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thought, that no one at all conversant in the of employment." Sugar and Mõlasses and Inaritime affairs of the world, could have Rum are inounted up to double price, while failed to perceive in this proclamation, an Jumber and fish and pork arë sink to half offer made to the American merchant ships price. « I vow," says Jonathan, " I'll not to trade with the English West Indies in spite is 'bile here." He buys a cargo of lumber of the enlargo. Yet, I'll warrant you, that and provisions, to the custom-house he goes it never entered into the noddle of this gen- as bold as a lion, and there he demands and tleman, that the order to our commanders to dispense with the production of “regular
obtains a clearance for Norfolk Henge
ton or or Augusta. “ clearances and documents" could have board at three strides, up goes the anchor, any such meaning. A very poor noddle has and off goes the Fair American Tor Fatnaica, be! The American ships (the only neutral leaving the embargoed crews, whose master ships now in the world) are, observe, all has less enterprize than hers, to eat molasses embargoed; that is to say, they lie in their and to drink rum at double price, while they ports under a positive law, forbidding them, themselves have no pay. She is met by one under heavy penalties, to go thence to any of our cruizers at sex ; but, upon
alledging other port or country in the world. To uf. that she is going to Janjaica, her pters are fer them a free pássage, then, to the West- endorsed, and she is suffered to pass." Thas, Indies, or to any other part, would have our islands obtain provisions and lumber.-been a pure absurdity upon any other sup- “ Well now," says Jonathan, “ 1 vow, you, position than that of their setting the “ Governor man, I don't like to go back just embargo law at defiance.
The law per
yet. I'll go to thóße Frenchoe 's coun mits them to go from one American port stry with a cargo of coffee.” In he takes to another American port as often as they it, and away he goes to France. If bě be please ; and, as I stated in my last met by one of our cruizers, be has the passo Register, they bad, in some cases, as was as- port of the Governor of Jamaica to show ; if serted in their newspapers, 'taken advantage he be niet by a French cruizer, I'll trust to of this exception to run oft'' to Jamaica with Jonathan's ingenuity to convince him that he a cargo. But, there was some danger in took in his cargo at Martinico ; which inge this ; because, if met by any of our cruizers, nuity will also serve his turn when he comes they would be liable to be siezed, seeing that into Bourdeaux or Havre-de-Grace. Thus, they could not possibly have any other than we make the enemy consume our colonial
produce, while we present neutrals from cure them against this danger, the present carrying him any from his own colonies:proclamation provides, that, if they say that And this the Morning Chronicle calls they are bound to our settlements in the “ relaration of the Orders in CourcilsWest Indies, or South America, they shall "teni, forced upon the ministers?" Oh, not be interrupted, and that one of their pa- thou blind guide ! Thy printer's devil under pers shall be endorsed by the English com- stands as much of these miatters as thou dost, mander who may visit them, specifying the Well, but what will Jonathan do next? Peri alledged destination and also the place where haps, by this time, the embargo fit is off visited by him. This secures their going to for he has now been four months from home; one of our settlements; because, if met and, if that be the case, he will laugh at the again, and out of the track, they are siezed. Congress and the law. Perhaps, though, the
Having thus invited them out to sea, fit is not off. Well, it is little malier, ei. and secured their arrival in our own colo- ther way, for be may sell the “ Fair Amépies, the proclamation next provides for their rican," or give her away, his voyage having having due encouragement to take away the cleared much more than the worih of her. produce of those colonies; and, for this pur-But, Jonathan will do no such thing. From pose, allows them to go with such produce France he will clear out for Martinico again, to any part of the world, except to a port and, with the Governor of Jamaica's pass: blockaded by us. And this the noddle of port, well let into one of the planks of the the Morning Chronicle has conceived to be brig, he will come through our cruizers to a “relaxation of the Orders in Council sys- London or Liverpool. There he will take " tem, forced upon the ministers !" Let us in a cargo for Boston; his clearance will fry an instance in detail. JONATHAN Sưy-carry bini through our feets and cruizers, BOOTS lies with his brig, the “ Fair Ameri- and he will stand the chance of smuggling ja can,” embargoed in the port of Boston. his cargo. Once out at sea, however, in the Tbere are his brothers Ezra and 'Zekiel and first instance, he may follow what course he Natty, and his cousins to the third genera- pleases, as long as he takes care to obey the tion, all his seainenlounging about for want
