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" felt it to be our duty to enter our feeble i something to supply the place of provisions,

protest against these inost dangerous en- now thrown away! Let us see, however, be croachments on the agriculture of the whether it be probable, that less corn! would " country, which is surely of wore value be raised on account of this measure. Wheat, " towards its independeuce than all its colo- we are told, could not be raised upon certain "nies buih in the Eastern and Western of tlie lands, which now bear crops of barley, "-world. An experiment to sterilize the. But oats inight, and grass would follow oats "country for one year -im interrupt the as well as barley. But, upon the supposi" routine of crop-to create a farine, per- tion; that the particular lauds alluded to " baps, in the kingdom. We trust in the would bear nothing but barley, there are "good sense of parliament, cat we shall other, lands, which now bear barley, and “ have no such experiment.----It is so the which would bear something else. Still, it “ Distillery in particular that we northern must be confessed, that there would be one

part of the kingdom looks in its culture of market lost; but, would no other market « barley for a market. Rob Scotland of this open? If you stop the distilleries will not the ** resource, and four-fifths of its farmers barley that they now conşume go to the fata 5. will be bankrupts: they cannot substitute ting of hogs and to various other purposes ? "' wheat for barley--their climate will not The moment barley begins to be cheap, that 65 ripen it; anit the same argument may ap- moment it is given to hogs, and, if you ask. “ply to a great proportion of the barley me how the hog's flesh is to be disposed of; & lands in England. This is a very dif- if you are still atraid, that the quantity of huo as ferent measure for stopping the distilling nian susienance, in England and Scotland,

of grain for a season ot scarcity. In that will be too great ; if you still dread, a “ case, having a crop of barley in band glutted market of provisions, there are the 6 when wheat is deficient, an act passes to

West Indies, those very colonies, whom * stop the distillery, so as to bring the whole you are afraid, the Americans will starye; « stock into use as a substitute for bread who will give you, in times of plenty, ««. corn= but here is a project to prevent the sugar in exchange for your barley, made into ļ growing of barley.--It might be entitled, pork, and from whom, in times of scarci, «"a B:ll to create a scarcity of Corn by ty, you can, at any moment, withhold that "discouraging the growth thereof." Surely pork. In calling this a granary, indeed, «s there is no evil that can befall the country there would be something like reason and " equal to that which would flow from a consistency. But, the truth is, I believe, € measure of this kind--and when it is re- that no such exchange would be necessary to # flected that we may be thrown entirely on keep alive the motive for growing barley. 6. our own produce for subsistence, we shall It is, in a national point of view, completely ** not be condemned to the trial of chimeri- irrational to speak of barley but as being ** cal experinients, by which the course of an article of human sustenance ; as tonr busbandry is to be disturbed-mand our means of supporting human life; as, to ** fårmers are to be warned against sowing use, the common word, sulsistence. Now, « the land ! This article does little I think, it is a principle acknowledged more than dilute the argument of Mr. upon all sides, that wherever there is Wakefield, namely, that the distilleries is subsistence there will be a proportionate one great market for corn; take away this popnlation, or, to use the words of Mr. market and you take away one of the most MALTHUS (with whom I disagree as to powerful motives to the raising, of corn, the checking of population), “ population alwhence will arise a dimipished produce and ways treads close upon the heels of sub. all the consequences of such a diminution, sistence." If this be the case, then, where amongst which is particularly mentioned the is the ground of alarm at throwing an addiruinot the barley farmers. -Now, in the tional quantity of subsistence in upon the first place, the qáantity of barley used in the community ? This doctrine of Mr. Mala distilleries of England and Scotland does not thus being sound (and common sense says exceed 300,000 quarters appually, the ave. that it must be so) there never can be a want rage annual produce of about 70,000 acres of of a market for any quantity of barley that land. And this is a market, the loss of which we can grow., There may be a temporary is to spread ruin amongst the cultivators of fall of price ; but the permanent effect of · England and Scotland ! it is to make bank withholding corn from the distilleries, and

supts of four-fitths of the farmers of Scot- supplying the place of it by the produce of - land; it is to sterilize the land, and colonies belongiqg to ourselyes must be, starve the people, and that, too, by bringing either that of producing an exportation of grovisions into the country, or, at least, hogz-neat, or of increasing our domestic po


