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And he said unto them, “ These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you; That all things must be fulfilled which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me.” Then he opened their mind, that they might understand the scriptures; and said unto them, “Thus it is written, and thus the Christ ought to suffer, and to rise again from the dead the third day: and repentance and remission of sins ought to be preached in his name among all the nations, having begun from Jerusalem. And ye are witnesses of these things. And, behold, I will send upon you the promise made by my Father: but stay ye” in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high.”
And he led them out to Bethany; and lifted up his hands, and blessed them. And it came to pass that, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried
52 up into heaven. And they did him obeisance, and re
turned to Jerusalem with great joy: and were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God.t
* So W. dwell, N.
+ The postscripts to Luke's history are various and uncertain. In some it is said that the gospel according to Luke was written in Greek, and published at Alexandria; others say at Rome, and others, more probably, in Achaia and Boeotia. It is added, in some copies, that it was written at the suggestion of the blessed Paul, fifteen years after the ascension of Christ. -
THE Word" was in the beginning+, and the Word was 2 with God?, and the Word was a god Ś. This Word was 3 in the beginning with God ||. All things were done by
* The Word.] “Jesus is so called because God revealed himself or his word by him.” Newcome. The same title is given to Christ, Luke i. 2. For the same reason he is called the Word of life, 1 John i. 1. which passage is so clear and useful a comment upon the proem to the gospel, that it may be proper to cite the whole of it. “That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled of the Word of life, for the Life was manifested, and we have seen it, and bear witness, and show unto you, that eternal Life which was with the Father, and was manifested unto us, that which we have seen and heard declare we unto you.” By a similar metonymy Christ is called the Life, the Light, the Way, the Truth, and the Resurrection. See Cappe's Dissert. vol. i. p. 19. + in the beginning.] Or, from the first, i. e. from the commencement of the gospel dispensation, or of the ministry of Christ. This is the usual sense of the word in the writings of this evangelist. John vi. 64, Jesus knew from the beginning, or from the first; ch. xv. 27, ye have been with me from the beginning. See ch. xvi. 14; ii. 24; iii. 11; also 1 John i. 1; ii. 7, 8; 2 John 6, 7. Nor is this sense of the word uncommon in other passages of the New Testament. 2 Thess. ii. 13 ; Phil. iv. 15; Luke i. 2. : the Word was with God.] He withdrew from the world to commune with God, and to receive divine instructions and qualifications previously to his public ministry. As Moses was with God in the mount, Exod. xxxiv. 28, so was Christ in the wilderness, or elsewhere, to be instructed and disciplined for his high and important office. See Cappe, ibid. p. 22. § and the Word was a god..] “was God,” Newcome. Jesus received a commission as a prophet of the Most High, and was invested with extraordinary miraculous powers. But in the Jewish phraseology they were called gods to whom the word of God came, John x. 35. So Moses is declared to be a god to Pharoah. Exod. vii. 1. Some translate the passage, God was the Word. q. d. it was not so properly he that spake to men as God that spake to them by him. Cappe, ibid. See John x. 30, compared with xvii. 8, 11, 16; iii. 34; v. 23; xii. 44. Crellius conjectured that the true reading was ess, the Word was God's, q. d. the first teacher of the gospel derived his commission from God. But this conjecture, however plausible, rests upon no authority. | was in the beginning with God. Before he entered upon his ministry he was fully instructed, by intercourse with God, in the nature and extent of his commission.