English proclamations apd Orders in Colias
Cul; but, the longer the embargo continues, to save the people from perishing. Though he greater will be the temptation to smuggle Sir Charles was convinced of the reality of a cargoes from England, One lucky hit the alledged scarcity, yet he thought, it will, in that case, make a man's fortune. seems, a compliance with such a request beEven if. "fulure hastilities," that is to say, yond his powers, and therefore dispatched war with America, should break out, Jona- the Coquette for precise instructions.--Vathan, may go right back home with his cof- rious letters have been received descriptive of fee and rum and molasses, if he chooses; these horrors; the following is from one of and thither be will go too, when the scarci- the gentlemen appointed to the deputation, ty becomes great, in spite of all the acts and was written before he set off : " Listhat the Congress are able to pass.- This bon, March 21, 1808.-I have only time proclamation is a very wise measure. It is to inform you of my having been authorised, calculated to meet the event of war, at the with several others, by this government, to same time that it exactly suits this state of proceed to the English fleet, now blockading demi-warfare, in which, by the folly of the our port, for the purpose of prevailing op American government, we are now placed Admiral Cotton to permit provisions to be with that country:
And this is what the brought hither, as we are absolutely on the Morning Chronicle calls “relaxation of the eve of a famine. . Under these dreadful cir. « Order in Council system, forced upon the cumstances we rely on the humanity and li" ministers!”
berality of a generous, nation, and we trust Curates' STIPEND BILL.- I have time that his excellency will commiserate the disonly to say, that I most heartily wish this tressed situation of the inhabitants of this bill success. It was defeated by the late mi- devoted city and its envirops, and grant liber. nistry, who could have had no other object ty for provisions to enter the port, otherwise in view, than that of pleasing the owners of we must literally starve, Should we succeed livings. Mr. Perceval has always been res- in the object of our mission, it will revive pected by me on account of this bill; and, the drooping spirits of the people, and save. his persevering in it, through all situations, the lives of thousands and ten of thousands, places him in striking contrast with the apos- who otherwise inust meet their fate in the Iate patriots, to whom he has been opposed worst and most terrible of alt deaths-a in politics, and who have, to a man, broken death from bunger." their promises, the moment they got possession of the power of fulfilling them.
SPAIN.INSURRECTION This, indeed, is a step in the way of real Madrid, 19th March, nine o'clock at reformn- Some one expressed a desire to nightSince Sunday the 13th inst., such have two debates upon the principle of this important events have taken place, that the bill; but, if there were to be two thousand hurry in which I write will not allow me to speeches, and if all the speakers were op- arrange them in a proper order. Certain inposed to it, they never would make one man telligence having been received of the Emof sound sense believe, that it is just towards peror of France coming here, it was asked a parish to give its clerical revenues to a on the part of the King, and at the request man, whose face it never sees, while he who of the Admiral (the Prince of Peace), what really performs all the duty that is performed was the object of his journey, and whither receives not more than two thirds of the a. his troops were directed to march?- The mount of the wages of a journeyman me- answer was, that he came in a peaceavle chanic,
manner, for the good of the nation, and to Bulley, 14th April, 1808,
make a Prince bappy. The king, with his
našural simplicity, and with great "satisface PORTUGAL.
