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steady to their principles, and frank in avow- which appeared in your Register of the 13th ing them that they lost their places ?

.In instant; I am induced to trouble you with a yoor Register of Jan 16, cyou say that you few observations upon an abstract principle rejoice in the praspect of “ the complete contained in it, concerning which, it seems, annihilation of Whiggism, which las existed you and he are at variance. The principle for about 140 years to the intinite injury of to which I allude, is--the general question England,!!. This is so extraordinary a declar of War : not only as affecting the present ration, and so much at variance with some contest between England and France ; but of sthe doctrines you now profess, that you its influence upon society at large.-It is 10 most allow nie to call upon you for an ex- necessary to dilate upon the importance of planation of your meaning. By Whiggism, the question, or to say that it is one of those I believe, is commonly understood those po- which have occupied the most serious attenSitical principles which create a generous at

tion of the first characters in all ages, ard in Tohmegt to that character of freedom, which all countries : alihough, by the way, it is as the distinguishing feature of the English worthy of mention, that, with the exception constitution. The salutary and genuine of Hobbes, who conteuded that the natural operation of these principles on a representa- state of man is wartare; most other eminent rivebordthe people, was well described by political writers of this country, have put it one of our senators, when he declared that down as a state repugnant to the feelings of he considered it to be his duty to keep his humanity. To understand the question bet. ear ever open and attentive to ihe voice of the ter, it may not, however, be amiss to divide people, while his eye was steadily fixed, with it into its several parts; to class those parts watchful jealousy; on the throne. In order according to their order, and to discuss them, to justify the flippant language above quoted, in as separate a manner, as their nature will it will not be sufficient to say thai

admit of. This, I will endeavour to do unnot intend to speak lightly of Whig princi- der the following arrangement. Ist. An ples, but meani only to express your disap- | inquiry into the tendency of mankind to probation of the conduct of the Whigs, con- war :-2d. Whether that tendency is natusidered as a political party. For, if so, the ral, or whether it proceeds from any other sentiment ought to have been differently ex- cause : -3d. The good or evil resulting from pressed. Whiggism ought not to be brought it, or the operation of its effects upon siinto disgrace on account of the faults of ciety at large :--and 4th. The advantages or those who profess it. If the votaries of disadvantages of it, when considered relativeWhiggism have sometimes erred, has not ly with a disposition to peace.--I, Now, this arisen from their having lost sight of Sir, you have, I think, asserted it, as a setthose pure and genuine principles, which, if tled principle, that a tendency to war wakes faithfully acted upon, would have been the a part of our nature; and, to establish your safeguard of their honour, and their protec- assertion, have referred us to the propensity tion from jeproach? To annihilale Whig.

which is exhibited in early life to engage gismy would be to annihilate the constitution those sports that approximate nearest to it. itself. Unless, therefore, you can find out The foundation of your argument is so some iher definition of the term than what vague, that it is not easy to understand it: js here given, I do not see how you will be but, supposing this propensity to exist, is it able to detend the expressions alluded to, or to be iuiferred that the practice is indicative how they can be reconciled with the senti. of a disposition to annoy ?-Is it to be inferoments which you are in the habit of expres

red, that, because I learn the art of fencing, ising about freedom and reform. You highly my object is to pick quarrels, and to run my value the Bill of Rights, and other constitu- | adversary through the body ? May I not enBoriati daws and strongly recommend them deavour to acquire, this babit, with a view *andtheivgrand antidote of all political mala. of self defence upon some future emergency? Oldiesiaq.You consider them as the bulwarks of And so may, in like manner, this propenof the constitationa Yet, how were these bal. sity, to warlike exercise shew itself in our Warkisteracted if not by Whiggism? --- Re. youth, and I have no doubt is, instinctively ymg on your candour for the insertion in implanted in ns, for the purpose of preparing ngfour Registery of these remarks, I am, Sir, ourselves 10 act in defence of our persons.

your very obedient servant, TREBOR.- The law of " self preservation” is generally. Intracostéry Feb. 1806. '

admitted to be the primary law of nature ; *digu aniviyat tattoo

and, it is an injustice to the wisdom of the -681911 aybsitor ON WAR.

