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been made ; that in fact, the farmer's has season of scarcity? How then is this superbeen a more lucrative trade than any other : abuvdance to be preserved ? - The means that this, how-ver, cannot be from the data hive been discovered the superabundance* I have before laid down, is quite clear, and finds a market in the distilleries-what is were I addressing myself to any one bit a the benefi'ial consequence resulting from man whose prin iples, independence, and this? - Why the season of scarcity.arrives ; repeated integrity have uniformly claimed my the use of the distilleries is suspended, and admiration, and I am porsanded will always the proportion of corn intended for that justify iny esteein, I should be disposed 10 market, is turned into the current, that with say, that he had made an attempt to prop a a well-timed supply, will support the hero weak ani falling system by an unmanly ap- and the less-valiart, the philosopher and the peal to the picju lives of the we k and in. tyro; and the impending gloom is dispelled considerate wany
From what I have al. by the invigorating rays of a genial sun. Ttady niced, it must be of necessity de- When the reverse of the picture is consi, duced, that all 'radesmn and manufacturers dered, and we behold desponding and hopewill obrain for the comigodities they vend less countenances ; when we see the purple a frir prutit, and that this profil will no be hue of youth precipitated into the sombre greater with one class ih:in another, but as mask of wrinkled age, the flushed glow of nearly as can be on an average, the same. hinanity may be excused, if it betrays any To produce, bowever, this equality of pro- considerable jealousy at any purposed polifit, it is apparent that no tradesman or ma- tical regulation, which may prematurely nufacturer will ever possess a greater quan: occasion the reality of the misfortune, froni tity of the merihandise in which he deals, which we shrink with horror, even in a vithan he findis to be vendible, because oiher-sionary contemplation. I find I have been wise his profits wou d be reduced by a stag- guiliy of a dizression ; but I will now repant capital, fron which no a lvintage would sume the subject, which is nearly concluded. be derived Now it appears to me, that If it be necessary that this superluity of the interests of society do not require that corn should exist, and if it cannot exist any merchant should keep by bim any qualida without a market, which io years of plenty tity of merchandise beyond the ordinary will take it off the hands of the farmer, demand, excepl wiib respect to the article where is that market to be found, if the of CORN; and here an exception arises use of distilleries should be suspended ?-which is clear, palpable, and rational to the The prohibiting the consump'ion of the still understanding. Almost all other articles of will, I admit, produce the consequence merchandise depend, in respect of their ple. which you seem, Sr, to approve, namely, nitude, upon homan industry; but ibe sup- cheapness in the price ; but in intelligible ply of corn depends in a great measure upon language, this word “ cheapness” must the temperature of seasons ; and it, passeth be construed, injury to the fariner ; because the foresight and understanding of the most it the present price only yields a fair profit skilful, to prevent the vavage and destruc in relation to other vendible commodities, a tion of an unpropitious summer, But in less price, or cheapness, most be a reducalmost all other species of merchandise, the tion below a fair profit, and the consequence scarcity may be either dispensed with, or will be, upon the data before laid down, accommodated by a succedaneum ; but not that the fariner will exchange the super80 with corn ; human existence depends abundant productio: cf.corn for the growth upon the abundance of the supply of this or manufacture of a commodity that will esculent, and for any continua:ion of time, yield in its sale an increased profit. These no discovery of man can anticipate or pre- are the principles, Sir, that I was anxious vent the calamnities of an insufficiency. It to have clearly understood ; and if you feel is quite manifest and unquestionable there- that they are founded in candour and truth, fore, that there should be always on hand I am persuaded you will adopt them in the a considerable greater quantity of corn than investigation, of the momentous question, can be consumed by the ordinary demand whether it be wise and prudent to prohibit før food; but by whom is this quantity to the distillation from corn, and adopt the use be raised ? By whom kept to alleviate, or of sugar ? ---I am, &c.-W.F. S. rather preclude the miseries of squalid fa- Lincolns Inn, Monday, May 2, 1808. mine? Are we to look for it in the granaries of our patriots ? Will the farmers hoard it? * By superabundance I uniformly mean Does each individual, with a cautious pru- the surplus after satisfying the demand for Hence, like the ant, accumulate it for a food.
