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about Joseph, and I was quite familiar with all the historical facts you named, because I had read them." "Read them ?" "Yes, sir, read them; and I was equally sure you had read them, too, or you could not have given us such an accurate history of the patriarch. And I would ask you, sir, if you ever preached upon any subject about which you had not read or heard? I would also ask, is it manly, is it just, I will not ask is it Christian, to pass such an unequivocal verdict against a work you never saw? and, I will be bold to say, that there is no book extant that contains in the same number of pages (160) so much valuable matter, and so much variety of thought. I esteem Mr. Cozens for the service he has rendered to the cause of truth by his former publications, and no less for his honesty in his preface to the present work, in which he makes no "pretensions to perfect originality of thought, at the same time he claims (and justly too) a tolerable share of originality.'

Thus ended that little squabble, which brings to our mind the words of the logical poet,

"All looks yellow to the jaundiced eye." I will give you another sample from the same "sort." "Yes (said one to me the other day), it is wonderfully instructive, but it ought to be confined to teachers, for if the people are allowed to have them they will know more than most of their instructors." My brother, we must have "no popery" over all our chapel doors. Many of these gentlemen would be thought very zealous for the Lord, and sticklers for the truth, but, how is it if they are what they profess to be, viz. lovers of truth that they use every effort to hinder its circulation ?

But I am happy to inform you that while many of our little-minded, mean-spirited, jealous-hearted parsons are endeavouring to crush your humble servant and his work too, that he is receiving letters of encouragement and congratulation from educated men in all parts of the kingdom, and I have more than once received a soverign for a single copy with the high encomium that that was not its value. I have also received high compliments from not a few gentlemen in the Establishment, one of whom after seeing it sent me an order for twelve copies to give away.

S. COZENS.

Thanking you for your kind enquiries, I am, dear brother, your's in the truth, 12, Queen-street, Camden Town, Nov. 3, 1857. P:S.-The foregoing may appear fulsome to some, but while I am willing to take the lowest seat as the chief of sinners, I am not willing to succumb the gifts sovereignly bestowed upon me, nor will I be robbed of my own. Some are trying to do so by asserting that my book is culled from Keach; but it is a fact that I had written seven volumes before I ever saw Keach. I will not deny that I have made use of that author; but let any one examine my types with his types, and which are the most full? For instance, he makes Adam a type of Christ in three particulars: I make him a type in twelve; He

say

makes Isaac a type of Christ in five particulars; I make him a type in fourteen. I should not presume to compare myself with so great a man as Keach, if I had not been charged with republishing his thoughts. I say again, I have made use of some of his thoughts to amplify some of my articles, but let any one take my book and fairly compare it with Keach, or any book extant, and produce one of the seventy articles in my Teacher's Thought Book, and I will present him with the whole of my works, about 5,000 copies.

EPISTLES TO THEOPHILUS.

LETTER XXXVIII.

MY GOOD THEOPHILUS, I have-after shewing in my last the condemnation we are brought under by the fall of Adam-I have now to set before you two more rules of final judgment to the ungodly-namely, the natural and the dispensational. Upon the first of these I will say but little. We learn from Romans i. 19, 20, that the works of creation demonstrate to the natural conscience of every man the existence, eternal power and Godhead of the Most High; and therefore, for the gross idolatries and revolting practices into which they have plunged they have no excuse. They did not like to retain God in their knowledge, or do him that homage of which, as moral and responsible beings, they were capable of doing; therefore God in sovereignty and in justice gave them up to vile affections; he gave have mercy upon them, and in justice, as them up in sovereignty, as not choosing to Adam-fallen, and as practical enemies to God; the degree, therefore, of their punishment, will be in proportion to the amount of their guilt. This guilt arising from their Adam-fallen state: here all are alike; there is no difference; but in their guilt arising from practical wrong, there is a difference. Upon this subject of the final judgment of the heathen a volume might be written, yet I shall here say no more upon it, but pass on to the final judgment of the so-called Christian world who shall be lost. These will be judged by the laws of the dispensation they are under. When the Saviour and John the Baptist began to preach they said, "Repent, for the kingdom (the dispensational) of heaven is at hand." And had this dispensational kingdom been sent to Sodom and Gomorrah they would have received it. Both the Saviour and the apostles demonstrated to every man's conscience (within its range) the divinity of their mission; they therefore had no excuse for persecuting, much less for crucifying the Lord of life and glory; and the dispensation of the mission of the Saviour is come down to us with such clear evidence to every man's conscience (except those who are