Creator, to suppose that this early spirit proEin SIR-In conséquence of a very able ceeds from motives of acting aggressively to letter' addressed:o by yoų to Mr. Roscoe, the prejudice of another, rather than defent

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Sively in one's own personal protection. from them, which they hare imagined to That it must proceed from one cause or the d. Go to, let us go down, and then other, is, certainly, very clear; but, that it " confound their language, that they may should proceed from the former, is, certain- « not understand one another's speech. So ly, very strange. Indeed, I know not how " the Lord scattered them abroad from thence to entertain a thought of it, without in- upon the face of all the earth." Herein, you peaching the mercy of the Almighty; there say, is implied the necessity of war; for, is something so extravagantly preposterous, without war, it is, you think, evident that to in the idea, that He should make for the preserve that separation would, unless the sake of unmaking; and that he should form nature of man were previously changed, be his creatures to-day, and implant in their quite impossible. It appears, however, that systems a desire to annihilate one another this measure was not thought expedient by again to-morrow. I can, however, readily the Creator, who, evidently, produced, and conceive that the disposition may proceed believed to be sufficient--the confusion of from the latter cause; and, at ihe same tongues, for the purpose of disuniting His time, be perfectly consistent with His views | people, and keeping them in a state of sepa. of mercy, policy, and justice: in favour of ration. If His intention had been to have this opinion, the law of " self preservation" acted according to your idea, would He got is countenanced by the sacred Oracles, and have said "Go to, let us go down and informs a part of the code of Moses. " A “ stil into their hearts a spirit of contention,

man may be forced to kill another, in his “ that they may fight, and flee from one own necessary

self defence, and then the “ another, and be separate?" But the exe“ sin is not in the slayer, but in him that is cution of this plan would but ill have cor; slain : -for, in all cases of force, not he responded with that amity and neekness who is compelled to strike the stroke, but manifested in all His works, and so justly esa , “ he, who is the cause of the evil, bears the teemed ainong the principal attributes of the “ whole guilt." The justice of this decree Deity.-II. That a tendency to war, how is universally admitted : and in the English ever, does exist in the ininds of some men, law especially; where it may be adduced, cannot, for a moment, be doubted; but and is allowed—as an argument for a breach then, it does not follow that this tendency, of the peace, or for the commission of homi- generally speaking (for there may cide itself! But I know not how it can be tew exceptions) is natural. On the contrary, well defended, that we should be born with I cannot conceive any thing more unnatural, a propensity to injure one another; that this than that we should be gifted with a blind propensity should shew itself before we are propensity mutually to destroy each other, even physically able to put it into execution; without knowing why or wherefore. If it and that it should not only be sanctioned, be not naturally ingrafted in the system but be encouraged by the Creator.-In ie. then; it must be acquired in the growth : ply to this you may, perhaps, say—if there and if it be acquired in the growth, there is no disposition to attack; where is the need must be a reason for its acquirement; and of these precautions to defend ? This ques- that reason such as may be readily discover, tion will be better answered under the se- ed. The fact is, Şir," that the actions of cond head of my arrangement, wherein, I most men are regulated by a principle of self admit the disposition to attack; but conceive interest; and so long as the ultimate object that disposition to proceed from, and be to be obtained is for their own immediate strengthened by principles different from benefit, they are not over nice as to the those which you have stated. To this head means which they employ to become pos. of my arrangement, I shall immediately ad- sessed of it. The mind is, at first, inclined vert, after noticing an argument that is made to startle at this idea, believing it to be re use of by you, to prove the intention of the pugnant to the principles of morality and Creator to encourage a spirit of warfare and justice; but when it is considered that, by opposition. You mention, that He seems an admirable connexion, virtue and public to have said, at the time of giving different happiness are so joined together, that it is languages to different classes of men, “ be alınost impossible to attain the one,

without you for ever separate." Now, what he following the other,-the circumstance no actually did was very nuch to this effect, as longer seems strange of men acting, from: appears in the Ilth chapter of Genesis, ver- motives of self inte rest; and, yet, in conses 6, 7 and 8: viz. "And the Lord said, formity with the principles of virtue. If

behold, the people is one, and they have there are, however, very few who act vir“ all one language; and this they begin to tuously, for the sake of being virtuous ; who "do; and now nothing will be restrained accommodate their conduct to the rules of

