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of such a declaration ; and when he was at tween the two allies, the Danish Governlength closely pressed, his Majesty gave 30 ment deems it right to prefer a state of open answer oblique, equivocal, and insulting. hosfility to precarious and equivocal relations Nevertheless, as this answer appeared in towards an enemy whose disposition is besome measure to give the lie to the govern. come m
more ard more suspicious, and who, ment of England, the goveronent of Den- during a long period, could be considered mark was contented with it for the moment, only as a disguised enemy, His Majesty the and thought it becoming to dissimulate its King of Denmark declares cousequently, just resentments against Sweden, in the that he adopts altogether the resolutions of hope that, enlightened concerning her true Russia in respect to Sweden, and that he interests, and reflecting on the consequences will not separate his cause from that of the of her resolutions, she would at last end by E.nperor Alexander, his august and faithful yielding to the representations which the ally . court of St. Petersburgh had made, with as much tenderness as patience, in order to en
Declaration of the King of gage her to renounce her alliance with Great Prussia aguinst Sweden, daled. KunigsBritain, evidently become incompatible with berg, March 6, 1808. the tranquillity of the North, and especially His Majesty the King of Prussia, our with the security of Denmark. The Danish most gracious sovereign, has been solicited, government is but imperfectly acquainted by both imperial courts of Paris and St. with the nature and extent of the engage- Petersburgh, consistently with the system ments which Sweden has entered into with of the other powers of the Continent, and England; whatever may be the object of the declaration against England, to extend them, and whatever their tendency, no one the same measures against Sweden, which can better conceive or appreciate than itself
have been taken against England, on acthe repugnance which his Swedish Majesty count of her fresh alliance with that power, would feel in failing in any of the obli- In imitation of the declaration issued by the gations be had contracted. But the Cabinet Emperor of Russia on the 10th (22) of Feof Copenhagen is not uninformed that the bruary. In this year, his majesty has accordSwedish government itself has adınited, that i ingly broken off all relations with Sweden, the term of its engagements recentiy ex- and commands all in office under bim, unpired; and after the Cabinet of St. James's der the penalty of severe panishment, 16 had unmasked itself in the face of all Eu- restrain from all commuoity or intercourse rope, it would have been insulting the Court wbatever with Sweden, In pursuance of of Stockholm 10 suppose that it would dare this, froin the present moment, and till farto cancur in an attack upon the first bases of ther orders, all Prussian barbours shall be the security, prosperity, and dignity of the utterly closed against Swedish vessels ; PrusPowers of the North. These considerations sian vessels shall no longer be sent into Swe , could not be balanced by the trifling advan- den, neither shall Swedish or neutral ships, tage of subsidies, with which the Cabinet of or wares which came from Sweden, be adı London shews itself ready at all times to mitted into Prussian harbours. purchase its allies, and whom it pretends to have then the right of treating as merce
Gen. WHITELOCKE, Circular from the naries. The resolutions of the King of Commander in Chief to the Army, 21st. Sweden baving, bowever, frustrated the last March, 1808. hopes of his neighbours, the Government of At a general court-martial, of which geDenmark could no longer hesitate, on its neral the right hon. Sir William Meadows, part, to take those measures which its secu. K.B. was president, held by virtue of his rity, the general interest of the North, its Majesty's special warrant, bearing date the attachment to Russia, and the nature of its 25th of January, 150s, at the royal bospital engagements with that power, imperiously at Chelsea, on the 28ih of the same mouth, prescribe to it." At a moinent when Zea- and continued by adjournment would the land is threatened unew by the forces of 18th of March following, lieutenant-general England, to which the ports of Sweden serve Whitelocke was tried. as a point of re-union; when the enemy of
Sentence. the North has just assured himself of the “ The court martial having duly consi dependence of the Court et Stockholm upon * dered the evidence given in support of, him for fresh" pecuniary assistance : when " the charges against the prisoner, lieutethe public declarations of the English Minis- " nant-general Whitelocke, bis defence, and try sufficiently unfold the nature of the en- is the evidence he has adduced, are of opigagements still subsisting or renewed be- “nion, that he is guilty of the whole of law
" said charges, with tlie exception of that ing a long course of public events, produc- .
