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century this barthen has more than quintu- / prosperity, than its positive parent, though pled. As to tages, that on horses employed afterwards they will bave the effect of upin agriculture, is a direct tas upon the far- holding and perpetrating it. I shall, aberemer, and apon him only; and as the income fore, postpone the further observations I protax is now levied," that also is a direct tax pose to offer you upon them, until I have upon him; for it is not a rate upon his in- fully considered the difference between the come, but bears a fixed proportion to his revolution corn laws, and those of 1773 and rental, whether he gains or loses by his 1791.. In doing which I shall endeavour to farm. Yet'this is called a tax upon bis in- convince you, that to tbis difference, and 10 come? The mercantile interest take better this almost alone, should be attributed the core of themselves, they have their averages danger to which the country is exposed, by and their allowances for bad debts, not so not producing provisions equal to its conwith the farmer, he has no allowances for sumption ; but to avoid trespassing too bad seasons, 'no average is allowed bin for: much upon the pages of your Register, I variation of profit, from the Auctuation of will defer this subject to my next letter: price. Hence it appears to me, that it is brit And am, Sir, yours, &C. ---EDWARD WAKE, 100 certain the enployment of capital and FIELD.- Duke Street, Westminster, April enterprise in farming, pays an infinitely less
18, 1808. profit than their employment in any other poursuit or undertaking whatever. It remains
ENCLOSURĘ BILL, ilen, to consider the best means of adding to SIR, observed in your last Register, the profits of the farmer,' and thus by the that you stated your objections to a general certain, though gradual operation of the Enclosure Bill. It cannot but be admitted principle of self interest, to prompt him to a that the lands now enclosed might be cultimore perfect and extended cultivation. vated so as to produce more than they pow Tythes have often been urged as damping do. Farms might be better fenced, and bet. the ardour of farming enterprise, but some ter planted, and fallows altogether esploded. tacts are on record, which warrant the con- But, Mr. Cobbett, I beg you to consider that elusion, that at the most tythes have but a there are certain things necessary before a Yoable and partial operation, they have been farm can be improved, viz. capital, knowgathered in every period of our agricultural ledge, and industry. Numberless people history during which a long course of farmi- now in possession of land, and likely to coning prosperity has enriched the nation, and tinue so, have not even one of these requi. wherever a supposed cause has equally exist- sites. If an Enclosure Bill was passed, I ed in two periods, the ane prosperous, and presume that many master manufacturers, the other calamitous, it does not seem the and those who have hitherto employed their soundest reasoning to recur to it as the source capitals in foreign commerce, would turn of the change. 'I therefore, feel inclined to their attention to the cultivation of land, dismiss tythe from my consideration of the which would surely be more beneficial to subject, as it tends to draw away the mind the conotry, than were they to live in idlefrom that great and efficient cause, to which ness upon the interest of their money. It only the alteration can with any truth be need not be said that they have not a suffiattributed. I have already alluded to the cient knowledge of agriculture, as with the poor rates' and taxes, and concerning them I assistances now to be obtained, a man with shail merely observe in addition, that their capital and industry may soon become a 10injurious operation has been within these lerable good farmer Bui, Sir, if the legisthirty or forty years, for during the existence lature was to go no farther, thm to pass an of the revolution corn laws, the poor rates act to enclose open field lands, what an imscarcely doubled; but during the modern mense difference this would soon make in heriod, they have more than trebled, and the the food and other articles brought to ipartaxes I lave named have been imposed with. ket; for these lands are from necessity eulin the last fifteen years. Inclosures merit tivated in the very worst way. I ought to particular consideration, if they should be leave the discussion of this important subject forced upon the farmer, it will augment the to more able writers, I (rust that, Mr. Are evil of which I am complaining; but if only thur Young and others will not let the matter encouraged by means of facilitating tlie ob- rest." But I cannot help making one or two tainment of inclosure bills, the bringing the more remarks. You ask, " would a genewaste lands into cultivation will not proceed ral enclosure cause more persons to be born faster than the joint prosperity of the farmer, and raised up?" Without doubt it would; and the country wilt warrant.' Inclosores, but the tilling of more land would shortly however will; rather