be a very

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equity, from a sheer love of equity; who then it is not esteemed for itself, but for the pursue the paths of morality, from a pure object it is capable of acquiring. He must, affection for its principle; and who live with indeed, be very fond of fighting, who exjustice, piety and chastity, from an absolute poses himself to the danger of receiving a conviction of their merits : there are still hard knock from his enemy, for the sake fewer, who love rice, for the sake of vice; only of obtaining an opportunity to give him who commit acts of cruelty and injustice, a harder. The noble mind of Don Quixotte from an intuitive desire to be cruel and un: de la Mancha might, to be sure, have chejust; and who delight in deeds of indiscri- rished such ideas; but, since his time, it minate morder, of calm, deliberate destruc- would be difficult, I think, to point out anotion, and of ravenous rapine,- from an un- ther, who was so great an amateur of the affected fondness for their intrinsic qualifica. profession. But, to be serious. Those, tions.' Nevertheless, Sir, this would be the bred up to arms, do not love war for the sake case, if, according to your idea, we were en- of war ; but, like the rest of mankind in dowed with a blind propensity to war : for, other respects, love it from motives of self then should 'toe be led on to the indulgence interest, or from motives, which approxie of this propensity, without any other care mate very near to it: some, more distinthan that of gratifying it; our spirit of con- guished than others, love it for those virtues tention would prompt us to wreak our pas- you have particularized : viz. patriotism, sion upon the innocent, as well as the guil- loyalty, and fidelity. Some, for reasons less ty,-between whom, indeed, we should be noble, but equally unsubstantial : viz. houpable to discriminate; our intellect would nour, rank, and reputation; and others, for be disordered ; our reason would lose its what the generality of mankind are grasping sway; and, in short, if to war, to fight after : viz. wealth, power, and dominion. (which is the same thing) were a passion This position may be denied ; nay, it may natural to all the creation," as you have be denied by persons believing it to be unstated; " the blood and baseness of our na- true, because it is frequently dressed up in tures would lead us to most preposterous

false colours and disguised so, that, upon a conclusions." But, if this tendency to war cursory view, it is imperceptible by the unbe not radically inserted in us, but proceed derstanding : but, nevertheless, the truth of from some other cause; if it proceed from it is confirmed by actual observation, so as to the cause which I have hinted to be the render unvecessary the use of farther argusource of most men's actions; there is no ment. If it were not so, Mr. Cobbeti, bow fear of its.'urging us to such extravagant happens it, that the French army has aitain., bounds, because the argument, which I made ed its present pitch of discipline and order ? use of before, concerning the connexion of If it were not, Sir, that each soldier looks virtue and public happiness, applies also, in forward to promotion, and fights for the apgreat measure, to the present case. This, I probation of his general; for the maintesball endeavour to shew under the third head tenance of his character; and, more espeof my arrangement, treating of the opera- cially, for the plunder he expects to enjoy. tion of the effects of this tendency upon so- Do not the same causes influence our saiciety at large : but, before quitting this lors; who, brave, hardy, and perfect as they head, I an desirous of explaining myself are, contemplate the amount of." prize more fully, for differing from you in opinion, money," they are in hopes of obtaining, that the tendency of mankind to war does among the foremost advantages of their pronot proceed from blind inherent qualities, fession. Give them, the option of fighting but from those motives which are the pivot, an enemy's nian of war, or a Spanish galleon upon which, our conduct generally turns.-- laden with bullion, gold dust, and dullars, If some ultimate benefit is held out by en- and see whether their love of fighting will gaging in a war;" if an opportunity offers of induce them to aliack the first, which, from bettering our fortune ; if a soldier expects its equipmen: and constitution, will lend to be made a corporal, by fighting well; or them a harder tug; or, the latter, where, in a corporal, a serjeant; or any other officer all probability, they will meet with little or looks to promotion for his exertions; the no opposition. Not only is this peculiar, mystery is immediately developed, and we Sir, to the French army, and to our navy',are no longer at a loss to discover, why it is but so is it with all the world: so is it with that the love of fighting predominates. It is our soldiers; or else, wbere would be the not the medium, but the object that is belov. need of “bounty," which is held out to ed; and if the object can only be acquired then as a lure ic enlist in the service. What, through the assistance of the medium ; no will any one aitempt to make me beligue, wonder that the medium is esteemed: but that there is somethipg so captivating in the

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and

Parlia:

TYTIES.