part of the 'second charge which relatex tive of so many calamities, patiently snb! " to the order that the columns should be
mitted to unexampled burthens, and are still « unloaded, and that no tiring should be ready to make such further sacrifices ai may " permitted on any account." The court be necessary for maintaining the honour and are anxious that it may be distinctly under. independence of the realm. That these burstood, that they attach no censure whatever thens have been considerably augmented to the precautions taken to prevent unnecessa- by gross abuses in the management and exci ry firing daring the advance of the troops to penditure of the public money, and by a prothe proposed points of attack, and do there- fusion of sinecore places and pensions, which fote acquit lieatenant-general Whitelock of have not only greatly added to the sufferings : that part of the said charge - The court of the people, but created a pernicious and “ adjudge, that the said lieutenant-general dangerous influence, corrupring and andere ? “ Whitelocke be cashiered, and declared to- mining the pure and free principies of the of tally unfit' and“unworihy to
British constitution. That after the e cor" Majesty in any' military capal jy what- mous abuses brought to light by the varions
commissions of inquiry, it is a maiter of The king has been pleased to confirm the deep concern to your petitioners, that the abore sentence, and his Royal Highness the offenders thereby discovered have not beea coinınander in chief has received his Ma- brought to justice, and those who so grossly jesty's command to direct, that it shall be misapplied the public money have hitherto read at the head of every regiment in his escaped with impunity. Your petitioners service, and inserted in all regimental or- did therefore rely upon Parliament that specderly books, with a view of its becoming dy and effectnal measures would bave been a lasting niemorial of the fatal consequences adopted to reform such abuses, and detect to which officers expose themselves, who, and ponish the offenders in future That in the discharge of the important duties con- your petitioners viewed with much satisfacfided to them, are deficient in that zeal, tion the foundation of a committee of Finance judgment, and personal exertion, which their and hailed the introduction into your hon. Sovereig!, and their country, have a right house of a bill to prevent the granting of to expect from cfficers intrusted with high places in reversion, as the first step towards con mands. To his Majesty, wlio bas ever These salutary reformations. They beheld i taken a most lively interest in the wel. with increased satisfaction the measures fare, the honoor, and reputation of his taken by your honourable house, both during troops, the recent failure of south America, the late and present sessions of parliament, has proved a subject of the inost heartfelt
the same into effect. That it was regret; but it has been a great consolation with grief and disappointment they observed to him, and his Mjesty has commanded the views and intentions of your hon house' to be intimated to the army, that after the unhappily frustrated'; and they have 100 * most minute investigation, his Majesty finds much reason to apprehend, that the defeat ample cause for gratification in the intrepi- of ihis measure has arisen from the Lanefab dily and good conduct displayed by his and predominating influence, which such trops, lately emplored on that service,
abuses must necessarily create, and which and particularly by those divisions of the this bill was intended to correct. That it army, which were personally engaged with appears to your petitioners at all times'ese the enemy in the town of Buenos Ayres, on sential, that rigid economy should be obthe 5th of July, 1307; and his Majesty served in the expenditure of the public entertains no doubt, that had the exertions money, and thatno places or pensions should of bis troops in South America been direcied be bestowed but for real public services, more by the same skill anil energy, which have particularly so at the present moment, when so emiteolly distinguished his commanders it is declared, " that this country is at the in other quarters of the world, the result very crisis of its fale," and the people are of the campaign would have proved equally called upon for such unexampled sacrifices glorious to themselves and beneficial to and exertions. They beg further to sug. their country. By command of his Royal gest to your hon. house the serious conse, Highness the commander in chief. ---HAREY quences likely to result, slooid a disposition. CALVERT Major Gen. and Adj. Gen. of be evinced' by either branch of the legislaz The forces. 31
ture at a period so awful and momentous, Cart Of LONDON. Petition to the House
not to participate wth the people in their: of Commons, March 251h 1809. dangers, sucrifices, and privations. They ? Sheeth, that your petitioners base, duro | thereføre pray your bonboise, oors
to relax in your endeavours in carrying so Subjects, the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and necessary and beneficial a measure into effect, Cominons of the City of Londoo, in Com. and causing inquiries to be made into the mon Council assembled, humbly approach
the public money, which
to your Majesty's sa may effeotually guard against such abuses cred person and government. Your Majesin future, and for abolishing all necessary ty's faithful Citizens of London are truly places and pensions, as well in reversion sensible of the blessings which the people of as otherwise, as the best means of copsoli- this country enjoy in a peculiar manner, dating the strength of the empire, and calling for whilst it has pleased the Almighty to forth the united energies and exertions of the permit the overthrow of many nations of people, at a time so necessary for the safety Europe, we have the bappiness yet to possess and security of his Majesty's dominions. unimpaired our glorious constitution, to be
governed by the mildest and most benevolent CITY OF LONDON. Petition to the House of sovereigns, and to be protected by good of Lords, March 25th 1808.
