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therefore no longer doubtful, nothing re. indifference.---It is on this ground, in addia mained for bis Imperial Majesty hut to resort tion to what his Imperial Majesiy owes to to those means which Providence has placed the security of his own dominions, that he in his hands, for no orber purpose except tinds himself necessitated to take your counthat of giving protection and safety to his I try under his protection, in order to serve to dominions; and he has deemed it right 10 himself due satisfaction, in case his royal notify this intention to the King of Sweden, Swedish Majesty should persist in his design and to all Europe. ---Having thus acquitted not to accept the just conditions of peace himself of that duty, which the safety of which have been tendered to him by bis his dominions require, bis Imperial Vijesty | French Majesty, through the mediation of is ready to change the measures he is about his Imperial Russian Majesty, in order to to take, to measures of precaution onlyr if : restore the blessings of peace, which are, at the King of Sweden will, without delay, all times the principal objectif his Imperial join Russia and Denmark in sharting the Majesty's attention.--Good friends and men Baltic against England until the conclusion of Finland remain quiet and fear nought, we a ot'ia maritime, peace. He himself invites' do not coine to you as enemies, but as your the king his brother-in-law, for the last friends and protectors, to render you upore time, and with all the feelings of real friend prosperous and happy, aud to avert from you ship, no longer to hesitate in fulfilling liisthe calamities which, if war should become obligations, and in embracing the only sys- . indispensible, must necessarily befall you... teni of policy which is cousistent with the : Do not allow yourself io be seduced to take interests of the Northern Powers. What to arms, or to treat in a hostile manner the has Sweden gained since her king attached, troops who are committed to my orders ; himself to England --Nothing could be should any one offend against this admonis more painful to his Imperial Majesty than to tion, he inast impute to bimself the

consesee a rupture take place between Sweden quences of his conduct, while, on the other and Russia. But his Swedish Majesty has it hand, those who meet his Imperial Majesty's still in bis power to prevent this event by, paternal care for the welfare of this couptry, without delay, resolving to adopt that course may rest assured of his powerful favour and which can alone preserve a strict union and protection. And as it is his Imperial Maperfect harmony between the two States. jesty's will, that all the affairs in your coun.

try shall pursue their usual course, and be FINLAND.Proclamation to ine Inhabi- managed according to your ancient laws and

tants of Finland; irsued by the Russian customs, which are to remain undisturbed, General, Count Buxhovden; daled Head as long as his troops remain in your country, Quarters, Fredericksham, Feb. 18,1905 | all officers both civil and military, are here

'It is with the utmost concern bis Impe- ; with directed to conform tbemselves thereto: rial Majesty, my most gracious master, finds ' provided that no bed use be made of this in-, himself necessitated to order his troops une dulgence, contrary to the good of the coun. der my command to enter your country, ! try. -Prompt payment shall be made for all good friends, and inhabitants of Swedish Fin- provisions and refreshments required for the land.--His Imperial Majesty feels the more troops, and in order that you may still more concerned to take this step, to which he is be convinced of bis Majesty's paternal solicicompelled by the transactions which have tude for your welfare, be has ordered several taken place in Swederi, as he still bears in magazines to be formed, in addition to those mind ibé generous and friendly sentiments wbich are already established, out of which which the fins displayed towards Russia in the most indigent inhabitants shall be supera the last war, when the Swedish king enysged plied with necessaries, in common with bis in an invasion of Finland, in a manner equal. Majesty's troops. --Should circumstances ly unexpected and unwarrantable. His pre- arise to require an amicable discussion and sent Swedish Majesty, far from joining his deliberation, in that case you are directed to Imperial Majesty in his exertions to restore | send your deputies, chosen in the usual manthe tranquility of Europe, which alone can ner, to the City of Abo, in order to delibe. be effected by the coalition which so fortu- rate upon the subject, and adopt such mea. pately has been formed by the most power- sures as the welfare of the country shall reful states, bas on the contrary formed a closer quire.--It is his Imperial Majesty's pleasure, alliance with the enemy of tranquillity, and that from this moment Finland shall be cons peace, whose oppressive system and unwar- sidered and treated in the same manner as rantable conduct towards his Imperial Ma- other conquered provinces of the Russian jesty and his nearest ally, his Imperial Ma- empire, which now enjoy happiness and jesty cannot by any means look upon with peace under the mild government of his Im.