pulation, both causes being equally effica. ** sure in every stage," whether the Scotch cious in preventing the discouragement and or the English batley.grower would not the decreased production and gains of the suffet as much from this increase of produce farmers.--Suppose the West Indies could as from that loss of market, which, it is supply - L15- with barley enough for our distil alledged, will be the etiect of the measure deries, Mr. Wakefield would, if he were now proposed? As connected with a consistent, object to it, because, as he would question like this, which embraces the say, the barley growers of England would general produce of the soil and the general be thereby discouraged. He would be of interests of the patión, 3H the distincuots the same opinion with regard to Guernsey or between barley.growers and wheat-growers Jersey ;--for the measure would still havepre- are toò trifling to be attended to:" The kind cisely the same effect., and, upon the suppo- as well as the amount of the produce Will sition that new enclosures tend to make an be regulated by the demand. The general increase. (wbich I think they do not) in the market will tell the farmer what he is to quantity of subsistence produced, he would, of sow, and the same infallible guide will teļl course, also object to new enclosures, and, the corn-dealer whither he is to send the then, I should leave him to settle the point fruit of the 'harvest - Every argument with Sir John Sinclair, and “ the friends of made use of, with respect to the interests of

agriculture," who cry aloud and cease not the cultivator, applies, of course, to those for a General Enclosure Bill. This last argu- of the owner of the soil ; and, unless my ment was made use of by Mr. Perceval, to reasoning be erroneous, neither can experiwhom Mr. Windham replied, that in the ence any permanent injury from the measure case of new enclosures; the supply was, now in contemplation, while it is, opon all doubtless, increased, and the competition sides agreed, that the West India planters, augmented; but, in the case contemplated, so long and so severely oppressed by an accu. there would be an exclusion of one set of mulation of hardships, will therefrom derire growers to the sole advantage of the other. considerable relief. Were there, indeed, I agree, that the immediate advantage will any ground to apprehend, that the nation be solely upon the side of the colonies ; but, would experience an injury from this nea. this is no objection to a measure, provided sure, were it a question between the West no injury be sustained on the other side in India planters and the people of England ; 1 consequence of that measure. :-". Augment should say (though it would grieve me to to "ed competition" is only another phrase for put to the necessity) let the West India decrease of price; for, whether the market planters perish, rather than England be enbe wholly cut off

, or only narrowed in its dangered by scarcity; but, as I am convinced, demand, though there may be a difference that the measure now proposed will be as to the degree, the principle continues the greatly beneficial to the former, without same; and, therefore, the seller has as producing any, even the slightest, danger or good a right to complain of augmented injury to the latter, either temporary or competition as he has to complain of a total

permanent, I hope, that, in the approaching loss of the market. Pursuing this to an discussion and decision, enlarged views and illustration : it is said, that the Scotch public spirit will prevail over local and inter: barley-grower will be injured, in conge- ested motives. quence of this cutting off of a market for WOODCOCKS AND SNIPĖS. WiIt is whim." 300,000 quarters of barley, annually con- sical enough, that these poor little birds sumed in the distilleries, and that, as this should become a subject of discussion nieasure is to be adopted after he has taken a amongst grave politicians; yet, as a law is long lease of his farm, he will not be able about to be passed relative to these birds, to pay his rent, and will become a bankrupt. and as two gentlemen (whose letters I inserit

, This is to be the effect, we are told, of a have thought it worth their while to make loss of market. But, suppose, that the the proposed regulation à matter of "stich proposition of " the friends of agriculture serious notice; I think it right to submit an were adopted ; suppose a General Enclosure observation or two thereon. To be corBill were passed, and suppose it were to respondent, whé ridicules the idea of deba answer the expected purpose, namely, that ting about little birds, while we are tireatof causing an increase of produce. It would ened with invasion, one may's be a pitiful increase

indeed, unless it exceed asking him how it happens that he wa ed 300,000 quarters of barley in a year ; never wrote to me before, came to write to and, then, pray tell me, geotlemep, Friends me now, if he thought the subject so very

' of agriculture, ' you with Mr. unimportant. The other corresponderit Bmad, are rescued to groprose the mea- scenas to view the matterie quite a different