and wholesome laws wisely, administered. Sheweth (after a repetition of the first To obtain these blessings our forefathers Ave paragraphs in the Commons' petition),- freely shed their blood; they are placed in That it was with grief and disappointment our band as a precious pledge, and we fondthat they observed the views and intentions ly hope that our children's children will en
of their Representative in parliament unhap- joy the same to the latest posterity:-We " pily, frustrated by your lordships' rejection are not unmindful, Sire, that by the preof this necessary and salutary measure, de- ponderating influence of the government of priving the people, while labouring under France, almost every state upon the Coptisuch accumulated difficulties, of all hope of nent has been compelled to unite in forming seeing any progress made in such great and one vast and gigantic confederacy, whose efacknowledged evils..- That they beg most forts are solely directed to bring destruction seriously to impress upon your right hon. upon your Majesty's dominions. We view house, at a time when it is declared, “ that this combination without dread, firmly rely. this country is at the crisis of its fate," ing upon a continuance of the divine protecand the united exertions of all ranks are ne. tion, upon union amongst all ranks of your cessary to resist the dangers with which they people, the extinciion of party spirit (mmt are assailed, a disposition in either branch essentially necessary at this very important cri of the legislature to withhold from the peo- sis), upon the goodness of our cause, the valeur ple a redress of public greviances must be and skill of ycur Majesty's ficets and armies, productive of 'nost serious consequences, and on the vigour, firmuess, and wisdom of necessarily damp their ardour, and impede your Majesty's councils.—With these aids, their exertions in the important struggle in we doubt not your Majesty will confound which they are engaged. — They therefore and defeat the designs of our inveterate pray your right hon. house to take these
enemy, and in due time be enabled to conmatters into eonsideration, and that your clude a peace, at once honourable, secure, lordships will be pleased to adopt the speediest and lasting. and most effectual measures for reforming all
The King's ANSWER. abuses in the receipt, management, and ex• I thank you for your very loyal and dutiful penditure of the public money, and prevent- addross. --The assurances I receive from you ing such abuses in future, and for abolishing of your voshaken attachment to my person all unnecessary places and pensions as well and government, attord me the greatest saîn reversion as otherwise, as the best means tisfaction. The example you have given to of consolidating the strength of the Empire, all ranks and descriptions of my people of and calling forth the united energies and union and public spirit, at this important exertions of the people, at a time so necessa- crisis, cannot but produce the most beneficial ry for the safety and security of his Majesty's consequences, in enabling me to resist effecdominions.
lually the powerful and extensive confede
racy which the enemy has directed against City of London - Address to the King, my dominions, and ultimately to accomplish March 25th, 1808.
the great object of all my effortsma secure We your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal and lasting peace,
Printed by Cox and Baylis, No. 75, Great Queen Street, and published by R. Bagshaw, Brydges Strees, Covent Garden, where former Numbers may be had; sold also by J, Bydd, Crown and Mike, Pall Mall. Vol. XIII. No. 17.)
LONDON, SATURDAY, APRIL 23, 1809.