*

1

of the freedom d remain in full possession by repeated insults levelled at his own per:

,

religion and worshipas son. The Russian nation bad been to less well as of all its ancient rights and privileges, i insulted, being gazetted as savages and bare -The taxes payable to the crown remain in barians. † Thins every thing that is sacred substance unaltered. and the pay of the pub- to a government, was connected with the lic officers of every description continues common interest. Was it then possible but Likewise on its ancient footing.

to look upon as irrevocable, whiat the Em

perur himself lad declared," that lie woald Sweden. - Declaration against Russia, reject ail conditions of peace,

whether more 11 March, 180$.

or less advavi:geous, if they were not con. The first intimation his Ni jesty received sistent with the glory of the Russian uhme; of the hostile entrance of Russian troops, the security of the Empire ;' the sanctity into Finland on the 21st of February last, of alliances; and the tranquillity and peace of and of their public incitements to rebellioa | all Evrope:"1-In wbat marier, and how ard revolt circulated in that province imme- far these great objects have been obtain:erf by diately afterwards, on behalf of bis Imperial the Peace of Tilsit, contemporaries have Russian Majesty, was by a telesraphic dis already decided, and futurity will more patch, -A breach of peace without a pre- clearly discover. The King, althought at vious declaration of war, without a single his post on the theatre of war, was, contraty article of complaint being preferred ; a to the express tenor of his convention with breach of peace emanating from treachery, Russia, & neither informed of the Arnvisand carried on by a traitor of his native coun- tice, nor of the definitive negociations, till try, # placed at the side of the Commar der i the peace was concluded, having received in Chief, is an event which has but few | advice of these transactions, accoinpanied examples, and must at the first glance create with a cold and slight invitation to assist in detestation ; but when tbis act is examined the object of peace, ll the King renewed lis at the same time with what has lately oc- | application for an armistice (which ought, curred between the two countries; when no doubt, to have been stipulated in the contemplated in' its forbidding deviation peace of Titsit), but received only, evasite from those paths of truth and honour esem. answers, and discovered at once the value plified by his Ally, no feeling can then ex. of Russian co-operation. The King finding press, no name can conspass the extent of himself in consequence unable to defend liis such depravity ; its features will remain without a parallel in history, filling up the † A people (the Russians) who from thei deeds of iniquity leaped together in the pre- barbarous customs and manners orglit to sent age.

At a jime when his Imperial create abhorrence aniongst all civilized riaRussian Majesty, seemned to feel tenderly tions-Ordre du Jour. Vienne, le 25 8;0. for oppressed princes and countries ; at a maire, An. 14 (144h November; 180.5.) time when he estimated the dangers which -These savage bands, whose assistance shall ihreatened all Europe, bis Majesty, actuated for the last time, be called forth by European by siınilar sentiwents, was led into engage governments-25 Bulletin de la grand ments with him, founded on the corsidence" armer, le 25 Brumaire, An. 14. If the Greek he placed in him as a neighbour, an ally, and religion be allowed once to spread itself beas an independent Monarch. The Emperor tween the Baltic ayd the Mediterranean seas, of Russia, in reference to the general wel. we shall soon see our provinces attacked by a fare, had entered into useful engagements, heap of nad barbarians--proclamation, the had yet to demand of France the fuifiiment

head-quarters, Warsaw, 2. th Jan. 1807. of existing treaties, was possessed of power Signed Napoleon Buonaparte. to support his own righis and those of all