WOODCOCKS AND SKIPES.
mitted ; and the law, to guard against such SIR;
-As the sentiments which are de- vexatious proceedings, whenever damages livered by you upon political subjects have for trespass are awarded by a jury to a less always great weight, and in general de- amount than 40s., makes the plaintiff pay servedly so with the public, I am anxious to lris own costs of suit, unless notice has been remove the ill impressions which the com- given to the defendant not to come upon the imunications on woodcocks and snipes, Jaitd. Besides, consent is always virtually which was inserted by you, has very likely given in such cases, and I should not expect produced. - Notwithstanding you and one to have an action brought a arst nje merely of your correspondents have treated this inat- for shooting woodcocks and snipes, sooner ter slightingly, I conceive that it is entitled than for cutting a twig from a hedge, or to serious consideration. I object to making taking up a stone which lay under my foot woodcocks and snipes game, for all the rea- in a path. But who would scruple to do sons which may be adduced against the those acts, or think that he acted wrong in game laws; but as their injustice is not doing them, although, in striętness of law, called in question at present, it would be ir- he committed a trespass? When there is an relevant to state those reasons. I think intention to do an injury upon the land, it that it will not be denied, that animals of is a wrongful act; when ihere is no such every description, as well those which are intention, it is not so. Birds of every de denominated game as the others, were given scription, which are not what the law termys, to all mankind; and, therefore, to restrict in reclaimed, that is, mide tame; or secured? any manner whatever, when the common from escaping, are the property of the pubes. good does not require it, a person from do- lic, and the public have, properly speaking, ing with them what he chuses, is an unjust a rigot to look for them upon the pixate violation of his natural rights : then, does land of any individual, it by so voing, the public, welfare require that a large ma- they do not commit any real injury on it, jority of mankind should be excluded froin although, in strictness of law, a trespass my killing woodcocks and snipes, by making be committed. If a stranger leit open a those animals game!--The only reason gate between a field of yours, in which there which has been urged by the advocates of the was a flock of sheep grazing, and a field of game laws in their favour, which appear your neighbour's, in which there was acop me to deserve inuch attention, does not ap. of turnips intended for seed, in consequence ply to woodcocks and snipes.' That reason whereof the sheep entered the turnip field, is, that those animals, which are now in- and were doing great damage, and you passed cluded in the game laws, would very soon by and saw thein in the act, should you be all destroyed, if every person were per- scruple to go in and drive them out, although mitted to kill them at his pleasure. With- you in strictness of law, did commit a trespas out combating this argument, but which I by so doing? This shews that it not only is think I could do with success, it will be not always wrong, but that it is meritorious sufficient for my purpose to state, that no in some cases to commit trespasses.such apprehensions need be entertained on appear to think, that the owner of land bas a account of woodcocks and snipes, since a right to go upon it in pursuit of game when fresh supply of them arrives every year, there is a tenant in possession of it without and if tbey are not destroyed, they will all trespassing ; but I apprehend that this is not go away early in the spring- It has been the case, unless a reservation is made of the stated by you, that you do not know any | right.- -You also state, that unqualified right which will be abridged by the making persons are already prevented from shooting of woodcocks and snipes game, as far as woodcocks and snipes, with the consent of relates to any amusement of the people ; the person in possession of the land, as from wbich observation I infer that your completely as this dreaded law can make opinion is, that the people have no right at them ; if this is so, the law must be passed present so to amuse themselves. Now, al- merely from wantonness, and on that acthough it cannot be denied that to go upon count ought to be rejected; for Jaws wao. the land of another person, upon any pre- tonly passed, are certainly tyrannical and tence whatever, without the leave of the unjust ; it is shewing the rod unnecessarily. owner, is contrary to law, and subjects the But I do not think that this proposed law offender to an action of trespass, yet it never will not forın an additional obstacle to the was intended that the law should be en- shooting of woodcocks and snipes, by unforced in such cases as going upon the land qualified persons. Your reasoning is this: for the purpose of killing woodcocks and “ to go a shooting woodcocks and snipes snipes, where no substantial injury is com- without a spaniel, or dog of some sort, is
