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every winter and spring. They are sure of ber.-I will first premise (to save you all the Marquis's attachment; for he is, espe- The trouble of your usual ingenious cojcially in politics, a very constant man, audi, jectures,) that I am interested in a mercanthough things are a litile changed with him tile house, trading with the United States; since the time wben he used to make bis you shall therefore, if you please consider tours jo Sodia, and sail in barges like that of me, as counsel for the said States, but at the Cleopatra, he must bave, in his p.'st deeds, same time grant me the indulgence, that is a vast fund of pleasing reflection, and stand always conceded to counsel, that of conin no need of present employments. Mr. vincing by evidence, and by fair arguments GEORGE JOHNSTONE, whom the Morning drawn from that evidence.--In the paper Chronicle, last year, reported to be dead, alluded to, you say,
" The neutrals do is, I perceive still alive; and, he appears to submit" (to the capiure by France of their have spoken against the Marquis, though ships bound to England) - for neither of he has an office of some sort (derinig plea- “ inen make any public remonstrance, or suire tov) under the ministers. From this it
“protest against the Decrees of France." is very casy to form a judgment as to what You say this, in the face of the votorious the wishes of the minisiry were.
The fact, of the immediate explanation of the truth is, that the niinistets wish to have french decree, given by the dIinister of the support of the marquis and his eleven Marine Decrès, 10 the American enyoy at friends in the parliament; but, in ibe of- l'aris; of the equally notorious fact, that fices of state, they can dispense with such down to the date of our Orders in Council, support. They will say, that he meant 10-vessel has been condemned, either in well; that he thought he was doing his best; France or Spain for trading with England, but there they will stop, and, I greatly and that only two instałces had the occur. commend their prudence. You hear peo- :ed, even of capture, one by a French, and ple say, “ they must take in Lords Weiles. another by a Spanish privateer, both of which
ley and Melville, or they cannot go on." were restored, though loaded with English Bat these people do not seem to consider goods and English passengers, . To this last that they have got Lords Wellesley aud case, I can speak from my own knowledge, Micr ille by the firmest of all possible holds : and assert, in this public manner, that the I mean, of cou's; the faithful attachment American ship Shepherdess sailed froin this io principle of those noble lords. They port for New York, in the month of June have them safe. I'll engage that nothing last, loaded with English goods, and having will seduce them from the ministry ; that on board numerous English passengers, that is to say, as long as the latter are found to she was taken by a Spanish privatcer, and merit the keeping of their places, and the carried into Bilboa, that the American resisupport of so decided a majority in the two dent at Madrid immediately interfered in Houses of Parliament, As to the adnii- her favour, that she was restored, (the privanistration of Lord Wellesley, in India, we teer being condemned in costs,) and is since have long been feeling its effects ; but, we safely arrived at New York, the letier from shail soou see a little more of thein iban we her owners announcing that fact, now lying have hitherto seen. A committee is appoin. before me.-- - I am well aware of the subied to inquire into the East-India Company's terfuge resorted to by those, who delend the affairs, of which inquiry, I shall be decei- Orders in Council,--that Decrès' assurances reil if the result be not a heavy additional to Mr. Armstrong were only his opinion, but tux upon the people of England.
that the plain meaning of ihe French decree, Botley, 24th Niarch, is08.
issued at Berlin is, that all ships trading with England shall be made prize of. This is
really pretending “to know better than the Sir, -In your register of the 27th Feb. Doctor,” for one would naturally suppose, (p. 33.5) you make a variety of remarks on that the opinion of a French minister, on a the Orders in Council of November last, French decree (3nd. still more the unioterasserting as facts the very reverse of the rupted course of acting thereupon,) was of truth, on points of much importance to more authority than that of an English law. your general arguments. I have waited
yer. As the case truly stood, the French the appearance of your succeeding register, blackade had just as much effect on Eugland, in hope that some abler pen would con- as the former title of King of France, maintradict those rash assertions, but as that tained by our monareh, had on the people of does not appear to be the case, I venture that country, and I cannot belp thinking, so do it, confiding in your candour, so far that as they bore this galling yoke, of a nise. as to admit my letter into ypur next oum- less tidle, on our part, for a good many years,
DEFENCE OF AMERICA.
we after having suffered their empty block- party yourself, and therefore, whatever you ade, for a few months only, might have en- say against the Americans should be received dured it a little lunger, with those feelings of with a greater caution, than that should be, contempt, which it was alone calculated to which a trader to America may offer in their inspire – now come to the gross mistate- favour, in the same degree as revenge is ge. ment you have made of a plain matter of nerally esteemed to blind men's intellects fact. You say, (p. 357) " as matters stood more than their interest.