be the effect of such create great abundance, and years would elapse before the population could advance in full force, and those found tretpassing so as to occasion distress, from numbers against them, could be equally punished. bearing hard upon the necessaries of life. The markets would as usual be supplied with You also say, “ that it wonld cause no in- those birds, so that those persons, who had crease in the quantity of food raised.” I not leisure, or skill to procure them, might cannot think you will continue to hold this occasionally enjoy little dainties. But, it opinion, when you consider that the lands now appears, Mr. Cobbett, that such delicate now waste, by good management, would morsels are not fitting for the middle and yield in the course of a few years, acre for lower classes of Englishmen; yet those are aere nearly as much as the best lands in the the people who are to fight our battles ; those country Before you make up your mind are the people, who ground almost to dust by completely upon this subject, I recommend the tax gatherer, are called on in the same it to you, Sir, to take a tour amongst the breath, to relinquish one of their few and Mendip hills in Somersetshire, where I innocent amusements, and to shed their lasz doubt not, if you inquire as to the state of drop of blood in preserving inviolate, our that couniy previous to its enclosure, you free and most excellent coustitution. It may will be satisfied of the advantages to be de- be asserted, that many persons under prerived from the culture of wastes. But not tence of shooting these birds destroy other to take up more of your time, I shall only game; and, it is therefore, necessary to put add, that were a General Enclosure Bill to a stop to such practice by, the law in quesbe passed, little advantage I think would ac- tion. To such persons I beg to answer, that crue fiom the division of wastes into small in spite of this intended regulation, an upportions; but, on the other hand, if divided l qualitied free Englishman, will still be perinto farms of from one to three hundred mitted to shoot sparrows; nay, more, ducks, acres, the benefit to the nation would be be.. &c. Therefore ihe same pretence will exist yond all calculation. I am, Sir, &c.- in full vigour, not withstanding this new act M. H.- March 14, 1808.
of the legislature.- Where then, Mr. Cob
bett, are we to look for the reasons of its WOODCOCKS AND SNIPES.
adoption. Is it that our nobility, and rich SIR,
-However I may differ from you conimoners, are alone worthy of slaying and on certain political measures, I have ever eating woodcocks and snipes; is it that at a considered you, as a true champion for the late route of my Lady Pentweazles, there jost rights and liberties of the people; and, was a deficiency of those delicacies. Or, is under this impression, venture to offer you it intended as a measure to reimburse the my sentiments, on the intention of ministers Treasury, for the grant so lately bestowed on to comprehend in the list of game, wood- the family of poor Lord Lake!--Not being cocks and snipes -As a measure of rerenue, . an a tept in the learned languages, many of it appears to me extremely absordl; for, as your learned readers, may doubtless, criticise both woodcocks and snipes, are birds difficult tlie subject, language, and style of this letto shoot, it cannot be supposed that a quali- ter; should you, Sir, bowever, think it infied person, who is a good shot, would telligible to the plainer part of your readers, strict himself solely to those birds, when by and not altogether unworthy of your notice; taking a licence, he would have a much you will oblige me by inserting it in your vagreater scope of amusement; and might ea- luable Register.--I am, Sir, &C.-An Exesily repay himself the expence of it, by kil- MY TO OPPRESSION. ling other game. As a proof of this, I know several gentlemen in my neighbourhood, whose servants in the space of one month, Sir; hey leave to return you my sell more hare skins alone, than wond pay sincere thanks for the very great pleasure I for a ficence –Was this boasted country (al- have often received from the reading your ways depicted as overflowing with resources) useful and entertaining paper, of whieh I in so desperate a situation, as to require the am a pretly constant reader, and, in genepaltry augmentarion which ihis measure ral, an admirer. I confess, that, esteeming could effect; would it not be better, to allow you a man of great penetration and sound onqualified persons the liberty they have lii- | judgment, I felt some apprehension for the therto enjoyed, on paying a certain annual fate of nav dear country; from your state. sum for this permission; say 2s.6d, or even ment of its situation and circumstances ; 55. per annum ; that this tax would be more bui, I am happy to inform you, my fears productive, there cannot be a doubt; and it and apprehensions are all entirely done away would also give more general satistaction by the cireumstance of the chancellor of the the penalties for killing game would remain exchequer having just now brought in a bill
WOODCOCKS AND SNIPES.