ADDRESSED TO HIS EXCELLENCY JAMES
OF THE SAID
what no body thinks of;" (yet I myself have many times done it) to be seen out SULLIVAN, with dog and gun, the law takes as proof of STATÉ.--Daled City of Washington, Feb. being in pursuit of game; being in pursuit 16, 1808. of game, subjects the unqualified pursuer to (Concluded from page 736.j the penalty of five pounds," &c. &c. Now, I trust, Sir, any one who knows me, I always understood, that whether the de- will charge it to vanity when I say, that I fendant was in pursuit of game or not, was have some kuowledge of public men and of a fact to be collected, in all cases, by the public affairs : and on that knowledge, and evidence produced; for I do not know of with solemnity, I declare to you, that I have any act of parliament which presumes, that no confidence in tlie wisdom or correctness a person being out with a dog and gun, with- of our public measures: that our country out any other evidence being adduced, is in is in imminent danger : that it is essential pursuit of game, and subjects him to the to the public safety that the blind contidence penalty. Then, what jury, or what justice in our rulers should cease: that the state of the peace, would say that a person was legislatures should know the facts and reain pursuit of game, who was found sporting sops on which important general laws are with a dog and gun in places where woods founded; and especially that those states cocks and snipes, particularly the latter, are whose farms are on the ocean, and whose: generally found, those places not being the harrests are gathered in every sea, should resorts of game? I also object to the con- immediately and seriously consider how to templated act, because the people will be preserve them. In all the branches of gothereby deprived of the practical knowledge. vernment, commercial information is wantof the use of fire-arms. If, as it ought to ling; and in “this desert," called a city, be, the government of this country is found. that want cannot be supplied. Nothing but ed on the affections of the people, the mo- the sense of the commercial states, clearly tives for the use of tire-arms by them should and emphatically expressed, will save thein be as numerous as possible; then every fron ruin.--Are our thousands of ships and peasant would be a soldier trained to arms, i vessels to rot in our harbours ! Are our prepared to defend his country in the hour 60,000 seamen and fishermen to be deprived of necessity. But, it has been the policy of employment, and, tvith their families, of this country, an odious policy, which reduced to want and beggary? Are our had its foundation in tyranny (and to which i hundreds of thousands of farmers 10 be Blackstone thinks the game laws owe their compelled to suffer their millions in surplus origin and chief support), to prevent the produce to perish on their hands; that ihe people from being acquainted with the use president may make an experiment on our of fire-arms. I hope that this measure has patience and fortitude, and on the towering not that object in view. For these reasons pride, the boundless ambition and unyieldI think, that the proposed act to include ing perseverance of the conqueror of Euwoodcocks and snipes in the game laus, if rope ? Sir, I have reason to believe that passed, will unnecessarily deprive the peo- the president contemplates the continuance ple of one of their most manly, healthful, of the embargo, until the French Emperor and rational amusements, and unnecessarily repeals his decrees violating as well his take away one of their few remaining na- treaty with the U. States, as every neutral tural rights. But I hope that the ministers right, and until Britain, thereupon recals. of this country have pronied better by the her retaliating orders. By the time we may dreadful example which bas been afforded have neither ships nor seamen : and hat is them, by those tyrannic i governments of precisely the point to which sonë men wish Europe, who have brought destruction upon to reduce us. To see the improvidence of themselves by their unjust violation of the this project (to call it by no harsher pane, rights of the people.mR. R.-301h and without adverting to ulierior views) Iet April, 1808.