See the Russian Manifest of the 30th others concerned ; his Majesty entered in August, 1806. to an alliance with him, and is now attacked § Both the high contracting parties by him on the direct ground of having beenhis engaged in the most powerfut manner, tbat ally. Neverdid a princeenter into an alliance the hostilities being orice comienced, they with a more assured consciousness of the should not lay down their arms, or treat about purity of its motives, as well as of its being, any reconciliation with the French governuviolably kept. The Emperor had been nient without their mutual consent. The personally insulted by the refusal of live

convention between Sweden and Russia, French government to fulfil a concluded and

dated the 14t8

Javnary, 1805.-Art. IX. sealed treaty had been publicly defamed

!! General Budberg's better to Barop de

Weiterstedt, First Secretary torthe foreign * George Springropten, las

correspondence dated the lock Jaly, 1607

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German states any longer, was obliged to middle class must be acknowledged between

leave them to their subsequent fate. Hava the vassal and the enemy. Peace signifies ing sustained this loss, originating in the confederacy-confederacy, submission; and desertion of Russia, his Majesty was again from pariş must proceed the mandates which placed out of the theatre of war, and en- are to dictate both principles, laws, and deavoured to enjoy within his own territory ordinancies, to the jelf-styled independaut that peace and quietness which its geographic confederacy, while they promote only a cal situation seemed to ensure to him. lust for power, and violate what is most saHaving faithfully acted up to his engage- cred in society and between societies.- Prements towards Russia, his Majesty proinised parations were made in conformity at St. himself that notwithstanding the different Peterburgh last Autumn, for a rupture with system she had adopted, a just and equitable England, and they waited only for the proretrospect would be given to former occur

per season of the

year

to be able, rences, The King had supported the ope- what more security, to carry that somesations of Russia with his ships of war; into effect. A proposal was made to his

had shared with the Emperor his military Royal Majesty, in a note, dated the 6th of stores, bad rejecie d' and immediately com- October, to assist agreeably to the convenmunicated the offers made him by the French tion made in 1780, in shutting the Baltic Governinent. Among others one that on against foreign ships of war. His Majesty, condition of breaking with Russia while in on the 13th November, returned for answer the midst of the war, and when the Russian that so long as the French government was

frontiers and her yery capital were defence- in possession of so many barbours on the Jess, Sweden shovid be put in possession of south side of the Baltic, and there exercised

all the provinces kost during the reign of their system of exclusion, the Baltic could Charles XII, together with such further not be kept peaceable. His Majesty in conpart of the Russian empire as his Majesty sequence also requested that bis Imperial might deterasine. His Majesty stands ou Majesty would first endeavour to prevail on higher ground Lian to make a merit of hav- the French to quit those ports ; and when ing resisted temptations so mean and con- the first-merticned application was renewed temptible ; but he is not without hopes that on the 27th of the saine month, as av objecthe aggregated censure due to a power

thus tion grounded on the convention of 1780, spared in the hour of danger, will be propor- his Majesty circumstantially declared on the tioned to its oppressive conduct towards this 21st Jan, last, that by virtue of the convenkingdom. - The consequences of the se- tion made in the year 1sor, between Ruscrei articles of the treaty of Tılsit, which sia and England, and to which his Majesty, were immediately suspected, and which the at the pressing instance of Russia, and un. Russian Ministry have since acknowledged, der her own guarantee, becaine a party, Þegan by degrees to unfold themselves. the previous armed neutrality had entirely England's commercial monopoly, that si- ceased. That his majesty had then enter. diculous scarecrow, erected by the French ed into direct engagements with England, government, in order to usurp to itself the in reference to that object, and which could continent, was also brought forward for the not equitably be departed from, so long as contemplation of the North, for the sake the latter power, on her side, fulfilled her

of extending, even to tpat part of the world, obligations. That at the same time that the oppression and misery which, from port lie armed neutrality was done away with, to port, from state to state, Europe had been he stipulations grounded therein, respectsubjected to No government is any longer ing the shutting of the Baltic, became null left to its own light and experience; no and void, and which was the less applicapeople to their own lawful industry; no ble to existing circumstances, as the Danish

naval force, then calculated upon, no lonSua Promise of Norway given by General ger was in being ; not to mention that En.