Nothing can be more mischievous to the community, generally speaking, than the turning of corn into spirituous liquora; and this evil would!, at any rate, be lessened by the use of sugar instead of corn in the
making of those liqnors. Thus would our colonies be made to add to the quantity of food in the “ mother country, and to see such a measure opposed upon the ground of its injuring the growers of corn
would be scandalous indeed; would be a shocking disgrace to the heads as well as to the hearts of the
country gentlemen."- POLITICAL REGISTER, Vol. XI. p. 35. 611]
[642 SUMMARY OF POLITICS. alarm has, all of a suddeil, changed its naCORN AGAINST SUGAR.In the month ture; from an alarm at approaching scarcity of December 1806 (see the Parliamentary of corii, it is become an alarm at approachDebates, Vol. VIII. page 237), a committee ing superabundance of corn !---Sir Henry was appointed to consider of the possibility MILDMAY said, that "he thought it right of introducing sugar and molasses: into use, to apprize the House, that the part of the in the distilleries and breweries. I never report which went to prohibit ihe use of heard of any report, that was made by that “grain in disillation, though sanctioned by committee; but, as will appear from the " the opinions of a majority of the commitreport of the debate, upon that occasion, tee, had, by no means, iis unanimous apsome persons expressed iheir apprehension, probation. If any legislative measure that the measure, it xadopied, would prove u should be proposed on the report, tending greatly injurious to the growers of corn. I to carry that principle into effect, he gave was of a different opinion, and the reasons, « notice that he should feel it his duty to upon which that difference was founded, oppose it. There was no sufficient public were, at the time, stated in the Register of “ ground for such a measure, and it would the 10th of January, 1897, Volume XI. p. “ be extremely injurious to the barlry coun33, to which, as the means of sparing me “ ties, one of wbich he had the honour to some repetition, I beg leave to refer the represent. He was confident that his reader. The same committee, or a re- “ constituents would give him instructions bewed one, have now made their report. It " to oppose the proposition, and that they was laid before the House of Commops, on « would petition against the measure.”the 13th of this month; and, as appears MR. Cnute, whom I have not heard be.. from the statements in the newspapers (for
since his election, “agreed with I bare not yet seen the authentic papers of the hon. baronet. The landed interest the House, whence every thing of this sort is “ was sufficienily depressed, and the intaken for insertion in my Parliamentary De..
Auence of members whose consequence bates), they reconunend the passing of an arose from trade was already sufficiently act to suspend, for one year, by way of ex. great, without sirikiag a general blow at periment, the use of corn in the distilleries, an extensive branch of the agriculture of taking care, however, to authorize the Privy " the country. He should give his deterCouncil to take off the suspension, in case it “ mined opposition to the measure."should, upon trial, be found, that the mea- Now, I should, if things were as they ought sure produces a serious depression in the to be, call myself one of the constituents of price of corn.- -I do not recollect any mea. Sir Henry Mildmay and Mr. Chute. sure to have been met by so apparently de. in fact, one of the persons, whom they are termined an opposition as this; and, though said more immediately to represent; and, as I am not on the side of the opposers, it does, Jittle things are great to little men, I dare I must confess, give me some little relief say, that I feel as much anxiety for the prosfronu that disgust, which I have, of late, ex- perity of Hanipsbire as either of them; but, perienced, to perceive that this opposition I can assure then, thai they will receive no has nothing to do with party. Great instructions from me to oppose the suggested and just alarm," the opposers say, bas been measure, and will find me opposed to any peexcited through the country by the proposi- tition, which the county may be stirred up tion to introduce sugar instead of corn into to prefer against it ---liis agreed, on alt the distilleries ; because.... because what? hands, that the measure would be greatly Because such a measure, " will, produce a beneficial to the West Indies, whics are, at glul in the core pirkul.” Thus, then, our present, in a state of distress hardly to be
