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than I expected it would, when I first took seeni tò me should be held to be law by the up the pen ; but, the subject, an inexhaust. board here is particularly as the present board ible one it is, must be my excuse with you, consists of the identical individuals who and momentous it is equally to its inexhaus- composed the majority of the board in Ametion. Mercantile men who pride themselves rica, where they had to contend with men on their self inportance, and the conse- by no means deticient in skill, though posquence they consider themselves with re sibly not possessing superior ability to the spect to the nation at large, may fairly con- members of the present board, who, .I preclude from my observations on the treatment sume, were on that recommendation selectwe bave experienced, from the neglect with ed for their office, and appointed to the which we have been treated, and from the consideration of the claiins of A RUISED sacrifice which has been made of us by go. OLD AMERICANMERCHANT.--Fib.29,150S. vernment, what value is set upon our rank in the common scale : to bave suspended us

IRELAND). by dozens would have been mercy to us,

S18;-Catholic emancipation, and the compared with the treatment we have expe- abolition of tiibes night perlaps prove rienced.--The value government puts upon auxiliary towards removing the relurn of the rank and character of mercantile men in the disorders, that have long afilicted Ire. the state, and their beneficial exertious to- laod, but their operation could only prowards the increase of commerce may be rea- duce a temporary effect. It is true, that Ca. dily estimated. You, Mr. Cobbell, and Mr. tholic emancipation, by gratifying the pride Spence have been insisting that we of the finish aristocracy, would occasion well do without commerce. One considera- sincere ettöits on their part, to excite among tion in support of the doctrive you have the lower orders of the Catholics a hearty brought forward into public view, and con- resistance to l'rench invasion, while the tended for, you have left to me to furnish abolition of eithes would put their value into you with, that even the government of this the tenant's pocket during his lease, and so country acts as if commerce Wils unnecessary; far increase liis means of subsistence; it is from the sacrifice of those who carry it on; evident, however..to conmon sense, that and which government assuredly would not the adoption of such measures could produce do if it was beneficial; certainly, the best no solid or permanent good, when we fairly method of completely putting an end to coin, consider the source from wbich all the evils merce, is to sacrifice those at the shrine of spring ; rack rents and non-resident landed

new morality," which contends for proprietors, are most certainly the primary the adoption of nothing but what concerns and sole cause of all the calánvities, which oneself; a like sacrificing the merchant by have afflicted that unhappy land for the last whom commerce has been brought to an un. century; an exuberant population, ill lodged, precedented heighih, and the manufactures ill fed, and i}} clothed, will be always ready of the country, which through his means to join the standard of sedivron, for the prohave been raised to a pre-eminence unexam- pensity is in human nature. To describe pled. Thus to extinguish our importance, evils without prescribing a reinedy, is useis to shew in what view the commerce of the less, and to prescribe a remedy when there country is held, duly appreciating its value is little hope of its being adopted is nugato. and insignificance. If the remnant of life ry: in spite, however, of such discouraging now remaining to me, 'and my faculties will prospects, I will trespass 13 pou you with my permit, I may again trouble you for a space opinion.--Political concessions the most in your Register, for some remarks upon the liberal and extensive must prove wholly undifferent decisions by the board under the availing. Measures that directly come hoine treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation, to the rootof the evi), can only prove efficient. and the board under the convention, now sit- Long have the landed proprietors of Ireland, ting in London, shewing the various proceeds been in the habit of extorting excessive rents ings which have taken place when the Ame- froin the oppressed occupiers, without any rican debtor was a party, and now that the allowances or daluctions for building or reAmerican debtor is no longer a party, with pairing their miserable habitations, or imthe objections which have been bronght proving their land. The arrear to patriotism against our claims, which even the American and bumanity, on that score, is deep indeed, agent for the debtor never contended for, and I may venture to affirm that it will never though it was their interest to lessen our de. be

termined interposition cannot account for; for what was declared between peasantry and property. This I may to be law by the board in America, it does be told would be dangerous and unconstitu