Manswer by


light. He calls upon me, as "the cham- " of snipes, or of woodcocks.". But, if

pion of be just rights and liberties of the you inform against him, and prove that he ric

people," to interlere, “ in order to pre- was out with dog and gun, he is liable to

serve, for the middle and lower orders, the penalty of shooting without a licence; “ who are to tight our battles, the liberty , and, it is exactly the same with regard to the

they have hitherto enjoyed, to follow the qualification.---The act, therefore, which "'innocent amusement of killing Woodcocks is about to pass, will have no effect what" and Smupes." Appealed to with so much ever in Jessening the liberty to shoot or to solemnity, and anxious to preserve the good hunt. Its effect will be to prevent the pubopinion of my correspondent, I shall give lic sale of woodcocks and snipes. If the liim my sentiments in the clearest manner


pass, it will be a crime to sell these birds that I am able. o the first place, I must at all ; and that will certainly be a check to observe, that I

unacquainted with any the pursuing and the killing of them ; but, right, which the making of Woodcocks and then, ob erre, that those who kill these Snipes game is at all likely to abridge, as birds for sale, cannot be said to pursue them far, at least, jas relates to any amusements of for “ amusement." The fact is, that almost the people. The law, as it now stands, the whole of the woodcock and snipe market does, indeed, attacha no penalty to the mere is supplied by gentlemen's ganie-keepers : a act of killing these birds, nor to the mere small share of the supply comes fron the possession of chem; but, I would ask this hands of mere poachers; and, in checking complainant, where the shooter is to find of the traffic of these descriptions of perthe birds. And, let the answer be what it sons, it is not very easy to conceive how the may, unless the birds be found upon the liberties of the comforts of the “ middle and shooter's own land, or land rented by him, " lower orders of the people are likely to he is liable to an action of trespass for even “ be abridged." -As to the game-law's, Jooking after the birds ;, and this liability generally speaking, such a quiz of a code arises, not from the statute, but from the surely nerer before existed in the world! A common law. And, very wise and just is code, which gives to the son a privilege, the law in this respect : for, is it not clear, sounded upon the rank of his father, and that it would be impossible to have any which, at ihe same time, denies ibat privithing worthy of the name of private pro- lege to the father himself

. It is, in short, perty, if every man were at liberty to invade one mass of juconsistency and confusion ; it, under the pretext of seeking after wood- a ridiculous medley of feudal privileges and cocks and snipes or wild animals of any sort? pecuniary preferences. Game, like other

-But, I shall be told, perhaps, that the things, should be private properly, the contemplated law, will prevent unqualified proof of proprietorship being that the ania persons from shooting woodcocks aod snipes mal was upon the land of the claimant at even by permission of the owners, or renters the time of its being take», kilied, or found of the land. To which I answer, that the for pursuit. This, together with the law or? prevention is already as complete as this trespass, as it already exists, would be quite dreaderi lawr can possibly make it; for, to. effectual in the preserving of game of all go a shooting woodcocks and snipes without sorts; but, until this be the law, quarrelling, spaniel, or game dog of some sort, is wint beartburnings, and acts of oppression, witli no man thinks of; to be seen out with dog and must be the consequence of the exis-> and

gua the law, takes, as proof of beiog tence of those animals, which, as for as one

in pursuit of game;" being in pursuit of can judge upon such a matrer, were created game subjects the unqualified pursuer to the for the recreation and pleasure of man. penalty of five pounds; and, as the same


Curates'. STIPEND BILL.I do not evidence is admitted with respect to the pe.. absolutely retract what I said, last week, in nalty in default of having taken out a game favour of this bill; but, upon reading over license, the unqualified person, who is found, its clauses (having before merely seen a gein pursuit of a snipe is already liable to all néral description of it), I feel muclvless inthe law levelled against bim, who is found terest as. to its success, than I before felt. in pursuit of a pheasant. How, then, can -The allowance fixed on for the curate the unqualified part of the people suffer any is one-fifth of the annual produce of the tivabridgment of their amusements from the ing, together with the use, upon certain açt now before parliament? Let us take an: considerations, of the parsonage house and instance; you nieet a man with dog and gun, glebe, or part of the latter... The Bishop is beating along your meadow, or through to see this law.enforced zbut, there is noyour coppice. You ask for his licenceI thing to compel him to cause it to be enfore. "upcd none," says hợ, am in pursuit ed; for, as to the appeal, which the poor

curate is allowed to make from the Bishop à full refutation of all the assertions and to the Archbishop, is it not a mockery to insinuations, contained in the letter of talk seriously of such a provision, especially A. B. C. unaccompanied with an injurious when he is exposed to costs, if he fail in r.flic ion upon any person whatever. his appeal ? In fact, the bill will place Punton Square, April 21, 1509. at the mere mercy of the Bishops, nat only the property of the incumbent, but

