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the king is not insensible to the advantagesed the reciprocal and formal engagement to of the pacification of the Baltic, It is possible maintain the principle, that the Baltic is a that England mighi consent to the neutrali. close sea, and to guarantee that sea and its ty of that sea; that she might promise not to send thitherany ships of war, if ihre measure bitrarily to the engagements of his two preadopted against British cominerce, through decessors, tacitiv invalidating thinse wliich out ainiost all the coasts of the Baltic, did he has contracted hiinself. The siate of war we provoke her armanienis, or if new bos- in which bis imperial majesty tinds himself tilities diy not call on her to act as an auxili. witir England, naturally brought with it the ary This is a point of view, at least, abolition of any existing contention with which appears to unite the commercial in- that pover. Sweden way not ai all con. terests of the whole North; and which the cerned in this war, that which was stipulated court of St. Petersburgh will, perhaps, tind in 1801, between her and Russia on the sufficiently important to merit iis particular one side, and between ber and E:gland 011 attention. It is in these terips that the un. the other, night and oughi equally subsist su dersigned ambassador extraordinary of his long as the king was at pare with botiz majesty the king of Sweden has received powers. By a simple decision, Rossia nziglit orders to reply to the note which his excel.

the convention of 1801 'with lency count Roman 2011 has addressed, of Sweden, for their very marii in e convention the date 16-28 of November, ant which lie Whabolished, and things naturz!!s returned hastened to transmit to his court.

toide siate in which they tre; presious to fits by tbis opportunity to renew to count 1780, every one composing his systein of Romanzott the assurances of his high cona neutrality according to his win principles of sideration.--St. Petersburgh, 9.21 Jan. i308. the law of nation's -Dy a double decision,

No. III.--The emperor, justly indignant at present Russia suppresses th:o convention when he learned the violence which Eng. lasi concluded, and re-establishes ile two forland had committed against the king of De: - mer, which ac diametrically opposite to is, mark, faithful to his own cboracier, and in and finds a crusc for war in the refused of the spirit of that constant solicitude which the king of Sweden to yield to this despohe feels for the preservation of the interests tiswi. Dutlet us see in. what manner Russia of his empire, informed the king of Great wishes to re-establi-h the armed neutrality, Britain that lie could not remain insensible Pretending that Sweden ought to excluide to this outrage, this unexampled spoliation, from the Balticeren English merchant ships, which England has permitied herself against she reproaches her withi baving wished that a hing, his relative, his friend, and thie the parts of Germany should be opeo 10 ancient aily of Russia (e).-His imperial | English cominerce. The following is the majesty communicated this determination to sigarate article L. of this famous convention,, the king of Sweden by a note, which was and let any one jedge whether count Ro. transmitted to his ambassador on the 24th manzoff had read it is his imperial of Sept , 1807.-A positive treaty, contract- majesty of all the Russias, and his majes; ed in 1780, by the empress Casherind and ty the king of Sweden, are always equalthe late king, Gustavus III,, a second cop- ri lv interested in watching over the tran? cluded in 1500 by the late emperor Paul and quillity and safery of the Bunic sea, and the king who reigns at present (1), contain- protecting it from the troubles of war,

" and the crcisings of privatees; a system, (e) These sentiments of his imperial ma- “ the more just and natural, as all the pow jesty towards relatives, friends, and alles, “ers, the dommons of which surround it, : seem for a moment encouraging, as they enjoy a profound peace ; they have iņu- , are all titles applicable to the king only a trally agreed to continue to maintain, few months ago, and which he lias nat since " that it is a close sea, incontestibiy such by done any thing to forfeit.

" its local situation, in which all Dalions The sense of an article of a treaty has may and ought to bavigate in peace, and. often been disputed, and its application cou- enjoy all the advantages of a perfect calm ;) tested; but never has a recent convention, "and to take for that purpose all such meaforgally concluded and ratified, been passed ” stilės as may be proper lo guarantee that over in silence, to cite anterior engagements, sea and its coasts, from a hostilities: evidently annulled by it; the cabinet of “ piracies, and acts of violence. They will Petersburgh refers to the convention of 1780 likewise maintain the tequillity of the and 1800, concluded against England, and " North Sea, on their casts, as far as cires is silent with respect to that of 1-801, Cone do cuimstances and the interest of their staics cluded with ber. The emperor returns ar.

shall rer.der it gecessary."