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tional: unconstitutional it might be, but the houses be built and kept in repair, (as in danger lies the other way. Pray what was England), by the proprietor :-5.b. Let all the suspension of Ahe babeas corpus and landed proprietors, who do not reside, the invasion of property to the tune of 10 at least, six months in the year on their per cent. ? they were and are gulped down, estates, pay an absentee tax of 10 per cent. froin imperious necessity and for the salva. the produce of which shall be solely applition of the empire.- Ireland is to be per- cable, to improve the condition of the manently secured to Great Britain, it must be lower orders of the people under the direcby the courage and energy of the great body tion of a board instituted for that purpose: of her people, and their efforts can only be this will contribute to secure residence. obtained by possessing comforts to detend. Should the health or age of the proprietor Political rights are grateful to the mind, they require a different residence, in such case, flatter national pride, and aristocratical am- one of his family may represent him on his bition, but how insignificant are they to the estate.--Let an inspector be appointed to feelings of a large agricultural peasaniry, each county, and (if that inspector be a well debased and brutalized by tilih, and poverly? informes Englishman, so much the better) Can Catholic emancipation give them food, who shall make an annual circuit of the raiment or decent babitations? but what county to which he is appointed, and upon would it do for the Protestants? would it 0:11h report the condition of the peasantry, cloth and feed thein too? so ignorant, I am which report shall be published, specitying persuaded, are numbers of the lower orders the proprietor on whosee-tate ini-ery prevails: of Irish Catholics, and so much have they this would be of incalculable benefit towards heard of this said emancipation, that they meliorating the state of the lower orders of actually think that it would lodge, 'clothe the peasantry - Strong as these measures and feed them plentifully. At the same time appear to be, certain I am, that if they are I can see no good reason, whr the Irish Ro. not adopted, or others which shall nearly man Catholics should not be completely approximate thein, Ireland never can long emancipated; it could not increase their remain in a state of tranquillity. The tines phrsical powers one particle, nerve a single are past, when a great agrarian peasantry will arm or forge one pike more against the state. endure oppression without thoie ebullitions than already exists. It world be just and lia which shock humanity and disgrace the er.2.. beral, it would be in harmony with the in which we live, When or where we shall spirit of the constitution ; good it inight do, tind an adininistration with vigour and virtlie mischief none; the experiment, therefore, suiticient to carry sech measures into effect [ would be reasonable and politic at the pre- know not. In what quarter of the political seat awful crisis : true, it might mortity pro- horizon shall we look for them?

lu our pist testant pride, long in the exclusive possession rulers, I could contemplate no bold compreof political power. Veteran monopolists do hensive plan aimed to embrace the prosnot like that a participation of their privia perity or to secure the stability and duration leges should extend to others ; that how- of the empire;--their talents as men are unever ought to have no weight with the rulers questionable, their abilities as ministers, conc. of a great empire, when its security is at temptible, and their patriotic virtue very susstake. —But to return from this digression picious ;---during their ishort reign, never and at once to come to the point.-The relief was there a more gross or indecent abuse of I have in contemplation for the great mass power in the distribution of appointments, of the Irish peasantry consists of the fol- particularly in that protession' where moraJowing measures :-Ist. Let all xhe landed Jity aud high character should bwe been re.. proprietors of Ireland be obliged; in future, to ligiously cunsated :- From the present ad: let their farms to the occupiers who actually ministration, I can tarter myself with no reside upon, and cultivate them; by this very sanguine hupe, I fear that they are measure, the middle ren, or land pirates, trimmers anil wanit energy, to encounter i will be annihilated :-2d. Let no oun OC- measure of such prospective magnitude, it cupy for grazing, more than a giveli quanti- is not fair to prejudge,--way I be mistaken ! ty of land with modifications with respect to | well kuow that the measures I have sugits quality; by this measure bipeds will sup- gested would excite the indignation of Irish plant quadrupeds, and an encreasing populas peers, commoners, squires, and land jobtion will find food and raiment : -3d. Let bers; to them I must beg leave to obsrive, no human habitation have less than ten acres that I really wish to save their throats froin of arable and pasture aitached to it; this being cut, iheir lands laid waste, their counwill secure from starvation the family who : try desolated, and the British empire overoccupies it :-4th. Let all cottages and farm

thrown.---It is not a liule irritating to heur

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an Hibernian member, with firm front, start senatorial adventurers, forersian Pidemaup in the Imperial Parliament, and harangue gogues, and inflammatory pampalileteers,' to with patriotic ardoar, on the calamities of direct the storm against the state Government, his country; he boldly affirms, that if some- which had never provoked the insurrection, thing be not immediately done for Ireland, was bound, however, to put it down by nithat it will become a French coiony: litary force; hence, being considered by the Agreed, but who is to do that something ? - insurgents as allies to the landed tyrants, why such men, as the very

honourable

gen. who were the original aggressors, both betleman on his legs, let me ask him, who is

came the common object of democratical to enable the miserable wretches on attack.-The fact is, Government and ile estate to clothe, feed and lodge better, but