Bernadotte to a Swedish officer-a prisoner, gland had since that time, discovered the Nov. 1800, respecting the extending of passage through the great Belt. But that dominions of the french minister, Bourienne of Sweden could not with her arms eontrito Netzęl the Chargé des Affaires the 14th bute to the protection of the Baltic, the November 1806. General Grandjean's re- would, on the other hand, take upon her- . presentation to Colonel Baron. Tavast, the self to obtain, by negociation with England,

2715 May, 1907, that Sween was to demand that she should not send any ships of war u wbat territory she wished to have in order into those seas, provided no other power

that she might counterbalance Russia, &c. made armaments there, or new hostilities Acc.

should oblige her to come there as an a£, sistant. That Sweden should be called It calls forth the aid of treachery and treason. upon to serve Russia as outworks, because The government expects to purchase the she bad thought proper to provoke Eng. Finlanders en 'masse, under promises of land; that Sweden should sacrifice her liberty ; but the commaoder of the army. fleet and commerce as a defence for Cron- offers to purchase the soldiers individually, stadt and Revel, was asking rather too much : like slaves, in the market of St. Petersburgh vet immediately after these representations, er Riga.--Ye youthful inbabitants 'of? FinRussia actually commenced her preparations land, a people worthy of esteem 31 pairs for war on the frontiers of Finland. His King las, during the whole of bis reign, Majesty continued, notwithstanding, to paid attention to your instruction), to the cul view them with calm forbearance ; for as tivation and prosperity of your country: A yet no specific complaints had been prefer- faithless neighbour ihreateny to hurt you red, nor had any unconditional demands back to the state you were in in ages past, been made. The proposal (His Majesty because your neighbourhood is become a rehad made) of an agreement to protect the proach to bim. His sword is brandished over Baltic, presented aspects of tranquillity and your heads ; his plundering hands are advantage to Russia, to all the North, which stretched towards your property ; his for it would appear could not, but under great ces approach your dwelling, and his pro ! responsibility, be refused.

The ports of

mises and protestations have no other cints in Russia would thereby become more frequent to facilitate his access to you. Dopratili than they had been since the commenceinent at ihe, distresses inseparable front war, sve of the war, and miglit obtain an emulation though conscious of in no 15€ baving been in trade respecting their produce unknown the cause of it, your king rests assured that for many years. Neighbourly friendship, your hearts will remain unseduced and your commerce, repose after an unfortunate war, courage unsubdued, till the time sball arrive and some motives for applause after a still when be can freely employ his whole foreiz more unfortunate peace, such were the ad- and that of his ally in protecting and reveng. vantages to be derived from the proposalsing you. wbich the king made to the Emperor. They were made with a well grounded confidence SWEDEN. Proclumation, 14th March, in the concurrence of England, and his Ma

1808. jesty expected Russia's consent would have Whereas the eastern frontiers of the kingarrived much earlier than the dreaded Eng- dom have already been invaded by a Russian lish fleet could shew itself as an avenger force; and whereas the western, southern, in the Baltic, He pressed a speedy answer, and northern frontiers are in danger of invaand it was intended that the King's Ambas- sion: we are compelled by all the means in sador should on the 15th of February, in a our power to defeiid our kingdom, and at private audience with the Emperor, which the same time to avail ourselves, for its sewas promised hin, urge this important con- curity, of the sacred duty imposed upon the cern, when at once the communication of king of Sweden, as well by the ancient funthe embassy with Sweden was in a violent damental laws of the country, as by the premapper interrupted, and Russian troops en- sent form of government. That we may be tered Finland with the following proclama- the better able to oppose onr enemies, we tions : (Here follow the Russian procla- hereby command all unmarried and able mations, dated Frederiksham the 18th (6th) young men, between the ages of 18 and 25 Feb. 1808, and Louisa, 10th (220) Feb. years, of what rank soever they may be, 1809, already published). The declaration excepting such as have beretofore served as then concludes as follows :-Let every legal soldiers or seamen, to be ready whenever government, let every brave and honest they may be called 'apon, to defend their warrior, every loyal subject, judge of this country. In the mean time we order our conduct : : a treacherous invasion of a peace

commanders immediately to enrol all young ful neighbour's country, preceded by ma-. men of the above description, in every parish nifestoes inviting to rebellion, are things at throughout the kingdom, and transmit to us all times detestable, even in these latter a statement thereof as speedily as possible, times, otherwise so burthened with exam- that we may, accordingly to the information ples of violence and injustice. The Rus- given of the number in each district, 'issue sian Empire, she ally of France, is not it orders for their organization as regular troops.v wonld seem, powerful enough to abide upon All those whom these may concern are herethe common terms of the law of nations, by enjoined to observance.Given at our the resistance of a province left to defend it. palace at Stockholm, this 14th day of March golf on account of the season of the year. 1808.-GUSTAF ADOLPA.