practically given up to blindness, and of reprobate mind), that no one can have any excuse for persecuting the people of God, or for despising the gospel dispensation. Every natural man ought to walk in the light which the New Testament brings him into; and God will accept and honor such conscientious walking, and accept it for what it is. But not only so; the natural man feels he ought to regard the Sabbath, go to a place of worship, listen to the words of his Maker, and do homage to the Son of God, in whose hands is his breath (for all judgment is committed unto the Son), and by whose government of the nations he-the natural man-has fruitful seasons, and his heart filled with food and gladness; for the nation or kingdom which will not thus submit to the Son of God must perish, even when his wrath is kindled but a little. This, then, is the (superadded) condemnation, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil. I say, superadded condemnation, because "by one man's offence judgment came upon all men to con demnation." This is one condemnation; but then there is the condemnation belonging, not only to the fall, but also to practical wrong.

Thus, my good Theophilus, you see there is a great and solemn principle of moral responsibility that men are under, and the greater light and the more privileges they have, the greater their responsibility. Where much is given much is required; some will be beaten in hell with many stripes, some with not so many stripes; some shall receive the greater condemnation, and that for their sinning against light and knowledge, as Judas did when he betrayed the Saviour, or as Ananias and Sapphira did, when they kept back part of the price, and as thousands do in our day. Thus it is that it will be more tolerable in the day of judgment for the worst of heathen cities than for these light and truth despisers.

Now, if men walk in the light while they have the light, as some do, then the Lord is with them in that respect as his creatures, nor will their condemnation be so heavy as those who do not so walk, for the wrath of God will come upon some to the uttermost, and some shall have judgment without any mercy or mitigation. But after all, to be lost is of all things the most awful; hell is hell, even to those whose place shall be in a less intense part of the lake, and upon whose devoted heads the thunderbolts of vengeance shall descend the lightest, and on whose backs shall fall the fewest stripes; "It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God."

demned. But "who shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect?" And thus, not having this faith, the wrath of God abideth on them; they are condemned already. But what are they condemned for? I answer, for their sins. But why are these condemned for their sins, while others are saved and not condemned? The answer is that they are condemned for their sins because God over all is not pleased to have mercy upon them; and the others are not condemned, because God is pleased to have mercy upon them. And as those upon whom he will not have mercy never did, never will, and never can possess the faith of God's elect, therefore, as I have said, their non-possession of this faith is the spot, the mark, and as it were the seal, the earnest of their condemnation.

Thus, then, destitution of the faith of God's elect is the evidential cause of their condemnation, as, on the other hand, the possession of the faith of God's elect is the evidential cause of salvation. But are they loved, redeemed, blessed and saved, for believing? I trow not. So the lost are condemned for their sins, but it cannot, in the very nature of things, be any sin in them not to possess that faith which accompanies eternal salvation. Take their unbelief, or non-possession of the faith of God's elect, as the evidence of their state, if you please, or, as I have worded it, the evidential cause of their condemnation, then the word of God may be rightly understood. And so I understand it thus," He that believeth (that is, he who liveth and believeth, or is born of God,-for no faith short of this can save the soul, he who thus believeth) shall be saved; he that believeth not (who is not born of God) shall be condemned." Thus, the reason the one is not condemned for his sins, is because he is a believer; that is, he is born of God, and for him it is that Christ died; but the other is condemned for his sins, because he hath not believed on the only begotten Son of God. He might have believed mentally and morally, but not vitally; he is not born of God.

You know the old wives' fable, often connected by men with the truth of God: it is this,-that it is the work of God that we receive (savingly, I suppose it means) the gospel, (true), but it is the work of men to reject it. Reject it, in the doctrine and practice of it, they do; abuse it, as a dispensation, they do. Christ himself was despised and rejected of men; but this is not what our duty-faith, universal-invitation men mean; they mean, if their words have any meaning at all, that men are lost for not savingly receiving the gospel. My good Theophilus, I trust you feel the same Now the non-possession of the faith of contempt for such a gross insult upon the God's elect is the spot which marks the cha- gospel, and upon God himself, as I do. racter of the lost. Not having this faith of Was the gospel in its vitality ever offered to God's elect, they are for their sins con-any man? Did the Lord offer to bring the

dry bones in Ezekiel's vision to life? Did the Saviour offer Lazarus life from the dead? Did he offer to stop Saul of Tarsus? Does he offer his sheep eternal life? Men reject the gospel in the vitality of it! As well may we say that Adam refused to exist before he was created; as well may we say that they that are in the graves will at the last great day refuse to come forth. Reject regeneration! Is it possible that men can be found, professing to believe in the certainty of eternal redemption, who yet hold that those who are not saved reject what was never meant for them? Satan certainly did get many of the old Puritans, as well as moderns, to do him the service of resting this abominable falsehood upon the head of God's truth; as though this vile duty-faith insult to God was a crown of honour to his truth, whereas it is nothing but a crown of thorns, intended by the enemy to degrade eternal truth. To advocate this duty-faith heresy is nothing but wilful rebellion against the sovereignty of God; and if I begin to bring charges against it, where shall I stop?