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coasts from all hostility, violence, and vexa- suprenie law, not to leave any longer the tion, employing for this purpose all the co-operation of Sweden with Russia and means which might be in their power. His Denmark against England an undecided quesimperial majesty, considering these two trea- tion. The emperor being informed that the ties, not only conceived himself entitled, but cabinet of St. James's, endeavouring to rethought he had a right, to claim the co-ope- attach Denmark to its system by fear, had ration of Sweden against England. The threatened that the king of Sweden should king did not deny the engagements which send troops into Zealand,' in return for have been referred to, but he refused all co which the possession of Norway should be operation so long as the French armies secured to him (m) : the emperor learning, should not be removed from the coasts of the in like manner, that when the king left him Baltic, and the German ports be shut against without an answer, he was secretly treating British commerce. The object was to ex- for an alliance at London (n); his majesty press the violence committed by England, found, that the interest of his empire would and which bad irritated all Europe. The be very ill secured, if, wlien the struggle emperor demanded of the king his co-opera- should commence between England and tion, founded on these treaties, and that mo- Russia, the king of Sweden, šo near to his narch proposed to him, ip answer, to defer states, should veil for a time, under the apthe execution of treaties to another period, pearance of a pretended neutrality, the sen. and to employ himself at, present in procu- timents of a known aitachment to England. ring to England the commerce of all the His imperial majesty could not leave in un ports in Germany; in one word, to serve certainty the positions of Sweden with r'. that same England, against whom the ques- gard to Russia. He could not, by. conses tion was to take measures of defence. (g) – quence, admit his neutrality. The disposiIt is consequently difficult to prove more tions of the king being ascertained, nothing fully the partiality of the king of Sweden remained for his imperial majesty but to have for the king of Great Britain ihan he has recourse, without delay, to all the means himself established it.-His imperial ma- which Providence had confided to him (0) jesty caused a second note to be transmitted for the security of his empire ; and of this on the 16th of November, by which, stat- he informs (p) the king, and all Europe ing to the king that he was about to break | Acquitting himself thus of what the safety with England, he again claimed his co-ope- of his empire requires of him, the emperor ration, (h) - This note remained nearly is ready to convert the measures which he is two months without an answer, and that about to take into a measure of prudence, if which was given, and transmitted to the the king will join Russia and Denmark, in ministers of his imperial majesty, on the order to shut the Baltic against England till gih of this month, was similar to the pre- a maritime peace. He invites, for the last veding. (it -The emperor,

far from

time, the king his brother-in-law, and with repenting of his moderation, reflects all the warmth of true friendship (9), no twith pleasure, that he had hitherto em- longer to hesitate to fulfil his engagemerits, ployed all the means in his power in and to adopt the only system which is adaptendeavours to recal bis Swedish majesty to the only system which is suited to his states Cabinet of St. Petersburgh as warding off (k); but, in tine, he owes to liis people, to from the ports of Russia all danger from the the safety of his empire (1), which is his English fileet, that it is not unreasonable to

suppose that it was some other fear by whichi (g) This question does not regard Swe-, it was impelled, perhaps that of the entrance den, which was at peace wiih England. of a French arniy into Russia.

(h) The armed neutrality no longer bind. (m) False report of Mr. Rist; and Mr. ing her, there was no other treaty, conven- Canding, who has a copy of the conference, tion, or promise, by which she was bonnd. will prove that it was Mr. Risi wbo asked

(i) This note, which is given entire above, whether Sweden was to co-operate, and who was, however, such, ibat count Romanzoff touk silence for an affirmative. did not continue to cite a word of it, fearing (11) The king had no other than defensive to bring to mind the convention of 1801, connections, and they were innoceps, except and the conciliatory proposition of the king in the eyes of the aggressor. .

fk) According to the principles generally (0) See the proclamations in Finland. received, it was for the king bimself to judge (p) After the aggression, wiib respect to this.