Irish peasantry are far distant from each he himself? would he wish to thrust his band other. I know of no point in which they into the public purse to improve the condi- are in direct contact, except in the tax on tion of his tenants ? agreed, ----Jet him do so, hearths, and even that small 'duty escapes provided that he will replenish that purse the chimney of the solitary cottager, when it is empty, does he not put the the cottager with one hearth. Whether the whole rental of his estate into his pocket, | duty on whisky or tobaceo be any real grieve, undininished by repairs, property-tax, al- ance, I must submit to economists and nolowanees for improvements, or audit dins ralists, – under a free constitution it is not ners, while an English landlord hardly re- easy to conceive how an agricultural peaceives three-fourths of his rent clear, and pays santry can be oppressed by its government, I for every couslimeable article an enormous mean, where a just osage and a humane vider price?-In a word, there are no landed pros of things, prevail; for, most assuredly, the prietors in Europe who owe so much to their

quantum of rent sbould be regulated loy the country, as the gentlemen of Ireland ; there

quantum of taxation to which the revier is is no country for which God has done so

subject, this is so obviv'is a truh, that it re: much, and man so little.--Let me exhort quires no illustration... It is high time that those gentlemen, before it be too late, to the saddle were placed on the right horse, give up, (at least for seven years) die charms

to ibis very hour there are many, even of Harrowgate, Margate, and all the gates thinking people in Ergland, who are per: and mouths, too, with precious Bath and suaded that all those di orders that have af. voluptuous London, and reside in their own flicied and disgraced Ireland, have been country,- let them lower the renis of their

occasioned by political nisrule and persecuLittle' tenants, and encourage, not excise, tion from government, whereas white boys, their iridustry. Let them contribute to oak boys, and all the boys sprang from render the habitations of the peasantry de- causes in which government had no more is cent and comfortable. Let them give boun- do than the Emperor of China. - Since the ties for order and cleanliness, and by frequent bouse of Hanover ascended the Brit:-) inspection see that the intention of such

throne, the people of Ireland have teisri bounty be carried into effect; a nere fiat, inpulse from their political rulers, by ulte's will never do in a country where the people their comforts or happiness were dinini-bril in maný párts have never in fact, been com

or disturbed - In England, all oppressio!? pletely civilized_ite residence of the many flow from Government, in Treand they ar? would give peace and security to the whole. inflicted by the rapacious band of the latte --Between cowardice:and dissipation Ireland

ed interest.-Yo'ir most obedient servant, has been nearly deserted, so that the few

26th Feb. 1808.

J. W. gentleinen who have had virtue and fortitude to stand their grónnd in the country parts

BANK OF ENGLAND. actually maintained posts of danger.o-lo Sir,--Having lately conversed with se. point, I knew a gentleman, who, for two veral gentlemen on the subject of the late years, n'eser werit:to:bed until break of day, demand made by government on the Bank he and his family, even including his wife, of England, for the loan of three millions, io were on duty every night,--had other gen be repaid by exchequer bills (not bearing tlemen acted with similar courage, vigilance, interest) six moriths after the signing a deti? and perseverance as he did, ihe late rebel

nitive treaty of peace, and amongst the numJion never could bave been so horribly ber were members of the imperial parlia. powerful and tremendous as it was, --nay, it ment, I found then warmly lo espouse the m ghit' have been prevented entirely -I conduct of governant on the occasion ; kn what it had been long the practice in and as the arguments generally made use of Irel ind; when the oppressed broke out into by thèm led to the same point, I conclude, acts of cutrage against their oppressors, for that those who have defended the princi