described. So far, therefore, if we think it nance? I shall be told, perhaps, that, used in Wise to maintain the possession of those co- the distilleries, corn does become hamon sus lonies, the measure is a good one." " But, it is tenance; for that, though it comes out in contended, that the measure would be inju- the shape of spirituous liquors, and, there rious to the barley growers at home. Sop: fore, cannot very well be called food, yet posing that to be true, it would then, with that it causes less beer to be drunk and less nie, be a question of degree merely. I should food to be eaten, than would be drunk and inquire, whether the injury to the barley eateir, if there were no spirituous liquors. I growers would be more or less than the re- do not know, that may opponents will make lief to the sugar growers; the latter being, use of this argument ; but, if they should, it in my opinion, full as much entitled to the will be a very good answer to themselves ; protection of the government as the former. for, if the nse of spiritgous liquors produce a Yes, say the opposers of the ineasure, but saving of beer arx! food, then the disuse of there is this consideration ; that the ineasure those liquors will produce an additional de will not be injurious to the barley growers mand for corn, in the shape of beer and only, it will be injurious to the whole nation, bread; and, if the use of spirituous liquors by discouraging the growth of corn. Make produce no such saviug, we come back to this out, geritlenien, and I am with you ; my proposition, namely, that the corn ussd bụt, at present, I am, for the reasous which I in the distilleries is, considered as humant will now endeavour to submit to the reader, sustenance, thrown away; and, according to with brevity and clearness, of a different opi. the idea of Mr. Wakefield, it is necessary for nion. After having heard, from all quar- a ovation to raise a certain proportion of cora ters, so much auxiety expressed, lest, from annually to be thrown away, in order to se. the shutting of the port of the continent and
cure the said uation from the horrid effects of America against us, we should experience of casual scarcity. Used in the distilleries the horrors to be expected from a scarcity of does coro become buman sustenance YES. corn, after having seen the pains taken by Well then, the distilleries are no grainery, Mr. Young and Mr. Wakefield to inpress for, if you suspend them in a time of scareity, us with a just idea of the magnitude of our the months that fed upon them must vecesannual importation of corn; it must, I think, sarily fall upon sustenance in some other appear to the reader to be a strange proposi- shape. If the answer be NO; then is she tion, that danger of scarcity will arise from corii used in distilleries thrown away, for, if a want of a market for what we ourselves you talk to me of the value which the farmer grow in this country. But, let us hear the
gets for it, I remind you, that that value arguinents of Mr. Wakefield.
He disap- must come out of the labour of those who provęs (see last Number, pages 605 to 608), consume the spirituous liquors. If the corn of any legislative measure that would de.
be thrown away, it is full as well to throw prive the farmer of such markets as the dis
away sugar as corn; if spirituous liqnors tilleries; he says,' that this discouragement be human sustenance, then we draw, it from will produce a fear of bad prices, and inade- our colonies in sugar : what is more, we can quate returns for Jabour and capital; that have it in times of scarcity as well as in times this fear once excited in the mind of the far.
of plenty; and the West Indies become an mer, he will relax in his exertions to raise inexhaustible grainery. It appears to me to corn. He further says, that the distilleries, be impossible for the nostringenious reasonby causing more corn to be raised ihan is ne
er to get clear of this dilemma. Before cessary for feeding the nation, enable us, in a
proceed any further, I will insert av article season of scarcity, to take this superabun- from the Morning Chroniele upon this; subcance and apply it to feeding purposes, and ject. " Last night the Report svas, Aladde that, therefore, the distilleries operate as a * from the Committce to whom it wanitamatio::al grainery --There is sonething es ferred to covsider whether the ristillels sery plausible in this argument; but, i " should be prevented froni using grow th nk, that, upon examination, it will appear and, as we anticipated, they hare given is to be more specivus tliao solid; for, what
as their opinions, that it would be advisa. dives it mean but simply this: that, in order " ble to make the experiment of prohibitung to induce the farmers of a nation, to grow * the distillation of spirits from grain for more corn than is, upon an average, neces- one year. There was, however, it seemys, stry for the consumption of the nation, a part a division in the Committee on this point, of what they grow must be annually boughi " and the Report itself made a şengible inwf them for the purpose of being thrown pression on the House; so tbob to emen, au'ny; for the purpose of being gotten rid of Meither for or against the adoption of tbe without bacon og bungan food, or suste. measure, can be formed. We bare