I rely on your previous to the Orders in Council, a ship inserting this letter in your next Register, “ load of tobacco came from America to and am, Sir, &c.--AN AMERICAN MER
England with all the additional price, which CHANT.-New Broud Street, March 7;1808.
aruse from the high insurance, occasioned " by the danger of capture in consequence
IMPORTATION OP PROVISIONS. “ of the French decrees; while another SIR,_-The great and feeling interest " ship load of tobacco went to France free which every individual has in whatever re“ from such high price, because there was lates to the plenty, and consequent cheap“ no danger of cipture from us." So far ness of food, will form a sufficient apology from this assertion being true, the fact is, for my addressing you upon the subject of that it is wholly otherwise. The premiums your remarks upon Mr. Young's letter, of insurance through the year 1807 up to
which you have published in your Register the news of the affair of the Chesapeake,
for the 20th of last month. If you are were at peace rates, being only from 3 gui- correct in the conclusions you have drawn, neas down to 2 guineas per cent, according and this country is independent of foreign to the season of the year, or the goodness of supply for the subsistence of the people, per. the vessel. The house in vhich I am a part- sous of every party will have reason to rener, paid in April, 1807, from New York to joice ; but if you are in error, if our existLondon 24 guineas per cent. on one vesel, ence depends upon an import of provisions, 2 guineas on another; in June, from New then should a painful anxiety be felt, and York to London 2, guirieas, New York to men of every party unite in endeavouring to Liverpool 2 guineas; in July, from New discover the cause of this fearful state of York to London 2 guineas. These quota- | things, and to devise means to avert the aptions are from actual policies, taken at ran. proach and weight of that distress, which doin froin a bundle. During the same pe- may compel the country to listen to terms riod, similar voyages from America to of peace, compromising the interest, tar. France were from 3 to 4 guineas per cent. nishing the honor, and even ' perhaps enhaving always been about I guinea per cent. dangering the safety of the nation.-Should bigher than to England, owing to the chance present abundance lead us to di-regard the of their being detained by English cruizers, lessons of the past, it will be too late to apin which case underwriters are pretty gene- ply a reinedy when the pressure of dearth rally liable to pay some expenses. This
comes to be fell. The tremendous power, statement will not, (because it cannot) be and unchecked tyranny of the enemy upon contradicted, and I call on you to give the the continent, have closed all the corn ports saine publicity to the truth, as you have al- of Europe against us ; and should we even Teady (upwittingly, I doubt not) given to remain at peace with America, that country the falsehood. And it is but fair to observe, is unable to supply the deficiency of a scanty that this rate of ipsurance is a criterion, bet. crop. Thus precluded from all hope of efter than all other speculative deductions, from fectual foreign assistance at the moment of which to judge of the practical import of the distress, it becomes necessary to plan befores famous Berlin decree of Buonaparte.--I have band the means of so increasing our supply, distinctly told you I am an interested man, as shall render the nation secure from the and I have as distinctly told you, that I desire effect of an unfavorable season. You cononly to be believed, if my facts or my argu- fidently state, that we export more human ments deserve it. But, you, Sir, are also an food than we import ; that onr import of interested person. You conceive yourself to corn does not equal our export of other kinds have been personally ill treated in the Uni- of provision. I wish this were the fact. I ted States, and it is carrently reported, that read your statement with an earnest desire you said to a fellow-passenger with you to to find it correct, but I fear, that when
pou England, that you hated the United States, come to reconsider it, and to couple it with and, that if ever an opportunity occurred to some observations I am about to make, you blow up the flame of discord between thetwo will be under the painful necessity of drawcountries, you would make the most of it. If | ing a different conclusion. You calculate this be true, Sir,youare nota very upinterested that the population of Great Britain (11 mil. lions of people) are supported at an average | that you no more than myself, argue for the cost of 4s. a head a week, or a weekly ex- vanily of victory, but that we equally seck pence of about 2 millions, which exceeding to discover truths, important to the best in. the money amount of our imports, you con- terests of our country. Now, Sir, we are clude, we rely upon foreign assistance for considering the means of procuring the suponly one fifty-second of our consumption. ply