Bruine of war; something so irresistible in those which grow out of the corruption of this natural tendency that you talk of, that, the times; and the rapacity of individuals. when a recruiting serjeant claps a country

For the whole of the various oppressions to booby on the back, and asks him to fight for which Vindex inputes the discuptents of his, " king and country;" his arguments Ireland, he states as arising from the ex- : would be equally effective in prevailing upon

actions of Catholic priests, from those of him, without the use of money ? Common tythes levied by the Protestant clergy sense tells us, not; and common observation thie rents demanded by the land proprietors proves it, not. This pure spirit of warfare and middlemen", Siirely, then, he ought peither exists, nor is it reasonable that it to have marked tythe gatering, which more should exist: a man who goes into the ticld particularly requires, Abe reformer, with no other view ihan the actual pleasure ment, as more necessary for its perference he expects to derive from the physical opera

than those other abuses, which the pelition: tion of killing his adversary, is an incori- ers themselves might remedy, by the resoluceivable monster ; but if he has an object to tions of county meetings, and inculcating a attain, and, although acting repugnantly to more liberal conduct in their owy priests.,, his feelings, yet believes his mode of action 'Phe impropriate tyihes are the indisputable to be just and necessary, the case is totally property of the laity, yet it is so

little found disterent. - Having already made this letter ed il reason and justice, and so obviously longer than, I fear, you will find convenient disgraceful to a free constitution, that parliato insert in your Register; I must deter the ment has as much right to commute it by an cousid-rative of the two remaining topics, honourable equivalent, for the benefit of the for the present.--I am, Sir, yours, &c.- community, as to carry a public road through W.S. L.-Fel. 15, 1808.

private property, on the sune principle. No. ihing but wiltul misrepresentation, or pro

fessional prejudice, can attempt to support SIR, -Among the various merits of an argument, that clerical tythes are as much your excellenti Register, I have received great a parson's property, as the landed.estate reful

the pleasure in observing the liberal admission of property of his patron: what a shameful letters from your correspoudents, who have claiin it is to call ibat properly which is no occasionally differed from you on subjects of more than a legal privilege of plundering controversy, even when their authors have nur neighbour's fields. The inore respectapot been deficient in powers of argument, ble the profession of a clergyman, the more which are peculiarly your forte : therefore, it behoves them to obtain the abolition of there is less reason to doubt, that you will such a privilege ; and of “reaping where admit niy reply to some extraordinary asser- they have not sown," under the sanction of tions of a gentleman, who, under the signa. a lythe l'ough, which disgracefully proclaims Iure of Vindex, has lately engaged in au ate

to all travellers, in this parish lives, a tythe tack, on the Irish petitioners for a coinmuta- GATHERER. The appellation of tythe owntion of ty:lies.--li consequence of the very

Er must be borne with, till the legislatura great attention I have for years, paid to the assigns a provision for the clergy less inconvarious publicatio:s on this subject, I am gruous to their religious and moral, princia persuaded, that the ability of one party in de ples. The clergy should make a point ja iending them, and the conviction of the distinguish the present yuqvoidalle sinaugn other in condemning them, will never be of tythe owner, from the wilful character of productive of any thing but wrangling; and gathering them in kind, which might be eas unless the legislature decidedly interferes in sily done by resuming behall of the rights of society, in opposition tion of a rose in the bat, which a tythe 84 to the tythe system ;, the iniquity and tyran. iherer, would not ventyre, 49, wear, it ny of tythe gathering will continue to dis | would be a proof of his wishine, 19 sacaid an grace the law and constitution of England.-upputation he is aslaned, af Vindex Vindex condescends » 1o allow tắe tythe to, be pust be ejbera bythegaldersty oleinplorer one great, grievance under which

as their advocate, abserves that it would nation at present labours; and then,artfully be superflugus ta epterjato any proof of the pretends it is brit a small part of them; ho common law right of the lio Temer phat is ping by this expedient of blending the tythes the very

evil complained of that the con with other matter, to draw off the attention mon law should protect a claim 80

So inconsis: of your readers from that main grievauce, tent with the liberties

,

clain so far as to discourage them from any wish foniled on

founiled on the impostures of popery, estato reform it; but he ought to distinguish blished by one monarch as

an atquement for betweeti a grievance established by law; and murder, and confirmed by apather, lq le

when

the Irish

galize his own seizure of the property of the Mr. Cobbett; yow stated that annual produce convents; tiers. Vitider does not hesitate to say fore, only set the riglits of the clergy in the