to prevent the shooting of woodcocks and profound silence relative to the events which snipes as game. If some little Nimrod of a passed in his viciuity Jast antumn, leaving to Jordship. ħad brought in such a bill at this England and futurity to justify then.-lt is time, it migbt bave Jessened my fears, but due to truth, however, to declare, that the would not have removed them, but, when court of London did not invite Swedea to I see one so high in office amusing himself in take part in this 'expedition, nor confided it a thing of such yery little consequence, I to her till the moment of its being carried
feel perfectly at ease as to any danger of an into execution. Therefore, not the least - invasion. Mr. Cobbett, I am not ambitious movement was made in Sweden on this ac.
of appearing in print, and yet I could wish casion. The English fleet arrived and de this letter to be publishel, to convince this parted without entering into any port of upstart, self-created emperor, with what Sweden, and the auxiliary troops, embarked
cootempt we look ypon his menaces; and in Pomerania, were restored in virtue of a ** that, whilst he is threatening us with invasion, | separate article in the convention concluded
subjugation, and all the horrors of extermi. at London, relative to this object, on the nation, we are smilingly, contemplating the 17th of June, 1807, when certainly there
additional pleasure our sportsmen will enjoy was as yet no reference to this expedition. 9. ju the next shooting season.--As I am not a The following is the article. It is fully
min of learning, perhaps I may not know understood, that, in case that inforeseers the true meaning of the word “ patriot : or circumstances should render impracticable if I do, tcan, with great truth, subscribe "the object of this convention, or that bis myself A True PATRIOT.
is Britannic majesty should find it necessary
“, to withdraw the said troops (the German 51. OFFICIAL PAPERS.
" legion) from Swedish Pomerania, the SWADEN.-Answer of Sweden to the Danish stipulation of this convention shall in no
Declaration of IVar.. Dated Stockholm, manner prevent his Britannic majesty March 21, . 1808,
" from giving such orders as he may judge The court of Denmark bad made an proper with respect to the ulterior dispoalliance with France, was prepared to receive is sition of these troops which are now French troops in its country, collected trans- placed under the orders of his Swedish port vessels in its port, fitted out all its ships majesty." — The court of London baş in the road of Copenhagen, to cover a since fully justified this enterprize, and the French expedition against Sweden, and then experience of every day justifies it. ' Name: issued a declaration of war. Denmark ac- rons French armies remained in lower Saxocused Sweden of being the cause of this ny and over-ayed the north. There were rupture, because she did not make her still natious to subjugate, ports to shut, and compliments of condolence on the loss of forces to direct against England. They herifleet, because she would not co-operate were to penetrate at any rate : they would to avenge that bumiliation, and especially have acted in any case and under any prebecause she sought aid from England against tence that might have offered. At present such an aggression. The relations of thie it is the expedition against the Danish fleet king with his neighbouring power were which is the rallying word of the whole those of a simple peace. There was niei- league. What is remarkable is that the thor: alliance, nor any convention whatever Danish goverment, already hesel by French which traced out for the two courts any troops, overpowered, • impelled, and even common course for their political conduct; paid by France, issues a declaration of war therefore when Sweden, Russia, and Prussia against Sweden, withont daring cren la fought in conjunction against France, Den- name the power which forces it to act. It mark, under the shade of her neytrality, seeks with embarrassment grievances and appeared the friend of all. The king wit- reasons to appear to have bad in this deternessing this system, and convinced by some mination a will of its own. It cites the reexplanations, demanded in the course of monstrances of Sweden againisu the arrest the year 1806, of the impossibility of ob- of the Swedish mails as vexatious, while in taining a change favourable to Sweden, could its severity against English correspondence, not entertain a hope that the naval force of it would not suffer it to pass according to Denmark could ever be useful to bim; 01 treaty, and declares that it is imperiously the contrary, after the peace of Tilsit, be obliged to take these measurés." It pretends bad every reason w, fear that, by the sug- to know the thonghts of the king, and gestions of Russia and France, it might be imagines them hostile, though for: some one day turned against him. His majesty, | months it had concerted an aggression upon thusefore, though, it proper to observe a Sweden. It pretends to reason of die in.