of a commodity (human subsistence) Ingenious and plausible as is this statement, which, from various causes, is of annual the error of it is quickly discoverable by produce, and of a perishable nature. – The those who are acquainted with the habits produce of a plentiful year is little more than and food of the different parts of this island. our annual consumption, and will not allow -Excepting in years of extreme scarcity, of being hoarded for any great length of the population of Scotland and the northern time. Hence, though we have plenty this counties are supported without foreign as- year, we are not secure from dearth the sistance upon barley and oaten bread, and next. This was painfully felt in the years that portion of the population which is sup- 1800 and 1801. In 1300 we imported ported upon wheat, and amongst whom the 1,384,345 quarters of wheat only. In 1801 foreign importation is divided, cannot in we imported 1,464,518 quarters of wheat any case exceed 8 millions, but is seldom only. This, upon your datum, is a con. more than 7. Take it however at 8 mil. sumption of 7 weeks, and upon mine of full Jions, and instead of any theoretical cal- 2 months, without reckoning the additional culation of 4s, a week a head, let me put import of rice and other grains, which was my statement into the quantity of wheat a further subsistence of at least a fortnight!! actually consumed and imported. It is or nearly one fifth of our consumption !!! universally allowed, that on an average one This is no theory; it is plain matter of fact, judividual with another who eats wheater and the only consolatory answer wlich can bread, consumes a quarter of wheat a year, be given to it, is that which you have ofWith the amount of the importation of bar- fered, namely, that we export in other are ley, peas, beans, and rye, I shall not trouble ticles an equal or greater quantity of human you, as it is inconsiderable, though a great food. Yet, to support your answer, you quantity of oats have been usually im- instance only one kind of food exported, ported. The importation of corn, on 2a and that to only one place--cheese to Ame. average of the last 5 years, ending with rica. Wlio ever heard of a ship load of January 1807, is 1,133,757 quarters a year, cheese cleared out for America ? Yet it is upon your own premises of 11 inillions con- common for ships to enter inwards from suming wheat. This is less than a tenth Holland wholly laden with cheese, butter, of the support of the people, or the con- ! and hals. It is true, we export some sumption of full five weeks and a half: and provisions to Guernsey, Jersey, Gibraltar
, upon mine of only 8 millions amongst whom our American colonies, the West Indies, our the foreign supply is divideil, it is more than African settlements, and the East Indies, as a seventh, or the consumption of full seven
well as to Botany Bay ; and while we retain weeks and a halt. Thus, instead of relying these possessions, and pursue our present upon foreign importations for one week's colonial system, we shall continue under the consumption, we depend, upon your own necessity of making this export. Indeed, premises, for above five wecks, and upon as things are at present, the demand for promine for more than seven weeks and a half. I visions which causes and is supplied by this I can anticipate your objection to this cal- export, onght to be considered as part of the culation, namely, that this import is not all demand and consumption of the empire, as in wheat. Granted. But then recollect, a consumption we cannot diminish, as a that I have not included the import of rye, drain and export we cannot lessen, and meal, Indian corn, oatmeal, rice, Dutch therefore as a lien upon our provision stock, cheese, hamis, bacon, and a very long et which must be reckoned in every calculation cetera. Now rice alone in some years has upon the subject, instead of a surplus capable been imported to the extent of above four of being retained at home, and applied to hundred thousand Fundred weight. Still meet the deficiency of a bad harvest. Had you may perhaps think I over-rate the the sum of this export of provisions been to amount, or rather proportion of imports; a foreigu country, your argunient would but should you think so, permit me to re. have been good to the extent of such export; mind you of the years 1800 and 1901. The. but excepting the article of cheese and peraveraging of 5 years is very good, and ap- | haps some small amount of Irish butter, 1 pears fair upon paper, but it is not always am not aware of any export of provision 10 warranted by practice; and I feel confident, foreign parts, of which we could avail ous.
selves in a season of scarcity and want. will be the distress and pressure of scarcity ? In addition to this ger:eral statement and to what country can we look for aid ? Upon reasoning, permit me to call your attention import from America we cannot depend, to the history of our corn trade and laws for even if we continue at peace with the United the last century.