destitute of the power, having a name to live while dead. It pleased God, soon after his marriage, to direct his steps to Bethel Chapel, Poplar, where, under the ministry of Mr. Bennett, then preaching at the above chapel, his soul was and he was brought to see and feel his state as quickened into life; his eyes were opened,

a sinner, and was also, after a time, brought into the liberty of the gospel. Mr. Bennett soon after left Bethel. The pulpit was then occupied by a blind man of the name of Rowland, whose ministry appears to have been much owned and blessed. Mr. Swainland by this time had been baptized by a Mr. Burnett, of Woolwich, and then stood deacon of Bethel. When Mr. Rowland first came to Bethel he (Mr. Rowland) held open communion views, but while there he was led to embrace and defend the ordinance of believers' baptism. In consequence of this he was ob liged to leave, they being opposed to strict communion. The pulpit afterwards being supplied mostly by men who were opposed to believers' baptism, Mr. Swainland gave up his office, and seldom attended. He afterwards sat much under the ministry of the late Mr. Allen, of Cave Adullam, until the time of his decease, also under the ministry of Mr. Bowles, of Poplar; then at 72, High-street, Poplar; himself and wife regularly sat under the ministry of brother Wells, at his week-night services, so long as he was able to travel; but at last, finding the ministry of Mr. Bowles, of Zoar Chapel, Poplar, so blessed to his soul he ultiately made it his home, and has often borne testimony to the soul profit that of late he had

First, it (this duty-faith universal-invitation system) is a perversion of the Word of God. Secondly, it is a root of bitterness against the new covenant counsel of God. Thirdly, it obscures the true light of the gospel. Fourthly, it teaches people in God's name to tell lies. Fifthly, it nourishes the vilest enmity and slanders against the truth and people of God. Sixthly, it sets thou-received. It pleased the Lord some six weeks sands down for real Christians, whose con- before his death to lay him on a bed of afflicversion is merely mental and formal, but not tion, during which time his tabernacle was vital, and thus deceives by thousands the being pulled down, though hopes at first of his souls of men. Seventhly, it helps forward recovery was entertained; but his time was with fearful rapidity the interests of the come to be absent from the body and present kingdom of Satan. It is at the root of with the Lord. Mr. Bowles visited him up every erroneous ism in Christendom; and it to the time of his death. He spoke calmly of always tries to make God's truth a' subser- the Lord's gracious dealings with his soul, and of his long forbearance with his perverseness vient means of establishing itself in the and rebellion in the wilderness. On the churches. Many a man will preach half-a-morning of Good Friday last, Mr. B. read dozen straightforward gospel sermons, sound in the letter, to put the hearer off his guard, to reach and bring in this pestilential doctrine of duty-faith; while such will stoutly deny that they are duty-faith men, being ashamed to own their own favourite doctrine.

How easily could I substantiate every one of these assertions! but you know them to be true bills.

Now, it will remain for me in my next to shew more clearly the meaning of those Scriptures upon which duty-faith rests its claims, and thinks itself entitled to a place in the temple of God, though at war with every truth in the new covenant.

The Lord bless thee out of Zion. So prays A LITTLE ONE.

DEATH OF MR. SWAINLAND. MR. SWAINLAND, when first married to his now beloved widow, was a professor of religion, but

and prayed with him, but he was then very low and weak; he was asked if he could hear the prayer. "Yes, yes (he said), and have joined in with every word. God bless you, and make you a blessing to thousands.”

He gradually from this time sank lower and lower, but up to the last he gave (whenever he could gather strength) some testimony that

"His hope was built on nothing less Than Jesu's blood and righteousness."

A little before his departure a friend repeated the verse, "When this lisping stammering tongue," &c. He smiled, lifted up his hands approvingly, and soon after, at 12 o'clock on the night of Tuesday, 14th April, 1857, he breathed his last, without a struggle or a groan. And on Wednesday the 22nd, his body was committed to the ground, to mingle with the clods of the valley until the resurrection morn.