' that he doubts, whether aliy fand proprie aggregate at 'double their claims on agricultor in the empire, can prödudeso venerable ture, their retenues would amount to ewenty a title to his estate !!!" Admitting, that all four millions annually, which compared with our titles originated with William the Con- the quantiin meruit of curacies at fifty pounds queror, subject to tythes previoitsly establish- per annum in ten thousand parishes, would ed, landed estates are hereditaty; did he give only five hundred thousand, and leave a make church livings so? What parsoni can species of sinecure of upwards of twentysay he was born to such a rectory, or can three millions in consideration of the same claim it before the patron think.s proper to duty performed by curates ! Undoubtedly present him? Who'a are their patrons ? Are lay tythes niust be dedacted from this calcu. they not'i he'owners of the land, of the pro- Jation, still it is enormous and unmerited, duce of which only, the parson can claim a and such aii advocate as Vindex, had better tythe And are not the clergy, servants drop the suliject, who, with all his abilities of government appointed in aid of the laws, has the modesty to call an attempt at an hoto prevent the inflictions of penalties by nourable coinmutation, “ PLUNDER," when preaching religion and morality? Was go- that term may be applied with so'much more vernment to arlopt, and protect another na- justice, to tythe gaihering --A LANDHOLDtional religion, for example the Presbyterian, ER.- Feb. 10, 1808. which disclaims the right of tythes; what woula become offit, if it was not transferred

OFFICIAL PAPERS. by law to the new ministers? And to whom Report of the Minister of IVar on the Meawould that property naturally devolve, but to sures taken by France under the present the owners of the nine parts? In such case circumstances..-61h jan. lay impropriations would be an exception,

(Concluded from p. 384.) but the iniquity of the ienure would soon be The necessity of shutting the ports coththilited, either by church lands, or bought of the continent against our irrecoycileont by otcapiers subject to it. So much for able enemy, and of having upon every arguments about property, which are much point of attack considerable means,' in or. töð often 'pleaded by the clergy.-Vindex der to profit by any fortunate circumstansays as the 'Ifish pétitioners could have no ces which might present themselv-s, to carnght I'What was not; aut could not be con: ry the war to the heart of Englarid, Ireland,

bý Waliam from the original gran: and the Indies, may render the levy of the tees. Therefore, they petition, and on the conscription of 1869 necessary :--The party ifrost reasonable ground, that they may Teco

they may reco- which rules at London bas proclaimed the ver right to the produce of their own la principle of eternal war, anii the expedition bouf and talents, growing on their own to Copenhagen has revealed its criminal inestates, which is at present subject either to tentions. Though the indignation of all pundet or litigation.'' The quibble produced Europe has been excited against England by Vibdet, that it would be 'tunjust to the though at no period France had sneh numeelérgy as well as to those whið either sold of rous armies, it is not sufficient--it is neces. lee Hind, sabject to tythe which diminished

sary that English inft:ence should be attack the valde 6f it that the difference should ed every where it c.ists, till the moment in go to the present proprietors and occupiers which the sight of so many dangers shall infor which to consideration had been paid.' duce England 10 vírive from her counsels the It may be asked, what would they get but a Olygarchs who direct them, and to confide property 'they were originally entitled to, the administration to wise men, capable of and the satisfaction of being exonerated from conciliating the love and interest of the an odious yoke from which altniøst all Eus country with the love and inte rest of the

felfeyed;" by the conviction that it human race.—A vulgar policy i vould have originated from the priestcraft of Popery made your Majesty disarm ; but such a poBut, Vibdes says, his arguments will ap. licy would be a scourge to France, and renply elually, both to abolition and commuta. der imperfect the great results you have pretion, unless commutation be adeqıtate to the pared.--Yes, Site, your Majesty , far from clericana still levied off the soil." He diminishing your arms,'ought to augment might with equal justice revive their original them, till England'shall have acki owledged claim, which included all professions, trades; the independence of all powers, ad 1 restored and merchandize, as well as the produce of to the seas that tranquillity which your Mathe soil. - In one of your former Registers, jesty has ensured to the continer .it. Un

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