States. Thus, then, it appears to me, that From 1703 to 1773, the average export of a due consideration of the subject brings the wheat was
222,121 qrs. yearly painful conviction, that we rely upon foreign From 1710 10 1760, the average export
of import to an alarming and dangerous extent; all sorts of grain was 600,000 grs. yearly that from an export of six hundred thousand
From 1700 to 1756, only two years oc- quarters of corn annually, we have gradualcurred in which wheat was imported. ly come to require an import of nearly a
From 1746 to 1765, both inclusive, the inillion and a half of quarters ; that in years quantity exported exceeded the quantity im- of scarcity we depend upon foreign supply ported by 6,649,609 qrs., or at the rate for nearly a fifth of our consumption, and of
332,480 qrs. yearly that in ordinary seasons we depend upon imBut from 1773 to 1798, we have on an portation for a seventh part of our subsistaverage imported 346,374 grs. yearly ence.-Should these remarks be deemed to
From 1795 to 1900, we have on an ave- merit your attention, and the dangers which rage imported
617,369 qrs. yearly I fear await us, appear of sufficient moment From 1800 to 1806, we have on an ave. to call for serious consideration and the aprage imported the 'enormous quantity of plication of an immediate and efficacious
1,447,500 qrs yearly remedy, I will in another letter proceed to And our export during these latter periods, investigate the causes of this fearful state of or from 1777 to 1804, have been only 5,400 things, and discuss the merits of the princiqrs. yearly, and that small quantity has pal remedies which have been proposed, and been chiefly 'to our own colonies.By endeavour to suggest some further ones to the foregoing, table it appears, that from the public notice. --Tam, your's, &c.having a large annual export of grain én- EDWARD WAKEFIELD
-Duke street, riching the coustry, and affording security Westminster, 14th March, 1808. against every contingency of seasons, we have gradually become an importing nation, depending for a large portion of our subsist
-Your correspondent C. S. (p. ence upon foreign supply. For the last 40 938, vol. 12,) could not find any meaning years we have been exchanging our gold and in those " plausible" doubts, on which i our silver for subsistence, and now a new ventured to ask for instruction, and which order of things has arisen. It is now no appeared in your Register of 14th Nov. longer a question of commercial policy; P: 766 ; but to assist my ignorance, he be. no longer a matter of profit and loss, whe- gins by charging me with sinister designs, ther the past system is to be pursued. Hoiv- because “ I have dragged out his conclusions erer willing we may be to enrich other
“ before your readers, and left behind the countries, to vivify the agriculture, and sti- “ curtain those of Mr. Pitt and Lord H. mulate the industry of other nations, we Petty,” as if such words might not have shall not be permitted to purchase the agri- been omitted for sake of brevity, and of the cultural produce of the continent. All the adage, nullius in verba. C. S. had reduced corn ports of Europe are closed, and all the their poetic calculations into a prose brief, wealth of these islands will be unable to he adopted the proof not without contempt purchase a supply of food from the conti- of their authors; and now he flies to his nent. To such observations as I have been deified name for shelter from the rule of addressing you, I have not unfrequently three. His quotations of Lord H. Petty's heard it remarked, " wheat is only about quotation of Mr. Pitt's second-sight was “ 70s. a quarter." So much the worse on needless, for every stock-holder had by every accorint: the price is too low to sti- rote how that angel confessed what he foremulate an increasing and productive tillage ; saw; (timely and well-acted confession) this low price deceives us into a dangerous that a nation, out of debt, must be in the security. Even suppose it to arise wholly high road to bankruptcy. C. S. goes on to from a bountiful season, and in nothing to dissipate my doubts thus : (p. 940) result from the présent corn laws, still by questionably they are ignorant of the efnext August or September'it will be all con- “ fects of competition and capital, who can sumed, and then a month's hard rain, or “ doubt the extent of the mischiefs that should mildew blight our crops in one week, “ must result froin the competilion of 600 what will be our prospect ! how general “ millions with a capital of 100 millions."