MR. SCOTT'S LETTER. also that of the patron. In this shape SIR,

-As I understand my letter, anthe bill must be an evil in place of a nounced for publication in your last paper, good; but, if the law were imperative upon in answer to the anonymous letter of A. B. the bishops, it appears to me, that it would C., was suspended at the particular request be attended with exceeding good effects. of the Earl of Oxford, it is but justice to

AMERICAN MONIES.The reader will myself to observe, that the public, being yemember, that I predicted, that the monies made any party to this business was not bee of the holders of American funds would

gun by me, and that, if I abstain from tirging come to England in protested lills of er- any further publication upon the subjecty atchange; or, rather, in bills that would meet ter all the means of injuring ine have been

with a protest instead of payment. I have exhausted, it must depend upon the conduct * now before me a letter from a merchant, of other persons; and, if in vindicating my.

subscribed with his name and placu of abode, self, I may wound the feelings of those perinforming me, that a bill, being, perhaps, \ sons, which it is not in my nature wantonly the first remittance of the monies of a great 10 do, and which I can never do without and notorious fund-holder, the sum upwards wounding my own, they ought to consider a of seven thousand pounds, has come to hand, little the precept we have been all taught, and has actually been protested. I shall not " Do uinto others, as you would have them publish names, and I need not; but, I will - do unto you."I ain, &c.----JAMES express' my heaity wish, that every succeed- SCOTT.--- Norfolk Steel, April 20, 1808. ing bill may meet with the same fate; and, that, of all the vast sum of monies, not as

MR. WAKEFIELD'S 30. LETTER. much as would purchase the insertion of a Sır,---Having in my last endeavoured sivgle puff paragraph in the Morning Chro

to point out the only available resource left nicle may ever reach the hands of the greedy to the country, at the immediate moment of owner, who, were he begging his bread, a scarcity, I am ausious to now call your atwould not meril a crust from an English tention to the causes which have made Great excuse, I hear, is, in these Britain an importing eorn country. That cases, that the omnl ergo prevents ships from we are so, I consider as an indisputable fact ; coming to bring the worth of the bills drawn a correspondent of yours however, quarrels upon England. But, who made the enbare with this assertion, because I have not go ? Who but the Americans themselves ? bronight my account of import and export What an impudent excuse! 1, however, bare down to the close of last year. After the no ground of complaint against the Aneri. bolidays I will furnish you with the accounts cans, upon this score; for, if, from


SU- of import and export for 1806 and 1807, 35 pernatural cause, they should prove to be bo- | I am desirous to remove every doubt, which nest men, my readers may be led to doubt of can be raised of the existence of these facts, my veracity. - -What an impudent excuse! upon which he justly says " my arguments "I have barred up my shop-cloor, and, depend." But, whatever may be the ac! therefore, cannot send you any goods in counts for the two last years, I wish it to be

return for your monies." What an im- distinctly understood, that my fears, my pudent thing! But, it is good; very good, anxieties, do not arise from

review of what thus to see their flatterers and defenders pu- has occurred in any one or two years, they nished by them.