him *; and without him was not any thing done that hath been done. By him was lifet; and the life was the light of men. And the light shone in darkness; and the darkness overspread it not?. * There was a man sent from God $, whose name was John. This man came for a testimony, to testify of the Light; so that through him all might believe. He was not that Light, but was sent to testify of that Light. That was the true Light, which having come into the world is enlightening every man ||. He was in the world", and the world was enlightened by him”, and yet the world knew
* All things were done by him.] “All things were made by him, and without him was not any thing made that was made.” Newcome: who explains it of the creation of the visible material world by Christ, as the agent and instrument of God. See his notes on wer. 3 and 16. But this is a sense which the word sysviro will not admit. Twopean occurs upwards of seven hundred times in the New Testament, but never in the sense of create. It signifies in this gospel, where it occurs fifty-three times, to be, to come, to become, to come to pass: -also, to be done or transacted, chap. xv. 7; xix. 36. It has the latter sense, Matt. v. 18; vi. 8; xxi. 42; xxvi. 6. All things in the christian dispensation were done by Christ, i.e. by his authority, and according to his direction; and in the ministry committed to his apostles, nothing has been done without his warrant. See John xv. 4, 5, “Without me ye can do nothing.” Compare ver, 7, 10, 16; John xvii. 8; Col. i. 16, 17. Cappe, it id. + By him was life.] “In him was life,” Newcome. Christ was the revealer of life. “With him were the words of eternal life;” John vi. 68; 1 John v. 11. Hence he is called “the Word of Life,” 1 John i. 1, “This Life,” i.e. Jesus, who is now called the Life, as he was before called the Word, “was the light of men,” the great instructor of mankind. # the darkness overspread it not..] See ch. xii. 35. “Its lustre was not impaired by the darkness which surrounded it,” Newcome. Or, “the darkness admitted it not.” See wer. 10–12; ch. iii. 19. § a man sent from God..] This illustrates ver. 1, 2. To be sent from God implies that he had been first with God. Cappe, ibid. p. 23, | which coming into the world is enlightening every man.] “which enlighteneth every man coming into the world,” Newcome: but in his notes he gives the former interpretation; and refers to ch. iii. 19; xii. 46. This light is enlightening every man, not every individual, but every one who is willing to improve it : or rather is diffusing light without distinction, both over the Jewish and the Heathen world. Matt. xxviii. 19; John xii. 32; Col. i. 23; Rom. ii. 10; 1 Tim. ii. 4. Cappe, ibid. p. 48. * He was in the world.] He appeared in public as the prophet and messenger of God, John xvii. 18; xviii. 37. ** and the world was enlightened by him.] ; zogue; 3,' avru sysytro. The common version adopted by Abp. Newcome is, “the world was made by him,” meaning that “the visible material world was created by him.” But this, as was observed before in the note on verse 3, is inadmissible, as the word tywire never bears that sense. In the
I 1 12 13
him not. He came to his own; and yet those who were his own received him not". But as many as received him, to them he gave authority to be the children of Godt, even to them who believe in his name f : who were born $, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, [nor of the will of man, but of God. And the Word was flesh ||, and full of kindness and truth he dwelt among us: and we beheld his glory", the glory as of the 16 only son” who came from the Father. Fort of his fulness - 17 we have all received; and favour for favouri. For the
prescnt version riparizuiyou, enlightened, is understood after tyivire, as best connecting with the preceding verse. So ver. 7, a man was sent from God, tyivire ariszzosos. And Matt. xxiii. 15. rearnxvros is understood after ytvnza. Mr. Cappe translates the words, “the world was made for him,” understanding by the world the Jewish dispensation, Gal. iv. 3; Col. ii. 8, 20, and taking 312 with a genitive to express the final cause: of which he has produced several remarkable instances. Cappe, ibid. p. 50. The reader will judge which of these interpretations is to be preferred. * He came to his own, &c.] Mr. Cappe's version is, “He came into his own country, and his countrymen received him not.” This is, no doubt, the true meaning, but the evangelist's elliptical phraseology seems more eligible in a literal translation. + gave authority to be the children of God..] to participate of spiritual gifts. Gal. iv. 6; Rom. viii. 16. to be admitted to the privileges of children, to be partakers of a divine nature, to be heirs of better promises, to rejoice in hope of eternal life. Cappe. | believe in his name] received him, believed in him and honoured him as the word of God. A person's name is a Hebraism to express a person himself. Jer. xxxiii. 9; Rev. xi. 13 ; Psalm xx. 1. Cappe. § who were born, &c.) to which privileges they were born, not by natural descent nor by proselytism, nor in any way which under the Jewish dispensation entitled to the privilege of that peculiarity, but the pure good-will of God. Cappe. The clause, “nor of the will of man,” is omitted in the text of the Vatican manuscript, and has the appearance of a marginal gloss. Newcome. Griesbach. | Or, Nevertheless, the Word was flesh. “Though this first preacher of the gospel was honoured with such signal tokens of divine confidence and favour, though he was invested with so high an office, he was, nevertheless, a mortal man.” Cappe. In this sense the word flesh is used in the preceding verse. “Flesh,” says Mr. Lindsey, Sequel to the Apology, p. 136, “is frequently put for man.” Psalm lxv.2; Rom. iii. 20. But it frequently and peculiarly stands for man as mortal; subject to infirmities and sufferings: and as such is particularly appropriated to Christ here, and in other places. 1 Tim. iii. 16; Rom. i. 3; ix. 5; 1 Pet. iii. 18; iv. 1. ‘o Aoyes eas: 7 overs, the Word was flesh, not became flesh, which is Newcome's translation, or, was made flesh, which is the common version. The most usual meaning of yoveazı is to be. In this sense tytvaro is used in this chapter, ver. 6; also in Luke xxiv. 19. The things concerning Jesus of Nazareth, is tyivire, who was, not who became a prophet. See Cappe, p. 86; and Socinus in loc. “I we beheld his glory.) we were witnesses to his miracles, his resurrection, the descent of the holy spirit, &c. John xvii. 1, 4, 5; xii. 16; xvi. 14; Acts iii. 12, 13 Compare 1 John i. 1,
6 - -
law was given by Moses; but favour and truth were by Jesus Christ. No man hath seen God at any time; the only [Sons] that is in the bosom of the Father|, he hath declared him ‘I.