Milivoints, 4

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ples on which the demaud has been made, tations; and, should it appear that the three have drawn their conclusions from the same millions are to be taken from the balances source.-The argument is this, that a per- of government, I do not consider that any son keeping money with his banker has a injury will be sustained by the company, right to use bis balances in any way he but that the dourishing state of their finanpleases, and therefore the bank of England, ces will enable them to continue with the standing in the situation of banker to govern- addition of a bonus, their usual division of Rent, that government have an undoubted tweke pounds per cent. per anuum. But, right to make use of their own balances. should it appear that the three millions are On this subject, sir, I must perfectly coin- to be taken from the savings of the company, cide. But is this a fair statement? I con- it will be necessary to subinit a motion on tend it is not ; for if the premises are good, the subject to the court of proprietors, that government have a right to make use strongly urging them to adopt such a line of their own balances, which I allow, then of conduct as will prove the means of pro. what occasion was there for any communica- curing for themselves a fair distribution of tion to take place between the chancellor that property they have so unjustly been kept of he exchequer and the governor and di. out of. Treinain, sir, pour obedient huma rectors of the bank of England, as to the ble servant, - JUSTICE.-F.b, 28, 1808. loan of throe millions without interest. I certainly should not communicate with my

SINKING FUND booker on the subject of she disposition of SIR;-Your correspondent, C. S., could my balances in his hands, and of course, not discover any sense in my plausible" there was no necessity for government na- doubts, which you placed in your register of king any communication to the bank of 14th November,--but to enlighten my ignoEngland as their banker. I consider there- rance, he charges me with sinister designs, fore, sir, that the question resolves itself in- because “ i have dragged out his conclusions to a

very narro y compass.-Government before your readers, and lett behind the hare either been unnecessarily demanding " curtain those of Mr. Pitt and Lord H.. their right, or they have demanded what “ Peity,”—as if such fine names, might ought not to have been in the power of the not be innocently omitted for sake of brevity. governor and directors of the bank of Eng- He reduced their practical calculations to land to grant.--For if the three millions are brief, -he adopted their conclusions, not not intended to be drawn from the balances without contempt for the authors, and now of government in the bauk. they must con- he flies to their deified names for shelter from sequently be taken from the surplus or sav- the rule of three. Ais quotation 9 times, ings of the company; and I cordially agree of Lord H. Perry's quotation of Mr. Pitt, wille ihe author of a late publication, ad- was needless, --for every one bad by rote, dressed to the proprietors of bank stock, how that angel of a man confessed ('twas a

bat such an accumulation ought never to timely and well acted confession) that a pahare taken place; for whenever the savings tion out of debt, is in the high road to ruin. or profits bad warranted a division, it ought C. S. goes on to dispel my doubts, thus (p. by every principle of honour and justice to 9-10): "unquestionably they are ignorant of have been made --And, sir, I am bold to " the effects of competition and capital, assert, thai nen who have supported the « who can doubt the extent of the mischiefs minister on this occasion, have condemned “ that must result from the competition of tbe conduct of the governor and directors " 000 millions, with a capital of 100 mila io placing the company in guch a situation “ lions.”-Now, Sir, I appeal to you, that as to have induced government to make the I did not doubt such effects, if the causes demand, from a knowledge which they were possible. What I doubted was, that presumed they possessed of the sums that if the 600 millions be paid by tares, the bad (-0 unjustly) been suffered to accumul- circulatiirg capital can be encreased thereby, lale, to the manitest injury of each indi- and of course I doubted that the competition vidual proprietor.-I trust, sir, that at the so much dreaded, can have existence. C. S. first general court held at the bank, the ques- goes on (p. 941) now that the extensive tion as to whether the three millions are only is calamities of a sudden extinction of the to be drawn from the balances of govern

« debt is admitted on all hands!!!! How? ment, or whether they are to be considered a certain consequence of an impossible cause? as a loan arising from the savings of the -no, but if it be paid by means of the company, will be brought forward, in or Sinking Fund, which must take up before it der that the transaction may be placed in its pays down, (as we giddy-pated Irish think) true light, and prevent future misrepresen- any competition between the 100 and the