It is not to the purpose. I expressed no a society of Irish who love him because he doubt of any such thing. What I said was, Joves bis own country in earnest, whether that if the 600 inillions be discharged, by the Sinking Fund can by any contrivance means of the Sinking i’und, that such com- take up a single debeni ure out of the nar. petition cannot exist, on any addition to ket until it takes the value of that debenture the circulating capital; therefore, your out of circulation, or if 140 millions of debe correspondent's colloquy between Jacobin already paid off, were gathered out of a and Solomon, setting the Thames on fire, pocket where that som was not. As to C. and his nine times quoted phrase of Pitt's, are S. notable remedies for the ruin now in full all alike irrel ant. He says, (p. 941) “. now march, viz. “ to take peace any how10 " that the extensive calamities of a SUDDEN surrender the naval donjinion---to go “ extinction" (impossible) " of the debt “ back to where our forefathers left us" is admitted on all hands!!" How, a cer- “ to teach our population the use of arms, iain consequence to follow impossible pre- " and agriculture to our soldiers, &c. &c." mises! No,—but if it be extinguished by (p. 947) I only say, that it is a pity he means of the Sinking Hund, which must omitied the plan of that law giver called take up before it pay's down, I doubted Gonsalez in the Tempest, -" I would by if that competition is possible. The trus- contraries execute all things~no traffic tees to the Sinkina lund have taken up “ would I admit,- nomagistrate, -LETTERS suppose 140 millions of the 600 of devi. " should not be known,- poverty, riches, I ask did the money which they paid away none,--bounds of kund, vineyard, olive, for those 140 * millions, encrease the cir- none,-10 use of nietal, wine or oil, -culating capital or not? If it did, his pre- . no occupation,--all men idle,-all,--and mises are false, and if not his conclusions woinan too, but innocent and pure.are false., C. S. asserts, that, “ anominal os treason, knife, gun,
use of any encrease has the same effect on real mo. engine, would I not have, but nature
ney us a real encrease could liave, and “should bring forth all abundance to feed « all he contends for is that it must no- my innocent people."--C. S. concludes,
minally encrease to the amount of the “ show us that no real or nominal increase debt, and therefore that the real de- “ will take place if the national debt be
preciation inust be in the proportion “ paid, and then we shall confess our error, " which the debt bears to the circulation." “but till then we maintain, &c. &c.” It is This is i rrelevant, unless it contemplates not reasonable for a professor of prophecy payment of the debt without the aid of taxes, to throw the burden of proof upon bis and that the debentures in circulation are no ignorant audience. It calls to mind honest part (real or nominal) of the circulating 'Swift's Tale of a Tub, and Lord Peter's argucapital. It has no effect on the doubts
ment, to prove that the bread which he which I have suggested in a single sentence, gave his brothers for dinner, was not bread, that payment of the 600 millions of debt by. I but mutton.-I am, Sir, &c.—Osgur. means of the Sinking Fund, which is in fact by means of laxes taken out of the Circulating Capital, cannot produce any increase what. " Thus should all our efforts be directed
C. S. continues (page 943) “ we “ to render the Irish willing, by making or contend for the nominal increase on the “ them comfortable subjects; then shall
well ascertained ground that if we expend “we most effectually have succeeded in : the identical £10. in the market 10 times opening their eyes to the evils they have
over in one day, we have nominally sent " invariably suffered, by yielding to seducw £100 in that day, and therefore depre- “ tion; then shall we have made the people
ciated the value of money as much as if “ loyal, from the only principle that can
we had actually sent £100 at one time." “ make loyalty sincere, vigorous, or rationI know not how such axiom is applicable, or “al; a conviction that it is their true inte
well-ascertained," and confess I have my “ rest. The landed gentlemen of Ireland doubts of its truth.- His third sub-division can alone impart this conviction, for asserts that my " notion" is old, although
" through thein only can the lower orders in his first page he says that“ if it be truly " estimate the value of the government une “ just, it is really now,"--but be it old or “ der which they live ; from them must new, I intreat Mr. Cobbet biinself to inform “ originate those comforts on which that
conviction depends; they alone can de* I have no means of ascertaining this “stroy the facility of seduction ; they alone aum-and wish Mr. Cobbeit may correct it, can remove the disorder, for with them & a just view of it, is of great importance. “ lies the disease and the remedy, and that