Lion, shewed this leuer to the Admiral, who Famine has" visited the wretched Portu. being immediately aware of the blow which guese. At the date of the last advices, the threatened bim, prepared to make arrange22d ult. hundreds, it is said, were lying ments to escape to Mexico, taking with him dead in the streets of Lisbon. What, how, the King, whom be succeeded in perscading ever most decisively proves the extent of to follow bim, apprizing bim with what uley the evil, is this, that General Junot seni had to fear from ihe arrival of the Emperor out a flag of truçe (the fact is without a and his troops, and for this purpose the Ad: doubt) with a deputation to Sir Charles Cot- niral look out of the royal chest 86 millions ton, at the head of which was M. Michael of rials - In the course of lasti nionib, he Setard, a respectable Portuguese, to suppli- had sent already 60 millions to Corunna, cate (the precise term used) the Admiral 10 which were destined for Lendon, where he çuffer some provisions to foine into Lisbon, has 10 millions of dollars, On Wednesday
he arrived in Madrid, and withdrew on morning nntil four in the afternoon, to an: Sunday, in the evening, according to his swer the two questions of the King, whether, usual custom, to Aranjuez. As soon as he he should leave the country, and whether arrived there, he called a meeting of the his people were disturbed: to which quescouncil, in which the flight of their Majes- tion's the reply was, that he ought not to leave ties were discussed. - The following day the country, nor would they allow him to do (Monday), early in the morning, the signa- so. That the people were quiet and loved him; tures of the three principal persons were as he might himself see, it fre would come to collected, and when Cavellero's turn caine, DIadrid. This and the whole of the preceding he said that he did not huse to sign, nor day, nothing but complaints, clamours, and should be allow them to do what they in- farewells, were beard in Aranjuez, because tended. The King represented to him in the the king entertained the project of departing, most earnest manner the danger in which until two iu the alicrnoon, when a courier they found themselves; the general discon- aarived from Napoleon, assuring him that tent of the people of Madrid, demanded he came with pacific intentions. This intelhis head (as the Admiral bad falsely madle ligence was immediately promulgated, aud him believe). Cavellero said that there was the lamentations were converted into shouts no such thing, that all was false, and that of joy, congratulations, and embraces he had been deceived: The King imme- throughout all Aranjuez. The patriarch rediately answered-Do they deceive ne? turned home full of joy, exclaiming, "bo. Do they betray me?. Who is the Traitor ? thing is the matter, every thing is settled,
That is the gentleman, pointing to the go and make it pablic, let every one koow." Admiral, who drew his sword--The council At half past eleven o'clock the same day, inmediately broke up. The principal party, five loaded waggons passed through Aranconsisting of Cavellero, the Prince, Aliemire juez. Silva and Don Vicente arrived and Fernando Nunes, who they say was wound brought the news, and a courier dispatched ed, as were most of the Grandees. This by Cavallero brought it to government, with happened at night: at the poise the life a charge to proclaim as soon as it should guards entered, and among them the halbert- reach Delicias, “ All is settled, I am the bearers, and soon afierwards the mob. The bearer of good news, and of the orders for project, which was for some time only sus. the troops to depart."-At midnight all the pected, was ascertained by the orders given king's guards, the admiral's hussars, the to the life guards. On the following day volunteers of the state, and the cavalry with (Monday) in the morning, the life guards loaded carbines and pistols, and the artillery took post on the road of Ocanna. The hall with lighted matches were on duty.-Yesof the council and the whole of the palace terday (Thursday), in the morning, the anpresenied a scene of popular tumult. Some nexed edict was posted, intended to undeof the guards cried out “ kill bim," others ceive and tranquillize the people; but at the “ seize bim!" and some pointed the sword same time, it was well known, that the ada 10 bis breast: The Prince Asturias clung miral was neither apprehended nor disgraced, 10 the Admiral, who placing himself be- as had been reported. . On the contrary, on tween the troups with fixed bayonets, fled the Tuesday, the royal family breakfasted at to luis house, or concealed himself in the his house, and on the following day he was palace, and the queen to her apartment. at the palace, which grieved every body, On Wednesday in the evening, a mail ar- and the inhabitants of Aranjuez continued rived, with an order for the gorrison of Ma. much disturbed. Last night the admiral , drid to assemble and prepare to mareh. At withdrew from the palace at eleven o'clock, 7 o'clock 21 night the bearers of those orders and at one attempted to escape. The life went to all the coffee-houses, and wherever guards observed it, approached, and having they found officers or gvards, directed them ascertained the fact, fired