arise from observing that for seventy years Mr. Scott's, LETTER. This letter, at one period, we were an exporting whicli, in answer to A. B. C. (page 378 of country, that we have not only ceased to ex, the present volume) was to have been pub- port, but that we now actually import, and lished last week, was, at the joint request of have imported for more than the last thirty Lord Oxford and a common friend of the years ; not only so, but that the proportion parties, withheld from publication. Nir. of import has increased in an astonishing deScott has, as will be seen below, consented gree. This alteration is the fact 'upon which to withdraw the letter altogether; but, II rest every argument, every opinion which think it a duty I owe to him to say, that the I bave upon the subject'; and whether (28 legier contained, as far as I am able to judge, your correspondent suggests) it has or las not occurred in the course of a single year, a manufacturer, and that also of the staple the last if he pleases it, has nothing I think commodity of the country. Is this the case ? to do with the question. Before entering Do we see large capitalists employing their upon the subject of my present address, I money, devoting their time and attention to will abswer the other points relied upon in the growth of corn. No! Then what is the letter which you have inserted in Satur- the reason why they do not? It is because day's Register. Your correspondent states a such undertakings do not answer their purcertain breadth of wheat grown every year pose, if they did there are no men who in the kingdom, and an average produce up- would be more eager to engage in farming on this quantity of land, if this data are speculations. It is however necessary betrue, the whole produce is justly stated, and fore I proceed further, that I should establish it would most amply feed all those who de- this important and rainous fact beyond all pend upon wheaten bread for subsistence, kind of dispute, for upon it the whole of my but it is necessary he should establish his data subsequent reasoning will be built, and dewith as much precision as the Custom House pend a comparison of the laws of 1670, books do the entries of corn inwards and 1688, and 1706, and those of 1773 and 1791 outwards. It is very easy to suppose “ fifty will be nearly sufficient to convince you of millions of acres to be in a state of cultiva- this fact. By those of the first period a bon," and to suppose one half of them, bounty was given upon the export of wheat are under the plough," but I want more than till the price equalled 48s. per quarter. By vague supposition. Especially as without those of the last period bounty ceased when taking up the pages of your Register in re- wheat was 445, the quarter!!! The money plying minutely to all parts of this calcula- | price of every article of manufacture and Lion, its fallacy may be shewn by asking what commerce has increased in price; in other has been done with the corn which has been words, the value of inoney has fallen. Yet, imported in the course of the last thirty-five in the face of this acknowledged fact, it is years. It has not been exported. This the expected that the money price of corn is to Custom-house books prove. Has it been be stationary!! worse than stationary ! burnt? Has it been thrown into the sea ? decreasing !! But this is only a part Or, has it in some shape or other been con- of the evil, this is only some of these sumed by the people of England ? If it has facts, which from the evidence. I baye to of. been consumed by the people, as beyond all fer in support of the melancholy proposition doubt is the fact, then it is impossible for us which I laid down in the early part of my to have been yearly growing more than we Jetter, for in addition to all the foregoing consume, and of course the supposititious ac- facts, it is necessary to take into full and secount of land under the plough, and an an- rious consideration, the augmented and aug. pual surplus produce of wheat is erroneous. menting expençes of the farmer, the money


-The more I consider the principles of po- price of his produce has stood still, wbile Jitical economy, the more am I convinced of every machine, every barn, every article of the truth of the statement of Sir James his dead stock, has advanced in proportion to Siewart, that every man, every body of men, the fall in the value of money. Rent bąin every nation is impelled to active exertion the same proportion advanced upon him ; so by the feelings of selt interest. Now, has have the poor rates, so have taxes. At the or has not, the interest of the British farmer

suggestion of a committee of the House of been sufficiently attended to? Has the mo- Commons, the Board of Agricolture in the ney price of his produce 'been allowed to year 1804, sent circular letters, throughout ķeep pace with that of his expences ? Has he ihe kingdom, to ascertain the then expences þeen as well paid for investing his property of cultivation, and amount of produce. A in agriculture, as he would have been by in- similar inquiry had been made fourteen years vesting it in any undertaking of manufac- before, and the result of a comparison betures or commerce. I have not myself any tween them is, that while the expençes of doubt, but that he has not been rewarded ; I the farmer have augmented in this short pohave not any doubt but that the price of riod, in the enormous proportion of thirtyone grain does not pay the farnier, the use of his per cent. his produce has only increased six capital, bis labour, and risk. Can any one and half per cent. The two last items of his doubt, but that if agriculture would have increased expenditure claim particular consiyielded equal or greater interest to the owner deration, for as the poor rates are now levied of a capital, than West Indian adventure, or they fall almost entirely upon the farmer. foreign commerce, capitalists would have in- For rents or annual value being almost exyested their property in tħe manufacture of clusively rated, every other species of capital corn, for a farmer is in truth, no other than escapes from contribution, w And in the last


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