(9) Troops baving already entered, and :) It is so improbable obat the invasion of proclamations been distributed in the couüFinland could borcidły considered by the try.

ed to the interests of the powers of the north. , duct you have hitherto observed; but it is What, indeed, bas Swrden gained since its, proper that, without affecting to prepare for monarch has adhered to the interests of Eng- it, you should nevertheless hold yourself in laud (1) --Nothing could alllict the empe | readiness to depart the moment circumstanror of Russia so much as to see Sweden aud ces require it. ' In regard to the precautions Russia disunited; and it still depends on his necessary to be taken respecting your cySwedish majesty to take, but immerlaicly, phers, and the archives of your mission, I such a pari as may preserve the iwo states cannot, without doubt, do better than trust in an intimate alliance, and in perfect har- to your own prudence. I shall not forward mony (8)

to Baron de Stedingk till some days after the No. IV.-Sir; I bave punctually receiv. departure of this courier; and as I directed ed the different dispatches you have address- you in my ostensible dispatch to communia ed to me, as well by the post as by the cate this declaration to the Swedish minister, Fjeld-Jager Rattinsky, and latterly by the I think it necessary to warri you, Sir, not to chamberlain, Cont de Pahlen. Í render, take this step before you have sent off your Sir, all justice to your great activity and courier to M. de Lisakerwitsch, with the zeal for the service, and I shall do myself al packet inclosed, to his address; and I think real pleasure in appreciating them properly, it will be proper to tell this courier the to the emperor. The rescript which you time to quit the Swedish frontiers..4 will find inclosed, and the insignia of the or- It is, then, that you are to place the deder of St. Vlodimir, which his imperial ma-claration in question in the hands of Bajesty has deigned to confer upon you, will ron De Chreuheim, and insist, with this prove to you, that he is perfectly satisfied minister, upon a definitive answer from the with the manner in which you have served king, in order to send it us by the returu of him.- From the very sincere interest which the same courier which I expedite, and I take in your concerns, I will also confide which you will send back to me as soon as to you, that however brilliant the testimony possible.--The experience of the past is a of his favour, which the emperor has this day certain security to me, that, in the imporgiven to you, may be, his munificence to you tánit commission with which you are at: will not be bounded by it. His majesty pro- present charged, you will spare no pains te poses also to add to your income, and I hare answer the confidence with which his mareason to believe, that as suon as you arrive jesty has so justly honoured you. I have here you will obtain the rent of an estate The honour to be,- -COUNT NICHOLAS (Arunda). · The emperor has been verywell de ROMANZOIF.-To M. d'Alopeus, Stocksatisfied with the lists of the Swedish fleets, holm. which you have sent nie, and I expect, with No. V.-S1R-Some persons think that impatience, the accounts which you have Baron Armteldt, little satisfied with the promised me respecting the land forces and manner in which he is treated by the King the interior of the country",--At the present of Sweden,' may perhaps be disposeil in moment, information

this kind is more quit entirely the court of Stockholin; asir necessary than ever, and you will yourself reality he is not a Swede, but a native of feel, Sir, what an important service you will Finland, he may perhaps be gained over, render to his imperial majesty, in procuring which, in the present situation of affairs, would the minst exact accounts possible. If you be of great importance to os. On this should want proper opportunities for for- | account, before you quit Sweden, you will warding them, you will keep them by you, see the propriety of sounding the senand bring them yourself, in case or

timents of M. Armfeldt. - If he should be any time quitting Sweden.---To judge from inclined to be open with you, you will not all, appearances, it seems difficult to avoid a

neglect to discuss matters in detail; and, most complete rupture with that power ; without entering into any positive obligation, bet till ibat takes place, you will remain at you will confine yourself to the lecting liim your post, and continue the same line of con

see all the advantages which may'most flatter

his ambition. You will greatly oblige me, od What Is Russi? gained since its mo. Sir, by immediately apprising me what may nárcu has adhered to the inierests of France? be the result of rour proceeding on this What brave Germany, Spain, and Italy subject (1): Knowing your experience in gained?