a pistol, at which to join their corps, and through the whole signal the rest of the guards assembled, and town the carriages and horses were put into a throng of people endeavoured to force their requisition. The troops remained all day in way through the admiral's hussars who sur their quarters, wbich none of them were rounded his house. Some of the life guards on any account permitted to leave, and much were killed, and Don Diego Godoy (tbe fermentation was observed among the peo- admiral's brother), who was at the head of ple. And it was a matter of joy to them to his regiment of Spanish guards, ordered go to the house of the Admiral, to see that them to fire, but none obeyed. He repeathe had no longer a guard of hussars. The ed the order, when the people, and even council of Castilie inet the same day, and his own soldiers fell on him, tired at him, continued in deliberation from tep in the beat him, and tied his hands and feet. The
disturbance became general, from a belief mined to prevent the departure of the roya that the royal family (who were in bed) in family, the intelligence of which had reachtended to escape. Forty life guards set off at
ed that province. full speed after the admiral, who had ded, and they succeeded in overtaking him, when “ Aranjuez, March 18, 1808. -As I inthey bound him, and took him to the palace " tend to command my army and navy in at two o'clock; they came up with him at person, I have thought proper to release Ocanna. The princess of peace and her " Don Manuel Godoy, prince of the peace, daughter they caused to alight, put them in
“. from the employs of Generalissimo and a coach drawn by the peasantry, who con. Admiral, and give him leave to withdraw ducted them to the palace, and delivered “ whither he pleases. You are herewith them to the prince, who came out to receive “ informed of it, and will communicate it them with two canales ia bis hands.--This to whom it concerns.-- - 7. Don Francis day, at 8 in the morning, our royal family ca Gill." appeared in the balcony of the palace, to Madrid Gazette, March 18, 1808.- His thank the people. Ai 12, two decrees majesty has been pleased to transmit the folwere posted up in Madrid, one of which | lowing decree to his excellency. Don Pedro adressed to the president of the coun- Cevallos, First Secretary of State :- My cit, is 'in substance as follows:
" beloved subjects! Your generous agita. 's Tlie king, in order to undeceive your " tion in these circumstances is a fresh proof " bordsbip and the council, and that the pub- “ of the sentiments of your hearts, and I, "? lic may be correctly intorn.ed of what “ who love you as a tender father, take " occurred last night, makes known, that " the earliest opportunity to condole with " in consequence of a disturbance between you in the distressed situation in which " some hussars and life guards, some mili- we are placed. Be tranquil; know that " tary and peasants assembled ioduced by “ the army of my dear ally, the emperor of « an erroneous belief that their majesties “ the French, traverses niy kingdoin with! is intended to leave the country, but their “ideas of friendship and peace. Its object
inajesties neither think of leaving the " is to march to the points which are " country, nor hare they ever thought for “ threatened with the danger of a descent " a moment of withdrawing themselves “ by the enemy, and the junction of my ve from the bosom of their beloved subjects; " life-guards bas no other object than to so that at five o'clock in the morning every protect my person, and they are not in
thing was quiet in the palace, and he “ tended to accompany me on a voyage, “ directs the president to make it known, vi which malice endeavoured to represent as « in order that the public may banish from necessary. Surrounded by the unshaken " their minds all false reports,” &c. &c.- " loyalty of my armed subjects, of which The second decree recommends the public “ I have received such unquestionable to hold good harmony and peace with the proofs,' what have I to fear? and should French troops, who are to pass through the " any imperious necessity require it, could capital and its environs, on their march to " I doubt of the assistance which their geCadiz.-This evening, the annexed manu- nerous bosoms offered me? But no seript decree was published, which levelled “ such necessity will ever be witnessed by the Grand Colossus ; such is the general " my people.--Spaniards, allay your fears joy and satisfaction of the public, that I “ conduct yourselves as you have hitherto doubt wliether a general peace would cause " done towards the troops of the ally of a greater; and we all publicly congratulate your good kiug. In a few days you will each other. The public look upon the “ see peace nad tranquillity restored ; your French without fear, without dread, and as “ hearts and mine enjoying the happiness their deliverers. ; The privates will be re- " which God bestows on me in the bosoni ceived at their quarters, and the officers at “ of my family and your love." Given in the mansions and dwellings of the great. my royal palace of Aranjuez the 16th Order is recommended.-To-morrow about “ March, 1808.---By the King, A. D.“ 4000 will enter the city- the following day 56. Pedro CevaLLOS."