* as of the only son.]“only begotten,” N. This expression does not refer to any peculiar mode of derivation of existence, but is used to express merely a higher degree of affection. It is applied to Isaac, Heb. xi. 17, though Abraham had other sons. The same word in the Hebrew is translated indifferently uovoytons and a yarn ros. This word is applied to Christ by the evangelist John four times in the gospel, and once in his epistle: and by no other writer of the New Testament. In the epistle to the Hebrews it unquestionably signifies beloved or most beloved : and in this sense it is used by John, ch. i. 14, 18; iii. 16, 18; 1 John iv. 9. “He seems to adopt it,” says Mr. Lindsey, (Seq. p. 139) “on all occasions where the other sacred writers would have said a yarnres.” Compare Matt. iii. 17; xvii. 5; Mark i. 11; ix.7; xii. 6; Luke iii. 22; ix. 35. See Cappe, ibid. p. 94, and Grotius in loc. Mr. Lindsey observes, that “only begotten is most gross and improper language to be used in English, especially with respect to Deity.” List of Wrong Translations, p. 46,
+ And, R.T. and N. See Griesbach.
† and favour for favour.] xxess awr vagires, the free gift of the gospel in the place of that of the law, as the evangelist himself explains it in the following verse. The law came by Moses, but favour and truth, that is, true favour, the best and most excellent gift, came by Jesus Christ. Compare ver, 9. See Beza and Castalio on the text, and Theolog. Repos. vol. i. p. 51. Abp. Newcome, with the generality of interpreters, renders the passage “favour upon favour;” explaining it of abundant graciousness, or benigrity. But he justly adds, that a clear instance of zyr, in this sense is wanted.
§ the only Son.] “only begotten Son,” N. See above, ver, 14. Mr. Lindsey observes (Sequel, p. 139,) that it has been conjectured by interpreters of great note, that our. apostle made choice of this word wovoytons to confute the strange chimerical notions which some mystic christians fell into very early. They pretended to be acquainted with a variety of emanations or intelligences issuing from the Supreme: of these Monogenes, or only-begotten, was one, and Monogenes produced Logos, the word (Christ) and Life, which were the parents of all things produced after them.
# that is in the bosom of the Father.] “who is his beloved Son,” Matt. iii. 17; Col. i. 13. Newcome. Rather, who was in the beginning with God, v. 1, 2; to derive instruction, and to receive authority from him. Who has now finished his mission and ministry, and is returned to God, John xiii. 1; and “ is admitted to such communion with the Father, and honoured with such tokens of his favour, as have never been enjoyed by any of the sons of men.” Cappe, p. 116. There is an allusion to the situation of the most honoured guests at an entertainment, according to the ancient custom of reclining at table. See John xiii. 23. The beloved disciple reclined on the bosom of Jesus: and Lazarus is represented as in Abraham's bosom, Luke xvi. 22, 23.
As Many very eminent interpreters have given a different turn to this whole paragraph. The following is Mr. Lindsey's version, as it appears in his List of False Readsongs and Mistranslations, p. 40.
“In the beginning was Wisdom, and Wisdom was with God, and God was wisdom.