us look back to former years.-Notwithstanding the wel-unded complaints of some
individuals, and the murmurs of others; ERING, A
notwithstanding the frequent executive de
clarations of maritime aggressions committed SETS, AND 'SECRETARY OF STATE UNDER by G Britain, not withstanding the outrageGEN WASHINGTON, EXHIBITING TO HIS ous decrees of France and poin, and the CONSTITUENTS A VIEW
wanton spoliations practised and executed by NENT D'ANGER OF AN UNNECESSARY AND their cruizers, and to
their cruizers, and tribunals, of which we RUINOUS WAR WITH GREAT BRITAIN : sometimes bear a faint whisper ;--the coin
A LETTER FROM THE HON, TIMOTHY PICK
SEXATOR OF THE UNITED STATES FROM THE STATE OF MASSACHU
merce of the U. States has hitherto prosper- ing driven from the ocean, or destroyed, ed beyond all example. Our citizens have the commerce of those countries with one accumulated wealih; and the public reve- another, and with their colonies, could no mue, annually increasing, has been the pre- longer be carried on by themselves. Here sident's annual boast. These facts demon- the vesseis of neutral nations came in to their strate, that although G. Britain, with her aid, and carried on nearly the whole com. thousand ships of war, could have destroyed merce of those nations. With their seamen our commerce, she has really done it no es- thus liberaied' from the merchant service, sential injury; and that the other belligerents those nations, in the present and preceding heretofore restrained by some regard io na- wars, were enabled to man their ships of tional law, and limited by the small number war ; and their neutral vessels and seamen of their cruizers, have not inflicted upon it supplying their places, became in fact, any deep wound. Yet in this full tide of though not in name, auxiliaries in war. The success, our commerce is suddenly arrested : commerce of those nations, without one an alarm of war is raised : fearful apprehen- armed ship on the sea appropriated for its sions are excited : the merchants, in particu- / protection, was intended thus to be'secured lar, thrown into a state of consternation, are under neutral flags, while the merchant res. advised, by a voluntary embargo, to keep sels of G. Britaint, with its numerous armed their vessels at home. And what is the ships to guard them, were exposed to occacause of this mighty but mischievous alarm ? sional captures. Such a course of things We know it in its whole extent. It was G. Britain has rosinied, not in the present the unauthorized attack of a British naval only, but in former wars ;: at least as far officer on the American frigate Chesapeake, back as that of 1756. And she has claimed to search for andiake some deserters known to and maintained a right to impose on tbis have been received on board, who had been commerce some limits and restraints, beoften demanded, and as often refused to be cause it was a commerce which was denied delivered ap.
As was expected by all cor. by those nations to neutrals in time of peace; siderate men, and by the president himself because it was a commerce of immense value (as I have before observed) the British go- to the subjects of her enemies; and because vernment, on the first information of the it filled their treasuries with money, to enunfortunate event (and without waiting for able them to carry on their wars with G. an application) disavowed the act of its of- Britain.-3. The third, and only remaining ficer-disclaimed the principle of searching pretence for war with G. Britain, is the un. national armed vessels - and declared its fortunate aifiuir of the Chesapeake ; which readiness to make suitable reparation, as b:ving been already stated and explained, I soon as the state of the case should be fully will only remark here, that it is not to be known, -Uoder such circumstances, who believed that the British governnent, after can justify this alarm of war? An alarm | being defeated, as before mentioned, in its which greatly disquiered the public mind, endeavours to make reparation in- London and occasioned an interruption of commerce for the wrong done by its servant, would extremely injurious to our nerchants and have sent hither a special envoy to give hosea-faring citizens.-! will close this long bourable satisfaction, but from its sincere letter by stating all the existing pretences desire to close this wound, if our own go(for there are no causes for a war with G. rernnient would suffer it to be healed.- Per• Britain).-1. The British ships of war, agree- mit me now to ask, what man, impartially ably to a right claimed and exercised for ages viewing the subject, will have the boldness --a right claimed and exercised during the to say that there exists any cause for plung, whole of the administration of Washington, ing the U. States into a war with G. Britain? of Adains, and of Jefferson ; continue to Who that respects his reputation as a man take some of the British seamen found on
of common discernment, will say it? Who board our merchant vessels, and with them that regards the interests and welfare of his a small number of ours, from the impossi- country will say it? Who then can justify, bility of always distinguishing Englishmen / who can find an excuse for a course of confrom citizens of the U. States. On this duct which has brought our country into its point our government well know that G.