pipeline the imperial guard--and on Monday Prince Murat. General report says, that the em- CHALMERS ON NATIONAL RESOURCES peror is detained by these occurrences,
SIR,In a work which has lately a: a cause letters from Bayonne and Yrun say, peared, entitled “ An Enquiry into the #s that he arrived there on the 12th, and others ient and Stability of National Resoort 5*** !** contradict it. La Manche is in a state of the Rev. Thomas Chalmers, unde sine sf much confusion, and the people are deter- your own favourite speculations sur extended, and set upon a footing different of foreign trade, are as completely under the from any that has yet appeared. The train controul of our 'inland consumers as the of reasoning appears to ine to be most lumi- manufacturers for home consumption, and nous and convincing, and calcalated to esta- | that the manufacturers of our exported arti
blish a position which must prove in the cles derive all their inaintenance from ad an. highest degree consolatory in the present tecedent ability that exists in the country.
circumstances of the country, that the loss This has been most ably and satisfactorily of trade so far from being a ground of alarm proved by Mr. Spence, in his pamphlet enor despondency, leaves the nation filter than titled “ Britain Independent of Commerce." ever for all the purposes of defence and po- But the argument derives new light from litical independence. The great principle of the peculiar cast of our author's speculations. his argument seems to be founded upon the Mr. Spence insists principally on the refuge manner in which he conceives the popula- which the people discarded from foreign tion of a country to be distributed. There trade, would have in the home manufactures is first, an'agricultural population employed of the country. Mr. C.'s mind seems to be in providing food. There is secondly, ano. more engrossed with public and national ob. ther division of the population employed in jects, and insists chiedy on the refuge which labouring for the other necessaries of com- they might have in the extended branches of mon life. And there is, lastly, a remaining the government service. In his third: division, whose only employment is to admi- chapter he takes up the case of a country nister to the luxuries of the wealthy, and to that derives part of its agricultural produce whom he gives the very significant name of from abroad. He attempts to estimate the the disposable population. - In his first increase which this additional food, and ada: chapter, he conceivės the country to be se- ditional population give to the resources of 'cluded from all foreign intercourse. The the country, and concludes that it is beyond disposable population lies at the mercy of all comparison insignificant, when contrasted those who are the proprietors of its mainte- with the addition which'may be afforded by nance. They can be withdrawn from any an equal part of our own natural population. one employment to any other. If their em. The whole population subsisted apon foa ployers chuse to dispense with their services reign grain, bears a very small proportion in one lme of industry, they can destroy indeed to the whole population of the countheir present employment, but then they i try, and though all intercourse with other can give them the sa ne maintenance as be- countries were suspended, there is enough tore in some other more suited to the taste in the agricultural resources of Britain, 10 or circumstances of the country. The dis- make up instantly for the want of imports posable population must accommodate to the tion. The fourth chapter treats of profit and demand of those who are vested with the capital. The income of the manufacturing ability of maintaining them. If this demand capitalist is derived from the ability of the changes from one species of luxury to ano- inland consumer, as well as the maintenance ther, the disposable population must of of the manufacturing labourer. Profit forms course be translated from one species of ma- part of the price that is paid for the article, nufacture to another. As the demand and though the manufactures of the country changes from luxury to defence, our original should be destroyed in consequence of some proprietors can withdraw their wealth from new change in the system of affairs, the abithe purchase of luxuries altogether, and lity still remains to uphold the labourer in make over the price of them in the form of his former comfort, and the capitalist in his a tax to government. In this case, the dis- former splendour and distinction. The fifth posable population must be thrown loose chapter treats of productive and unproducfrom their present employments, many ma- tive labour. He bere attempts to expose nufactures must be annihilated, and great ad- the futility of this distinction, and to test the ditional extent given to every department of usefulness of every species of labour upon the government service. While other wri- the usefulness of its ultimate effects, it is of ters are perpetually talking of the extension no consequence whether the enjoyinent of manufactures, this author makes it out which we derive from any species of labour that from the ruin of the manufacturing in comes to as or not through the medium of a terest, we can-collect the means of adding tangible and marketable commodity, it is to the power and resources of thë nation. enough for us that it'administers to our enIn the second chapter, Mr. Chalmers dis- joyment. The question of preference recusses the subject of foreign trade. He solves itself intirely into a question of advanproves that the disposable population em. tage; and that species of labour deserves ployed in carrying on the different operations to be most encouraged, which is found to