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600 millions, is impossible. The trustees your excellent work, should thus throw the to the Sinking Fund have already taken up, burden of proof on his ignorant audience, say (for convenience of round numbers) 100 but I have only suggested doubts, and I millions of the 100 of debt,--and I ask, if leave them to the digestion of C. 8.'s pupils. the money which they paid away for the said' -OSGUR.- 20th February, 1808. 100 millions, did encrease the circulating capital of 100 to 200 millions;-if it did,

COURT OF ADMIRALTY. or did nat, C. S.'s premises or conclusions Sır,Haviny perused in your Register are false, q. e. d.--Hear him again, a no- of the 14th ult. a letter signed R., wherein “ Ininal encrease bas the same effect on real

your correspondent complainis of abuses money, as a real encrease could have, existing in the administration of the prize66 and all he contends for is, that it must laws, and committed (as he says) under the

nominally encrease to the amount of the authority of the court of admiralty ; I am is debi, and therefore that the real depreci- induced, partly by reflections arising out of “ ation must be in the proportion which the the facts stated in that letter and partly by " debt bears to the circulation." 'This is

some observatiovs - suggested by the late niere kettle-dru!nming, unless it means pay- orders' of council, to submit for your ment of the debt without taxes, or that the consideration a few brief vemarks, not on debentures in circulation are no part of the any individual abuses io praetice committed circulating capital, nominal or real, which by, or under the authority -of this judicial would be to say, that they are nothing at court, but on some radical defects (aš such all. Te has no relation to the doubts which they appear to me) in its theory and conI have put in one sentence, or that payment

stitution.--I have, indeed, Sir, Idng ilouglat, " of the national debt by means of taxes, ta- and the public have thought with me, that ken out of the circulating capital, can there is much, very much, which calls for

encrease it.”. His third sub-division of enquiry and reform in a court deciding, as my doubts, says, that my “ notion” is old, this does, according to tlie laws of nations, --in his first part, he says, “if it be not on the rights and interests of the subjects, “ just, it is new."-but be it old or new I not only of this, but of foreign kingdonis entreat you Mr. Cobbett, to infor! a socie- also ; and which ought, therefore, in its ty of Irishmen, who almost adore your love tone and temperament, its character, and of your own country, whether the Siaking its habits, to be regulated by the most Fund can take a debenture out of the market scrupulous delicacy of judicial accuracy.-until its value be first taken out of circula- The first and most objectionable trait I am tion, and whether, 100 millions already dis- led to notice in the complexion and character charged, were gathered out of a pocket of this court is the following :--The right where that sun was not, a miracle which Honourable Judge, who' presides therein, our Irish faith cannot admit unless you make and decides upon the cases broughtfor trial it clear:- As for C. S.'s notable advice, and for adjudication, in pursuance of orders "take peace any how-io surrender the na- issued by the privy council, is himself a " val dominion; to go back wbere our fore- member of that deliberative and executive " fathers left 15,--10 teach our population body, wherein the justice and expediency “ the use of arms, and our soldiers, agri- of those orders is decided upon, and by “ culture, &c." (p..947), I shall only say, whose authority they are consequently that it is a pity he omitted the whole plan isued.-But, Sir, having thus diseharged of the law-giver called Gonzalo, in Shake- his doty as a privy cogusellor, this salue speare's Tenpest;-m. I would by countraries individual acting in his jiidicial capacity has

execute all things, --no trajic would I to carry into execution those orders he has admit; ----letters should not be known, himself assisted in framing, and the dispoverty, riches, noge. No occupationi, charge of which latter duty proves lucrative

-- all men idle, and women too, but in to himself in proportion tothe extent of these nocent and pure,*+ reason would I not previous orders. For instance, should it be “ have, and nature should bring forth all debated in the privy council, of wbich this “ abundance to feed my innocent people, judge is, as I have státed, a member,

&c. &c."-C. $, concludes," shew us that whether' an order for detaining and sub" no real or nominal endreasu will take place jecting to trial the ships of neutral nations “ if the pational debe be paid hy means of should be made to extend to Swedes and " taxes, and then we shall confess our error, Prussians or to Prussians only, the profits

but till then we maintain, &c. &c."--Sir, afterwards accruing to him in his capacity this is cruel, that a professor,--a writer of of judge are in their amount materially Bigli long Essays, occupying oo colunins of affected by the determination of such

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