terests of the country, though it has aban- | mained suspended during the late wars with doned its own interests, and even its exis- Russia, when perhaps that power might tence, to a foreign influence. In fine, it have claimed it. The court of Dennark, reproaches Sweden with baving provided in order to justify its proceedings, hesitates for lier defence by a subsidiary treaty, though not to make all kinds of assertions; dares itself is paid for an aggression; and then it to defend the injustice of Russia, and bepronounces, though indeed with a kind of trays a premeditated plot;' and all this it does timidity, the word, mercenary, which the
to concel the chief, nay, only reason, which government that
pays it had probably dictat- is-that Denmark is the ally of France.ed to it.--It is proposed here to render to his But injustice and falsehood find their end; Britannic majesty the most authentic solemn honour and truth will triumph in their turn. testimony, that in all his transactions with His majesty, relying on the justice of his Sweden he never demanded offensive mea- cause, hopes, with conscious pride of reignsures; nor required any thing that was not ing over a brave and loyal people, so often perfectly compatible with its tranquillity and tried by dangers, and held up by the Alindependence. The most convincing proof mighty, that the same Providence will vouchof this is the promptitude with which his safe to bless his army, and restore to bis ministry acceded to the proposition of the subjects a safe and bonourable peace, to the king for the pacification of the Baltic, by a confusion of his enemies, formal promise not to send thither any ships of war, but on conditions useful and ho
RUSSIA AND SWEDEN.-Intercepted Cornourable to all the north. Let the Danish
respondence, found upon the Person of the government read in this proposition the coin- Russian Courier. plete refutation of the complaints of which The irruption of the Russian troops into the manifesto against Sweden is composed; | Finland, and the incendiary proclamations and in the moinents when it shall return it- circulated in the province, were already self, let it compare the state of things which known to the kirg, though the minister of the king has desired with that which France Russia, M. Alopeus, had not yet made any and Russia wish. Let all the allies of France communication that could pave the way for read in this consent of England the difference such intelligence, and no cooriers nor disbetween the connections which unite the patches from the Swedish ambass.dor at Pee two courts and those which enchain them, iersburgh had arrived since those events.-and let them pronounce on which side is to Considering, therefore, that minister as debe found a due regard for particular interests, prived of his public quality by the insidious and a just moderation for the general good — aggression of his court, as a dangerous eneDen:nark herself has been, during a long my, by the revolutionary principles with time, the object of this moderation, and did which that aggression was accompanied, and not cease to be so till she became absolutely as a hostage for the ambassador, whose lin dangerous. When the north was outraged berty had in all probability been violated, by the devastation of lower Saxony, the his majesty ordered, on the 2d of March, oppression of the Hanseatic' towns, what
that a military guard should be stationed did she to avenge them? Sweden, England, with M. Alopeus. - This measure, which, in and Russia nade war for this object; but every o:her circumstance, vould have been no one thought of forcing Denmark to take extremely repugnant to the king, has been part in it. She was the ally of Russia, fully justified by the event: a courier for
then, as well as at present; why did she not Petersburgh arrived at Scyneldskar on the · embrace her cause? What could she then 22d, and set out on the 28th of February by
allege for her tranquillity that Sweden can- Tornea, for Stockholm, having been arrest: not now allege?, All this is explained by ed on the 7th of March, a mile from Har
the single fact which she endeavours to con- nosand, with the following dispatches: : ceal that she is at present under the in- No.1.-Sir; the baron de Stedingk las Auence of the French government. Had transmitted to me, on the gth of Jan», an England followed the principles of this ene- official note (of which I herewith send you my, she would not have waited the moment a copy), in answer to mine of the 16th of of her surrender to disarm her, she'would Nov. Its contents not being more satisfachave invaded her several years before; she tory than the preceding official communica"would have guarded her, and all this with a tion of that ambassador, with respect to what view to the good of the norih.-Her ancient
an angast master expected, (a) nothing more alliance with Russia, is made a pretext for shis aggression, though all the world knows (a) To what his imperial majesty had dethat it is merely defensive, and that it re- manded-Yes - The pacification of the Bal
