oil from
vessel to vessel. Of course you don't say that
up here, I should hope, because that is just
about the most stupid piece of nonsense that
anybody ever heard. I asked a friend the
other night what he meant by it, and where
he got it from; because oil does not go from
vessel to vessel, that is the first thing. If you
put oil into vessels you will find it keep there,
unless the vessels should be cracked, and then
it is likely it might run out, but not else. But
suppose oil does go from vessel to vessel, does
grace go from heart to heart? This I am
sure of, the Romanist thinks it does; he thinks
it runs out of the priest into the man who
supplicates him; but we as Protestants don't
think so. I am sure if the grace ran out of
me into you, it would soon be spoiled in going
it would be of very little use to you. And the
reason why they thus pray to God is this, that
they think it such wonderful work to pray
that they must not just speak as the Spirit
gives them utterance, not just simple words,
but they fancy there is a particular way that
they have got to pray, or else it won't be
liked; something peculiarly serious, or else it
won't tell; and so they cannot just pray in
earnestness. Now I have the pleasure of
seeing very genrally a prayer meeting of 1,200
to 1,500 persons, and I don't know that we
ever come below a thousand at prayer-meet-
ing, except it should be a terrible wet night;
and I know the reason in a great measure is
this, that when I call upon a brother to pray,
he knows how long he is to pray; he is not
to pray twenty minutes till we are tired, but
he is to be short; and then he knows too
that he is just wanted to ask God for what

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