* What would then become of the li- (!) The whole of this is the excess <f þeily of the Fins and the diet of Abo, which insolence. Baron d'Armfeldt may have beeti have been already promised in the name of inpatient of wrctivity for a single moinent, the emperor?

at a crisis so dangerous to Ité cruntry: It is

your at

business, (w) I need not observe to you how
essentiai it is that this kind of negociation ambassador.

ambasa.cond als he waste mode fide Swedibila

You will observe, on this should be carried on in such a manner that occasion, to M. Le Count de Bernstorff, you do not commit yourself, and in this I that the einperor will take every measure in reckon entirely upon your prudence.--I bis power eventually to defend Denmark have the honour to be, &C.-Le Comte and to serve her cause. His imperial majesty NICOLAS DE ROMANZOFF. St. Peters

rests in the firm hope, that this monarch burg, Feb. 5, 1908.

will, on bris part, press the king of Sweden No. VI.--SIR- I sent you, in due course, to unite willi them, and if he will not, that copies of the two notes which I cause to be he will take part openly against him; that transmitted on the 24th September, and 16th he will purwe, with activity, the preparaNovember, to the Swedish ambassador, as tions for war, proceed without loss of time well as his reply to the first. Here with I in all the measures necessary relative to it, transmit to you the one which he addressed and that he will cordially join all his efforts one on the gth of January, also the second. to those of Russia. (w)- I have the honour You will see, Sir, ihat the cootents of his to be, --The Count NicoLAS DE ROMANdiote in no ways answers the immediate 20FF.--St. Petersburg, Feb. 5, 1808.-To clemented which our master has made to Mr. De Lisakewitsch, Copenhagen. Ctyle the king of Sweden to take measures imation with the three other northern LOCAL MILITIA.- Alstract of Lord I do??',, tu detend the Balric (u) against the Castlereagle's Local Militia Bil. attempts of Larind; bis imperial majesty The 1st enacting clause, empowers his h: inereture, determined to make a declas Majesty to establish a local force for the deration, in order to assure himself of the fence of the realm. real uinportion of his neighbour, the king The 2d, enacis, that the number of men of Sweden ; you will receive, herewith, a enrolled under the act, shall not exceed such copy of this declaration ; I will not send it number as will, including the effective Yeoto it on de Stedingk until some days after maury and Volunteers `amount. to the departure of this courier.

To the nejn

times (six timey was the amount suggested tiave I will confidentially make it known to by Lord Castlereagh,) the Militia quotas of 11. Le baron de Blome; you will also com- such counties. municate it to the minister of his Danish The 3d, that the deficiencies in the effec

tive Volunteers shall be supplied by ibe false that he has either been ill-treated or Militia under the act. discontented. · He is no subject of the The 4th, that the counties may be dividking, since he is a native of Swedish Fin- ed into divisions, in any case in which more land." What an inference, even before than one regiment of Local Muitia is orthe war! To gain him over will be an dered to be raised. important acqnisition : flatter his ambition" The 5th, extends the powers of Militia (such is the language). You, Springpor- Acts to this Act. ten, Kuoring, Haselsirom-traitors of every The Oih, that men to be raised under this description, now speak. Was it ever in Act, shall be ballotted from persons between the power of the emperor to alleviate your of-and-, returned on the lists remorse by offices and emoluments? Could now existing, (from 18 to 35 years of age.) these protect you from the contempt and The 7th, excuses persons of bodily inexecration of every honest man, even in ability. Russia itself?

The 8th, enacts, that no articled clerk, (v) It is this very experience that justifies

or apprentice, nor any poor man who has the neasures of the king with regard to more than one child born in wedlock, nor Al. Alopeus.

any person under the height of shall, (u) in all these places the guarantee of by reason thereof, be exempt from teing the Baltic has no sense, unless it means to ballotted and serving under this Act, thougtı secure Cronstadt and Revel from the fate of

they may be exempt from serving in the Copenhagen. Russia, the ally of England, Militia. To be continued. is alone to have the privilege of summoning fleets into the Baltic, without a word being (w) All that has been done, the Danish said of closing the passage ; but no sooner monarchy has pressed, pronounced, &c. c. does she quarrel with England, than she There are few monarchies which possess 60 cries out for help to shut it.

much frankréis. Printed by Cox and Baylis, No. 75, Great Queen Street, and published by R. Bagshaw, Brydges Strees Corcat. Gaiden, where fomncs Numbers away be had; soll also by J. Budd, Crown and Miure, Pål McH.


the ages

VOL. XIII No. 18.]