was to be hoped from prolonging, in circum- No. II.-Copy of a Note from the Swedish stavces, so pressing (6), a correspondence Ambassador, Baron Stedingk, to the Mi. which has already lasted more than four * nister, Count de Romanzuff, dated oth months, and produced no result; the empe- (21st) of Jan. 1908. ror has resolved to issue the declaration The king having already communicated which you will find herewith, in order to to the Court of St. Petersburgh, in answer to ascertain definitively the resolutions of the the Note of the 24th Sept. (Oct. 6,) his opicourt of Stockholm. Though I shall trans- nion on the present position of the North, mit this declaration to baron Stedingk, the and the difficulty of applying it to the enemperor directs you, Sir, to communicate it | gagements of 1790, his majesty had some hope to the ministry of his Swedish majesty. of gaining the assevt of his imperial majesty, You will observe to them on this occasion, to the evidence of these statements. The that it still depends op the king to preserve slightest glance at the circumstances of that good harmony between the two States (C). time and those of tbe present, seem sufficient But that the most essential interests of Rus- to shew their immense disparity; and the sia do not allow his imperial majesty to ad- Cabinet of St. Petersburgh o.glit not to le mit, in the present situation of attiviss, the sitate more than any other to pronounce on least doubt of the disposition of Sweden with which side was the preponderance at that regard to Russia (d). I have the honour to time, and on which side it is at present.be, &c.-CounT NICOLAS DE RONANZOPF. Russia, the principal support of the convenSt. Petersburg, Feb. 5, (17) 1808.
tion of 1790, was the first to abolish it in To Mr. Alopeus.
1803. If it was at ber invitation that Swe
den acceded to the new system, under her tic but to that he expected perhaps- auspices she was then reconciled 10 England; No.-If he expected from Sweden what he she, however, contracted direct engagements had himself granted to France, the sacrifice of his interests and his independence.
with that power, whicli, according to the
rules of public morality, she thinks herself (6) The fear of the English must have
obliged to observe, while the other contractbeen very pressing; notwithstanding an ex- ing party shall not infringe the engagement traordinary delay of the English mails, the
on its part.The armed peutrality of 1780 answer of England arrived at Stockholin on
heing once abandoned, the shutting of the the 16th of March, still a long time before
Baltic Sea, founded in the concert and com; a maritime expedition in the Gulf of Fin. 1 mon armaments which it stipulated, appear. land was physically possible. The court of Sweden acceded to the proposition, consent
ed the less to regard Sweden, as since the
time of the last convention, there has existed ed not to disturb the tranquility of the Baltic, if Sweden were left at peace. - Thus, there
in this respect neither concert nor even uni.
ty of principles, among the powers on the might still exist in the world a peaceful and shore of this sea. And this shutting, which, happy corner: Russia would not permit it. at the time of the declaration, signified proIt remains to be seen, whether her insidious invasions of Finland will protect her coasts become much more difficult to be executed,
perly the defence of the Sound, is at present from the English fleets,
since the English have found the passage of (c). The Russian army must have entered the Great Belt very practicable for ships of Finland before the declaration could have war, and still more since the Danish marine been delivered, much more before the arrivalof no longer exists.--In gerferal, a change in an answer. Yet have they still the impudence the principles of neutrality adopted in the to talk of good liarmony What was expect- last instance, would not only be contrary to ed from the king was in fact so illegal, 80 the subsisting engagements of the king, gushumiliating, that whoever knew the charac- ratxeed by Russia herself. It would proba. ter of his majesty, could never expect that bly be of no effect by not producing any he would comply willingly. The prince change in the principles of England during Royal of Denmark has been highly extolled
it could only tend to occasion à for having refused to treat with England, at- rupture between the two states, useless to ter hostilities ; ' yet has this been proposed to the ally of Russia, haritul perhaps to bere the king. - Contradictions, absurdities, and
self, and certainly ruineus to Sweden. But, falsehood, are the ordinary attendants of in- with tliis attachment' to bis engagements, justice.
(1) There was already no doubt of the him what was intended by the armaments of disposition of the king. Every thing was on Russia on the frontiers? And informed him the footing of peace libe 23 February, that he was obliged to place himself in a state when the king sent for M, Alopeus to ask of defence on his side.
the war ;