present state of alarm, embarrassment, and Britain is perfectly willing to adopt any ar- distress ? For myself, Sir, I must declare rangement that can be devised, which will
the opinion, that no free country was ever secure to her service the seamen who are her
before so causelessly, and so bliadly, thrown own subjects, and at the same time exempt from the height of prosperity, and plunged ours from impressment.--2. The merchant into a state of dreadful anxiety and suffer? vessels of France, Spain, and Holland, being. But from this degraded and wretched
Situation it is not yet too late to escape. . Let cannot be silenţ. Regardless, therefore, the dispatches from our minister in France of personal consequences, I have undertaken be no longer concealed. Let the president to communicate these details, with the view perform the duty required of him by the to dissipate dangerous illusions, to give to Constitution, by giving to Congress full in- my constituents correct information, to exformation of the state of the union in re- cite inquiry, and to rouse that vigilant jea.. spect to foreign nations. Above all, let lønsy which is characteristic of republicans, him unfold our actual situation with France, and essential to the preservation of their Let him tell us what are the demands and rights, . their liberties, and their indepenproposals of her ruler. Had these been dence - I have the horiour, to be, very rehonourable to the U. States, 'would no: the spectfully, . Sir, your obedient servant, president have bxen ezker to disclose them? TIMOTHY PICKERING. That they are of an entirely different nature, that they are diburable, that they are
OFFICIAL PAPERS. ruinous to our commercial intests, and
(Concludd from p. 672.) dangerous to unrhberty and independence, Local 'Militia- Abstract of Lord We are left to infini ---I hop, Sir, that the Castlereagh's Local Militia Biil. nature and 17?nudle of the subject will The gili, that persons shall not be exempt furnish a saticient apology for the length by having found substitutes or paid fines in a: 1 style of this letter. P rhaps some may
the militia, deem it presump!u6ius thus to question the The 10:h, prescribes the form of oath to correctness of the proceedings of our govern- be taken.. ment. A strong sense of duty, and dis. The llih, imposez penalty on persons not tressing apprehensions of national ruin, bare appearing after being so ballotted; the fine forced the task upun me. To some, the sen- to be proportioned to the amount of the intiments which, in the sincerity of my heart, come; the payment of such fine to exempt I have expressed, may give offence; for such person from being ballotted for often nothing offends so much as truth. years. Yet I do not desire to ofiend any man.
But The 121h, enacts, that a person claiming when I see the dangerous extent of execil- exemption upon payment of ihe smailer fine, tive influence; when I see the great council shall sign a declaration of the amount of his of the nation called on to enact law's deeply income. affecting the interests of all classes of citi- The 13th, on engaging to serve without zens, withont adequate information of the pay in volunteer corps, part of the fine to reasons of that call; when I observe the be remitted. deceptive glosses with which the mischiefs The 14th, inflicts a penalty on such perof the embargo are aitempted to be palliated, sons on being relurned non-effective. and posterior events adduced as reasons to The 15th, persons refusing to swear that justit; the measure ; when I know that the they have not insured against fine, to forfeit risks of continuing their commercial pur- the amount. suits against all known dangers can and will The 10th, Quakers not to be enrolled, be more accurately calculated by our mer- but to pay certain fines according to ihe prochants than by our government; when, if any perty of such persons. new dangers to commerce were impending, The 171h, enacts, that where the persons of which our merchants were uninformed, voluntarily enrolling ihemselves shall amount but of which the government obtained the to the number to be enrolled by ballot under knowledge through its minister at Paris, or any apportionment in any such parish, then elsewhere, it was plainly the duty of the no ballot shall take place in such parish, executive to make those dangers kuown to The 18th, gives a bouniy io persons enCongress and the nation ; and since if so rolling themselves voluntarily. made known, the merchants and sea-faring The 19th, enacts, volunteer corps may citizens would for their own interests and transfer theinselves into local militia. safety, have taken due precautions to guard The 201h, volunteers to sucar that they against them; and as it hence appears cer- have no other bounty. tain that an embargo was not necessary to The 21st, allowances for necessaries. the safety of “ our seamen, our vessels, or The 22d, persons serving to be entitled to our merchandize :"-when, Sir, I see and buch exemptions as the volunteers now have. consider these things, and their evil tenden- The 23d, persons insering for providing cy; in a word, wen I observe a course of substitutes, or volunteers, subject to penalty. proceeding which to me appears calculated The 24th, prescribes the nude of chcete to inislued the public mind to public ruin, I ing the corps.