Besides the above proclamation, there are extraordinary facility with which that mo. several others of less moment: one dated narch, several weeks before the reduction of March the 3d, prohibiting all travelling into Stralsund, had consented to the departure of Norway without a pass from the first secreta- the major part of the English forces in ry of state, which is to be granted only on Pomerania (whither, as it should seem, they account of especial business; and providing came with no other view than to await the against the circulation of publications on the opportunity of being conveyed to Zealand,) frontiers. Another proclamation prohibits and the pains his Swedish majesty took to on pain of death, all communicatio! be- inform his people that this re-embarkation tween the dominions of Sweden and Russia. took place by viriue of a 'separate article of

his convention with Great Britain, gave the DENMARK - Declaration against Sweden, first indications of a secret understanding 2012 February, 1908.

aile expence of Denmark. These indicaThe Danish guvernment has with just im- tions were very soon increased. The Danish patience waited to see the effect of the efforts. government is not acquainted with the ex. employed by the court of St. Petersburgh for lent of the assistance which its enerny re. the purpose of recalling Sweden by the most ceived in the ports of Sweden; but it lijs friendly means, to those interests which are felt the consequences of that assistance in a cominon to ber with all the powers of the manner the most lamentable to itself. It is north, and to those principles which are the easy to conceive the impression which has first bond of her connection with Russia and been produced upon the Danish nation by Denmark. These efforts baving finally the relations of every kind, and the unin. proved ineffectual, the Danish government i terrupted communications which the English finds itself placed in a position towards Swe found no difficulty in maintaining with Swea den which will no longer allow its relations den.--No one could fail to remark how with that kingdom to remain uncertain. much Denmark was insulted by the pleasure What these relations had become, it is indeed which the king of Sweden appeared to take impossible to dissenble, after a perfidious in repairing to the coast opposite to the aggression had suddenly forced Denmark Sound, and beholding personally all the infron the path she had followed during a long justice and outrage conmiled against a series of years without the slightest deviation. neighbouring country; by the caresses and All Europe has resounded with one cry of numberless marks of distinctiou lavished upindignation at the crime committed by Great on the leaders of the English forces; by tlie. Britain against a neutral and peaceful state; honours which they, or their part, affected and from all quarters has the Danish govern. to render to the ally of their sovereigni; and nent received testimonies of the most lively by the demonstrations of respect towards his interest in its cause. The court of Stock- Swedish majesty, to which the ships of war, holm alone, notwithstanding the particular violently seized from the port of Copenhaties vbe united it with that of Copenhagen, gen, were not bound, on their passage along observed a total silence, which it at length the Sound, under the canyon even of that broke, only to prefer complaints the most fortress to which their 'salure was owing. unfounded and reproaches the most un- However unfavourable an aspect the conjust, with respect to the inconvenience's currence of these circumstances necessarily that had indirecily resulted to it, troin the casts upon the dispositions of the King of events of the war, as well as from the rigor- Sweden towards the government of Dena ous measures which the situation to which mark, that government cannot reproach it. the Danish government has been most unex- self with baving gratuitously exaggerated pectedly reduced, has imperiously, required those appearances, which the court of Stockit to adopt, and wbich the chicane and end- holm, far from aitempting to remove, wista. less vexations of Sweden have been little ed to produce, nourish, and strengthen, as calculated to induce it to abandon). The far as it was in its power. But these simple Danish çabinet would have been extremely appearances were soon succeeded by facis, embarrassed to laterpret the conduct on the The government of England was the first 10 part of a sovereigo; whose interests, princi- develope to Denmark the openly bustile disples, and seritiments, it had regarded as be- position of his Swedish Majesty. Euripe ing equally wounded by an act of atrocity, already knows the explanations occasion d wbieh bas suddenly Jighted the flames of war between Denmark and Swetlen by this de in the noxth, if it had not quickly seen cause nunciation. The King of Sweden, when to soppose, that the resolution taken by the called upon in the most frarik and friendly king of Sweden under these circumstances Inanner to declare himself bo'tiris sudojari, was not merely that ut indifference. The was seen to endeavour cluding the recensity

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