On Lord's day evening, April the 26th, Mr. Bowles improved his death from Philippians i, 21, "For to me to live is Christ," &o.

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Our Churches, their Pastors, and their People.

[SOME fresh channels of information are opening up respecting the history and present movements of our churches in Great Britain, in Amercia, and the colonies. We hope the details will be useful, not merely to interest the readers of the EARTHEN VESSEL, but to stir up the hearts of the Lord's people to seek for a fuller development of the great truths of the gospel.-ED.]

A Christian experience is that which emanates from the doctrines of Christ being applied by the Holy Ghost, the Comforter, the enlighttian may know what is the hope of his calling ener of the understanding, whereby the Chrisand what the riches of the glory of his inheri tance in the saints, and what is the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power: all of which must produce joy in believing.

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But to return to our little cause. There are from thirty to forty who attend there; we have also an aged man who preaches occasionally, and another whom you know, and that is our Brother Neeve, late of London. is a member of the church, and I must confess I should not object to his being pastor. I think well of him. He is clear both in doctrine and experience.

He is thinking of returning to England if his way should be made clear. I cannot help expressing the desire of myself and many more of those who have heard our beloved brother Mr. James Wells, that our Lord will wholly restore him to his labours of love. His letters are well received here.

WILLIAM MOTT. 37, Jane-street, near 8th Avenue, New York, Oct. 26th, 1857.

THE CHURCHES IN NEW YORK. DEAR BROTHER BANKS.-Having seen a request in one of your Earthen Vessel numbers, that some one would inform you of the state of the churches through the United States, I would like to have been able to have done so, but not being familiar with any of them, that is impossible, not having been absent from New York on a Lord's-day since I have been in this country; but, notwithstanding I shall endeavour to give you a faint idea of this metropolis, It abounds with churches of all denominations; consequently one might imagine it to be a most religious city; but, lo, it is far, very far from it; no city can be more profane. Although the churches fill well it is more for a fashionable appearance, than a gracious desire after truth. This is not to be wondered at; TIDINGS FROM TASMANIA. for Arminianism, Universalism, Fullerism, Wesleyanism, and every other ism, are the tenets advocated both from the pulpits and the press. There are a few who love the truth as it is in Jesus, some of whom attend either at Baptist Church meeting in 36th Street; or at the Old School Baptist Church meeting in a hall in Woorster-street, being the only two churches professing the truth that I know of in this populous city.

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The church in 36th Street is attended by about one hundred hearers; the present minister being an Englishman of the name of Bennet, late of London. I and my wife have attended at Woorster-street for about seven or eight years. We have no settled minister; being supplied generally from the country, and from what I have been informed, I suppose the country towns and villages are more enriched with the truth and truth lovers than the city of New York. There is one who usually comes once a fortnight; he is sound as a bell in the truth, and very sweetly preaches the experience of the doctrines in the heart. I say experience of the doctrines, because there is so much experience talked of, of so dark and dismal a character, and set up as a Christian standard, that I think a distinction should ever be made; a christian experience must emanate from the blessed teachings of the Holy Spirit, the Comforter, the Remembrancer, of whom saith Jesus Christ," He shall bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you."

BY THE VENERABLE H. DOWLING.

WE are much gratified (in common with many others in this dear old England of ours) that faithful and much honoured servant of at any time to receive communications from Christ, the aged Henry Dowling. Some day, we hope to give some record of his labours in Australia. Perhaps he will furnish us with some leaves out of his own book. The following letters should have been published before.-ED.]

MY BROTHER IN THE LORD.-In your May number your correspondent, G. Dyer, of Andover, has given you an account, from his own personal observation, of the number and sentiments of the Baptist Churches in Melbourne and Geelong, and I believe that they stand much about the same at the present time. Your correspondent refers to a minister of the name of D. Allen, and of whom he writes faithfully, but was at a loss to know his former residence. As every foot print of the Head leading of his church and ministers are interesting, I cheerfully supply that deficiency, which can only be important in connecting the chain of events under which the sovereign love and power of Jehovah become manifested to his elect family.

The said D. Allen was left when a boy at service at Ipswich, Suffolk, his mother being dead, and his father having come to this Is land. When grown up to a young man, and

which passeth all understanding; brought to repentance, and trusting to the redeeming power of the Lamb without spot or blemish. I am accepted as his: he has taught me how to love, how to honour and obey him in all things." I not only baptized him in the name of Jesus my Lord, but affectionately commended him to God for the grace he will need until he shall inherit the rest of the justified.