[PRICE 10n.

« indeed.

Were the countries, which have usually supplied us, in a state of in lependence and security, the prospect ** would be far from pleasing ; but when we case an anxious eye to the Baltic, the view becomes dreary

Who can contemplate the consequences of a short crop, a mildew, or a wet harvest without «horror ?" -POLITICAL REGISTER. 073]


Baltic against us, at the same time that the CORN AGAINST SUGAR (continued from unjnst und insolent demands of America page 645).-When I wrote the article, leave is no ground whereon to depend upon bere referred to, which was on Wednesday a supply of corn from that country, it is eviJast, I had not seen any of the advertise dent, that, unless we can, in some way or ments, which I have since seen, for meet- other, add to the quantity of corn produced ings in several of the counties to agree upon. at home, we must, in proportion to the petitions against the bill, which is about to quantiiy of corn now imporied, experience be brought into parliament for the purpose addicional distress, if a year of scarcity should of causing Sugar to be used in the distilleries umhappily arrive. The truth of this concluinstead of Corn. It was not tiil after my sion every man adinits, and the nation, with Register was gone to the press that I saw any voice unanimous, exclain?, Let us, as we love of these advertisements; and, as I could ea- our lives and hate the yoke of a conqueror, silý perceive, that, against the eifect of pub- add to the quantity of the corn produced at lications, flowing through so many chan- home. ---Now, gentlemen, one way of adnels, and at a rate so rapid, the Register ding, in effect, to the quantity of any thing, would stand no chance of success, I thought is, to obtain some other thing capable of be. it would be useful to write an address to the ing made use of in its stead. Thus, if a Freeholders of Hampshire upon the subject, man's turnips run short, lie gives some cab). which I did on Friday, and which address, bages to his cattle, and does thereby, in fact, as it applie:) to every part of the country, I add to bis quantity of turnips. Upon this caused to be inserted in as many newspapers plain principle the king's nuinisters have the as I could, giving it a fair chance against the intention of bringing forward ihe bill above advertisements and paragraphs, which those described; and, it must, I should think, bu newspapers were circulating upon the other evident to every man, that, if we bring sugar side of the question -This Address I shall from our colonies to supply the place of the now insert here, and shall then submit to corn now used in the distilleries, there will the reader such additional observations as ap- be in the country so much more corn to be pear to me likely to assist in the removing of used in the way of food, which is the very that mist of error, whence the alarm of the effect that we are all so anxious to see pro. land-owners and tithe-owners, and farmers duced, and to produce which effect the situaseem to have proceeded.

tion of our colonies and our commerce is, at

this moment, acknowledged, on all bands, TO THE T'RCEHOLDERS OF HAMPSHIRE. to be peculiarly favourable. -Evident,

however, as these truths.appear to me, and, GENTLEMEN, - 4s ore of yourselves, as I think they will appear to you, a great I take the liberty to address you upon the clamour has, by some of the land-owners subject of a bill intended to be shortly and corn-dealers, been raised against the inbrought before parliament, the object of tended bill; the alarm of these .gentlemen which is, to cause SUGAR to be used in the having, all of a sudden, changed its nature; Distilleries of Eogland and Scotland, instead from a dread of a scarcity of corn, they bave, of the CORN whicla is now therein used. in the twinkling of an eye, fallen into a For many months past, gentlemen, there bas dread of too great a plenty of corn; and some existed a general alarm at the shutting of the of them assert, that, if the intended bill foreign corn-ports. The argument has been should become a law, the farmers will bethis : we have long been in the habit of im- come bankrupts, because, having lost one porting annually a large quantity of corn ; of the markets for their corn, their corn will this importation was necessary, otherwise it fall in price, and they will not be able to pay would not have been ade ; and the eneny

their rents. Gentlemen, any thing more having succeeded in closing the ports of the groundless than this alarm, more unsound


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