How true it is that the "election hath obtained it." Yet in that sacred line," God is no respecter of persons," as to country, character, or condition, Jew or Gentile, they are one in Christ. Yours in bonds of grace, Tasmania, July 16.

H. DOWLING.

having secured his wages, he felt a strong desire to seek and find his father (who had sent money to England to bring him out, but the captain could not find the young man). He went to Sydney, but not finding him there, he wrote to me, as a baptist minister, and subsequently I found his Father, and the young man arrived in due time in this colony, when both his father and himself became attendants at our chapel. After a time the father was received into membership, having some years before been baptized in Suffolk. Subsequent to this the young man was brought to the knowledge of the truth, and nourished in the faith of Jesus in our midst, was bap tized, received into membership with us, and left for the gold diggings, where he felt the Lord's-day was neglected, and spent the sacred day reading the word, praying and speaking to the people concerning the kingdom of God. Having left there he came to Melbourne, and he who can alone provide a minister for the people, and raise up a spiritual seed, under the declaration of eternal truth, opened a way for him to certify. He is, I am happy to say, During the time of the late Mr. W. H. now ministering to a good congregation, to Wells's pastorate it was free communion: no whom I have reason to believe he is a blessing, strict church order being observed. The through the unctuous power of the Holy Ghost. ministry of Mr. Vaughan proving acceptable, Their present place of worship is the Protest-after six months' probation, he was unaniant-hall, Melbourne.

Yours in the gospel of our God,

HENRY DOWLING.

MY DEAR BROTHER BANKS.-I was gratified in reading the account your Andover correspondent gave of his interview with a converted Jew at the Cape of Good Hope, and if you deem it a subject of sufficient interest for the Vessel, I hand you a copy of an entry in our church books respecting him.

HEPZIBAH CHAPEL, DARLING
PLACE, MILE END.

On the 24th of Sept., 1857, a series of services were held for the double purpose of ordaining Mr. J. Vaughan as pastor, and recog nising the church as a strict Baptist, instead of an Independant church as heretofore.

mously chosen to the pastorate; the majority of the church being Baptists, and Mr. Vaughan having made a public profession by baptism, it was put to the vote at our church meeting whether we should alter the constitution of the church? it was agreed that no future members should be received but baptised believers, and no person be allowed to commune with us but members of strict Baptist churches. We have at present fifty-two members, and many more now before the church, waiting to make a public profession by baptism. The ordination-day will be long remembered. In the morning, we had an excellent sermon by Mr. Jas. Wells, on the na

"The conversion of one of the seed of Abraham is not only to be viewed as an act of grace and mercy to the individual so distinguished and blessed, but is to be viewed by usture of a gospel church. Gentiles as a fulfilment of the word of God, and a sacred earnest of blessings in covenant store for that people who are yet to be gathered in: For when they shall turn unto the Lord whom they now reject and despise, the vail shall be taken away. The young man I this day baptized had been intimate with a brother in Christ at Hobart, to whom sometime since he communicated his doubts as to the religious profession of the Jews, and no doubt, under God, that conversation was instrumental in leading his mind to investigate the truths of the New Testament. However, a mere rational faith of that blessed book would not have induced me to baptize him, but there was evidence of a divine change, and that he had by faith of Divine operation embraced the Son of God as his Saviour. Up to this time, we saw the marks of a soul impressed with its own personal sinfulness, followed by a discovery of the glorious ability of Jesus Christ to save, conveyed in his own words to me: "The Lord in his great mercy has permitted me to know, to see, to feel him; he has diffused his grace into my heart, has permitted the light of his countenance to shine upon me, and has given me that peace

In the afternoon, our esteemed friend, Mr. C. W. Banks, asked the usual questions, which were replied to by Mr. B. Wire, senior deacon, in a very clear and satisfactory manner, respecting their circumstances as a church and people from Mr. W. H. Wells's death, to Mr. Vaughan's coming among them, through the instrumentality of Mr. Banks, his acceptance by the Lord's people and the manifest tokens of the Spirit's blessing resting upon his labors.

Mr. Vaughan gave a striking account of his own call by grace; and of his call to the ministry under the late Joseph Irons, of Camberwell. In reply to questions respecting the doctrines he ever hoped to preach, his statements were to this effect-He would preach the doctrines of free and sovereign grace; the entire fall of man in Adam; the recovery of all the elect by Christ, in agreement with the eternal covenant purposes of Jehovah; and of the effectual call; the full deliverance, and justification, the final perseverance and ultimate glory, of every elect vessel of mercy, the ever blessed Trinity in unity, Three distinct Persons in one essence-eternal in duration, infinite in wisdom-and Almighty in

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